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Further Revelations Of Cayenne. A Very S...
44 Of the sanitary , condition I have but one word to say . It is notorious that at Cayenne , in the course of the present year , the deaths were 56 per cent . ; 32 per cent , of the convicts died of the yellow fever , which became endemical in Guiana , and 24 per cent , died of swamp fever and consecutive asthma . It has teen ascertained that in the Comte—that is to say , inland—the average life of the convicts was 32 months and some days . " When the free inhabitants represent their fears to the local authorities , the latter simply laugh at them , or say that they ( the authorities ) are only obeying orders sent out by the Home Government , adding that , if the colonists are not satisfied , they can go .
Under these eircumstances , the writer appeals to the Times . He professes great loyalty to , and respect for , the Emperor ; but adds that the monarch must assuredly be ignorant of the condition of his " poor colony . " "When he is enlightened , he " will take pity" on them . " The person who addresses these lines to you may , perhaps , be reproached with having had recourse to the press of a foreign country to make known the sufferings of his fellow-citizens . Jfay his Majesty , however , be indulgent ! What matters it to him how the truth reaches him , provided it does reach him ? " The writer concludes by expressing his confident hope that the publication of his letter in the Times will assist the colonists in attaining the end they have in view .
Januabys, 1857.] The Leader. 5
JanuabyS , 1857 . ] THE LEADER . 5
Continental Notes. . France. The Members...
CONTINENTAL NOTES . . FRANCE . The members of the Conference met on Wednesday at the Hotel of the Minister foe Foreign Affairs . A slight difficulty ( says the Morning Post ) arose , but it was not important , and all will pTohably be arranged as proposed . Early in the present month , some fifty political prisoners , who were arrested in the autumn on a charge of conspiring to assassinate tbe Emperor on his return from Biarritz , will be brought to trial at the Central Criminal Court of Paris . " The result of the elections for the Cher , " says the Daily News Paris correspondent , " are now known , though not yet published in the Moniteur . In the first circumscription , there were found in the ballot boxes for M . de Nesle , the Government candidate , 15 , 889 votes out of 16 , 205 votes actually given . The number of registered electors is 38 , 31 $ , so that , according to the returns , less than half of the constituency came to the poll . In the second circumscription , M . Guillaumin is returned elected by 19 , 305 out of 40 , 253 registered electors , or nearly half tbe constituency . There must have been some mistake in the former report of the Journal du Cher , from which it appeared that 10 , 000 votes were given to other than Government candidates . A M . de Montsaulmin appears to have obtained 612 votes , and aM . de Villers 412 . A few score of votes "were distributed among other obscure individuals ; but that is the extent of the opposition attempted . " It is stated in a private letter from a traveller just returned from Upper Egypt , that the grand scientific expedition under the direction of Count d'Escayrac had been broken ujp , in consequence of a dissension between the scientific members and their chief . M . de Montigny , the French Envoy , has arrived at Hud in Cochin China . M . Ziegler , the historical painter , has j ust expired in Paris . Amongst other works , he painted the altar-piece of the Madeleine . The Moniteur of Tuesday publishes a report from M . Billault , the Trench Minister of the Interior , asking a credit of 3 , 00 « , 000 f . ( 120 , 000 ? . ) for public works in the provinces . The report is followed by an imperial decree approving the report and granting the money . AUSTRIA . The Emperor has paid brief visits to Rovigo and Verona , at the latter of which towns he had an interview ( though not , it is stated , on matters of business ) with Marshal Radetzky . The Governors of Hungary and Transylvania are empowered to give employment to persons whose political reputation was tarnished in 1848 and 1849 , if they have behaved well since . The diplomatic and consular agents of Austria have received orders to accept and forward to Vienna the petitions of those emigrants who may wish to return to « their native country ; but they have also been furnished with a list of those persona who will never be permitted to enter the Empire again . Hungary appears to be in a very disordered state , owing to tlve depredations of banditti . The Vienna Church Gazette , an Ultramontane organ , has received a first warning from the police . GKEKCK . The Chambers were opened on the 19 th ult . The Koyal Speech alluded to the approaching tlcparturo of the allied troops . swirzrcni > ANi > . u Tho Federal Assembly of Switzerland , " says M . James Fazy , in a despatch dated laat Saturday , " met to-day . It exhibits a linn and warlike attitude , without , however , being disposed to put aside any chance of
settling the dispute by pacific means . The Council has presented to tie Assembly a good report on the present situation of affairs . It -asks the Assembly to invest it with full powers to take all needful measures both military and financial . " From another Swiss despatch , we learn that the Assembly comprised a very large number of those who represent the various cantons in the Federation , and considerablevexcitement , determination , and unanimity prevailed . The Assembly was opened by a Presidential address , which was warlike in its tone and uncompromising in its principles . The address was received with plaudits . The next business -was to
receive a report from the Federal Council or Executive Government , which gave an exposition of the case on tbe part of Switzerland . It justified the course which tbe Government had taken . It called upon the Assembly to approve of the resistance which it had offered to the Prussian requirements . It prayed for the national authorization to negotiate for peace or to make ready for war . And , lastly , tie Federal Council demanded an unlimited credit in the event of the Assembly being disposed to j'ield to it these extraordinary powers . The Assembly sanctioned tbfe doings of the Council , voted permission as asked , and yielded a loan of thirty millions for the exigencies of war . / .
The proposition of tbe Federal Government , to liberate the Neufchatel prisoners , provided that the whole of the Powers , including the United States , who have representatives in Switzerland , would engage to use their influence to obtain from the King of Prussia the formal renunciation of bis claims on the canton of Neufchatel , has not met Tvith any success , France aud Austria refusing to enter into the engagement , as they prefer that the question should be left to those who signed the protocol of 1852 , viz ., themselves in conjunction with England and Russia . Those four Powers have prepared a note , which they have submitted to the King of Prussia , and which , it is said , has not been rejected by him . The terms of this note are not yet
known . In the meanwhile , the Swiss are actively continuing their warlike preparations , and Prussia has received a rebuff in the opposition of the Wurteinberg Legislature to the passage of her army through their territory . Ten members of the Assembly joined in demanding from the Government that it shall refuse to allow the concentration or passage of Frederick William ' s army in or through that part of Germany . The Chambers -yi-ere not sitting at the time ; but the ten members addressed the Committee of the States , calling attention to the fact tliat Wurtemberg had always been on terms of amity with Switzerland ; that that country is the best neighbour Germany possesses : that she is
hp ' und up with WurUmberg in ties of commerce and mutual interest ; that the dispute about Neufchatel in no way concerns the interests of Southern Germany , or even of Prussia herself ; that the quartering of a Prussian army in Wurtemberg would be very disastrous to tbe people ; and that a . war in that locality would lead to incalculable mischief . This communication was signed : — " Mohl , Holder , Fetzet , Bodinger , Schots , Pferfer , Conradi , Probst , Runkel , Schnitzer . " The representations of thes « gentlemen have had their effect . Wurtemberg , to its honour , has refused a passage to the Prussian troops across its territory ; and the Commission of the Chambers appointed to consider the question pronounces the demand of Prussia a political intrusion .
"A new despatch , relative to the affair of Neufchatel , " says a letter from St . Petersburg published in the Constitutionnel , "has been sent off to Baron de Krudener , the Russian representative at Berne . He is directed to regulate his conduct "by that of the diplomatic agents of the other Powers , an < l to observe to the Federal Council that monarchical Europe has serious complaints to make on the conduct of the democratical party in Switzerland , and that , in consequence of their proceedings , the principle of neutrality , on which the Helvetic Confederation is founded , lias been violated often for the necessity to havo arisen for Switzerland , to be brought back to the bases stipulated in 1815 . " The Federal Council has addressed to the several
cantons a memorial placing them on their guard against spies and agents paid to excite the people to disaffection , and requesting them to do their best to prevent foreigners within their territory " concerting schemes -which may be dangerous to other states Let us , " says the document , " repel by our conduct the accusation that wo subserve tho ends of foreign demagogues . You are invited , then , if need be , to resist the invasion of our country l > y any new political refugees , to look carefully after those whom you at present allow to find refuge
here , to intimate to them that they must abstain from all political manifestations , as well as from all secret conspiracies , and to inform them that , in case of any infraction of these orders , they will bo liable , at least , to immediate expulsion from the Swiss territory . In conclusion , wo havo also to express our desire that you should use all your influence with the Swiss press , likewise , to induce it to discuss the situation cf affairs with seriousness « nd dignity , and abstain from injurious lnnguagonnd rude provocation , wliicli would be dangerous to our national cause . "
Under date of 2 ( Jth December , the Federal Council of Switzerland addressed a message to the High Federal Assembly concerning the Neufchatel question . After
stating that it tad intimated its willingness to effect an amicable settlement through the good offices of France or England , but that it had declined to liberate the prisoners , though asked to do so by France , by Austria , and by Russia , the message says : — " In the course of October , the affair seemed about to enter a phase favourable to Switzerland , thanks to the friendly efforts of the English Government . On the 25 th of the said month , the British Legation asked whether the Federal Council would consent to the immediate liberation of the Neufchatel prisoners in case the King of Prussia would give to France and England the confidential assurance that he would renounce his claims to the sovereignty of
Neufchatel on the following conditions : —1 . That he should continue to bear the title of Prince of Neufchatel . 2 . That he should remain in possession of all his private property in the canton of Neufchatel . 3 . That certain religious and charitable establishments , in which the king took a lively interest , should be placed beyond all harm . The reply which we made to that verbal note is dated 29 th October . We commenced by expressing our thanks to the British Government for the kind interest it had manifested in the Keufchatel question , as well as for the friendly disposition it had displayed . We declared ourselves disposed , as much as it depended upon us , after having received the adhesion of the
Government of JNeufchatel to the overtures which had been made , to accept the points indicated by the English Government as the basis of a negotiation and settlement with the King of Prussia . These proposals fell to the ground . They-were not even proposed to the Berlin Cabinet , as , in the opinion of the English Government itself , their refusal could only lead to greater coraplica / - tions . " The Federal Message proceeds to give an account of the various negotiations between Switzerland , on the one hand , and Prussia and the several neutral Powers , on . the other hand . The gist of these unsuccessful endeavours for a settlement was that Prussia and her continental sympathizers demanded the preliminary and unconditional liberation of the prisoners , while Switzerland declared herself still willing to abandon the trial , provided the independence of Neufchatel were declared
at the same lime , or that at least guarantees were given that such should be done . The English Government is stated to have " assumed an attitude which is essentially different from that of the French Government . " England did not make it a condition that the prisoners should be released , though not denying that this would simplify the case ; bat added that , should the Swiss Pederal Government " suddenly decide upon liberating the prisoners without a trial , the Government of her Majesty , in common accord with the French Government , would take steps to induce the King of Prussia to put an end to the Neufchiitel dispute according to the desire of the Swiss Confederation , and to recognize the independence of the canton of Neufchatel . " The English Government , however , declined to guarantee the success of its measures .
An Envoy Extraordinary from the Emperor Napoleon has arrived at Berne . He has submitted propositions to Switzerland to release the prisoners , to guarantee their persons and property , but to expel them from the Swiss territory . It is thought probable that Switzerland will accept this proposal . The American envoy has left Berne for Berlin with offers of mediation . The Public Prosecutor and the President of the Criminal Court left Berne on the 23 rd for Neufchatel . The trial of the prisoners , it is stated , is to take place forthwith , and subsequently a complete amnesty will be declared , and the prisoners , if convicted , will be set at liberty . By these means it is expected that hostilities ¦ wi ll be prevented .
In Vienna official circles , it is denied that Austria will occupy Tessin should Prussia take possession of ^ Schaffliausen and Basle ; but military men believe that Baron Hess , the Quartermaster-General , has gone to Italy to make the necessary preparations for sending a small corps into the first-mentioued canton . Geneva has issued a loan of 4 , 6 * 00 , 000- francs , which was subscribed in a few hours . Councillor Furrer is charged with a mission to the Courts of Southern Germany . The steamers on the Lake of Baden havo been armed with cannon , and tlve ports on the lake arc placed in a state of defence .
Signor Manin has published a letter of his , in which , after lauding the Swiss for their noble and energetic resistance to the unjust demands of Prussia , and expressing , his admiration of many features in their national character , he calls their attention to the discreditable fact that from twelve to fifteen thousand of their countrymen are now upholding despotism in Naples ; and invites them to get rid of this stain upon their country ' s honour . It is reported that about two hundred royalists of the canton of Ncufchutcl have taken refuge in Franco . The Gazette < Ia Lausanne says that such of them as are liable to servo iji tlio Federal army will be treated as deserters , if they do not respond tt > the regular calls .
HKIXIIUM . The . MiniBter of the Interior , on the 28 th ult ., gave audience to the Central Committee of the Association for tho Defence of Nutionul Labour , alias the Protectionist party . At noon , tho Minister for Foreign Affairs
Leader (1850-1860), Jan. 3, 1857, page 5, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/l/issues/cld_03011857/page/5/