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98 woman's work in the world's clothing....
(Continued.) - Ii. The Spinning Wheel.
of more than two looms at one time , while persons living in ? rural districts were still further limited to but one . Though
therefore there were in the sixteenth century some women who were engaged in spinning , carding , & c , as a business , " _beings
employed by the great clothiers , whose manufactures of Kendal cloths and Manchester " cottons " were then steadily on the
increase , as their artizans attained greater excellence , the processes performed by females were almost entirely carried on
at their own homes . There was indeed nothing either in the nature of the
employment , or the appliances required for it , to prevent this being the case . In the earliest and simplest style of spinning the
only tools required were the distaff and spindle : the former was a mere stick held upriht between the left arm and the
body ; to the top of this a g bunch of flax was loosely tied , a continuous lock of which was drawn down to the level of the
more hands and , and more hel , d while by the the left rig , ht which formed continued it to the to requisit draw e it size out ,
and gave it a twist , increased by the constant twirl of the spindle or bobbina kind of long pinwhich hung dangling to
the endand on which , it had ever and , anon to be wound .. This primitive , mode of preparing yarn may still be seen in some
their parts distaff of Greece and , where continu the e wom their en sp seldom inning as leav they e hom walk e without along .
It is , however , , a tedious process compared to that of the wheel , which was earlintroducedand in the use of which the
flax was drawn very out y and twisted , into thread by means of attaching one end of a portion of it to a spindleinserted
horizontally into an upright erection of wood , so , connected with the wheel that when that was moved round the indle
rotated . A piece was then drawn out by the left hand sp , and the wheel turned with the riht until it was sufficiently twisted
when a turn of the wheel the g other way wound it upon the , spindle . - It was not till much later that the further
improvement was effected of using hand cards or combs , a kind of brushes thick set with wires instead of bristles , between two
of which the material was subjected to an action analogous to that of combing or brushing our own hair , until the fibres were
disentangled and laid lengthwise ; it was then scraped off in rolls about 12 inches long and 2 f of an inch in diameter , which
were first drawn out and slightly twisted into _" rovirigs , " and subsequently by a second process , with a similar wheel ,
thoroughly twisted into the finished yarn . An eventual addition to the wheel enabled it to be turned by the action of the foot , like a knife-grinder ' s grindstone , leaving both the hands at
liberty It was to b fo y rm means the ya of rn such . simple implements as these that ,.
98 Woman's Work In The World's Clothing....
98 woman ' s work in the _world ' s clothing . _'
English Woman’s Journal (1858-1864), Oct. 1, 1863, page 98, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ewj/issues/ewj_01101863/page/26/