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"The Bad Weather Has Continued, With Rar...
Several councils have lately tetoen place at St . Petersburg tinder the presidency of t » e Minister of War , -with the attendance of the naval and military officers commanding in the Gulf of Finland and its shores . These council * recognised tfce necessity of strengthening and augmenting the various fortified places , and ofcadding to ; the moat important of them an entrenched camp , capable of aceonaraodatmg a division of infantry . In fact , it is stated that this system of entrenched camps is to he carried out on a large scale , and to extend from Cronstadt to most of the military positions in Poland . is the of the
This , among other matters , cause visit made by General Dehm , the governor of the town and citadel of Gronstadt , to Field-Marshal Paskiewitch at YYarsaw , in order to confer with him on a grand plan of defence for the whole length of the Vistula , and thence to the Neva , in case of invasion , during the ensuing , campaign . " Warsaw ,. December 28 . " The firet corps d ' arme ' e ,. commanded by General Sievers , is completely assembled . Its staff is in the centre of the position on the right bank of the Vistula , that is afc Radom , fourteen German miles from this place . General Radiger is Commander-in-Chief of the first and t hird corps , and of the corps- of grenadiers . He at the : same time acts as Governor-GeneraL Prince Gortsebakoff is General-in-Chief of- three corps in the south . Field-Marshal Paakiewitch is generalissimo of all the sis . corns , and is still at Warsaw . "
CHOWSTADT . A new battery has been erected on the north sida of Cronstadt . A naeTchant there , of the name of Gsterow , whose house was required to be pulled down to make room * has- presented' to the battery the picture of the " n > iraele- \ voTking St . Nicholas , " in a silver frame , in commemoratidh of the Emperor ' s coming thither to trace out the lines of the foundation . FRENCH REINFORCEMENTS . In virtue of a ministerial decision ofthe 2 Sth ult .,. a detachment of 400 marines has been sent to reinforce the expeditionary corps of the army now befpre Sebastopol . Those merr were supplied by the depots of the 1 st and 2 nd Regiments ,, quartered at Cherbourg and Brest , and are to sail directly for the Crimeain the steam corvette Phiegethon .
, The French force , including the reinforcements which had arrived up to the date of these despatches , amounted in all to 60 , 000 available troops . The Britishi # since ~ the battle of Inkerman , have been strengthened by the arrival of about 7000 men , making a total amount of about 22 , 000 at the present moment .
Zaxvanrg, 1855.] Fll I/Habbb, 3
ZAXVAnrG , 1855 . ] fll I / HABBB , 3
Notes Of The Siege. Most? Interesting Ac...
NOTES OF THE SIEGE . Most ? interesting accounts are still pouring in from officers and privates . One remarkable feature of the correspondence is , that the correspondents can find the necessary time to write . Every letter bears testimony , to . the-hoErorsof-sicknesSjWliether-from wounds or disease . A " regimental surgeon , " dating November 25 , narrates some unpleasant incidents , which , however , there is reason to thinrk have been lately succeeded by a more favourable class of events : —
" We have had terrible mortality , and those who remain are like spectres . The work in the trenches , especially in tho rainy , cold , and tempestuous weather that has prevailed here since the early part of this month , is killing C—n . J—s and B—n are sick at Balaklava , whence they go to Scutari , and I think it problematical if they ever return . Most of our officers had their clothes riddled with bullets , and some were in the trenches , so that our relative loss is greater than it appears . Most of the superior officers of the army are dead , sick , or absent on account of wounds or disease , and feVindeecl of ua will live to tell the tale if forced to keep the field during the winter . Our commissariat supplies are failing . We are sometimes without any rations , and constantly with only rum and biscuit . We are in a critical position—an impregnable fortress in
our front , a largo army in our rear , and such wintry weather , with" want of supplies . Tho army of Menschikoff in the country are without tents , and I should think they could only draw supplies from the town ; so , unless the place is abundantly victualled , one would think supplies must fail . The ground outside the tents is like a Biiipe bog in Clare . Our tents were blown down lately , nnd deaths from exposure , cold , rain , aleet , and snow took place . Wo could light no fires , had no rations , and for forty-eight hours were in a horrible plight . Miserable as a tout is , except for an hour or so at a summer pic-nlc , it ie a luxury to bivouacking . The army is to liut iteolf for tho winter , if wood can bo found . We are now digging holes in which to pitch tho tents , but we go on slowly , partly becauso of tho weather being so wot , and partly becaiiBO wo havo not -mon to work , as they are so much In tho trenches .
"We spend no money out hero , but when we return , if ever , we shall nood some luxury and indulgence to make up for our present privations out hero of all tho necessaries of civilised life . " Tho following is an extract from a letter of a
corporal of the 38 rf regiment , Preferring-to Tnkerman ; and then dashing ofiT at other thing *; life * the explosion of a shell : — - " The 5 th of November , like Guy FawkesV day , will be for ever remembered . The Russians- made an attack upon us and drove us back into onr camp-ground , killing and wounding thousands . . W-e had . more killed the 6 th of Novemberthan , at Alma . Wewere undershot and shell from' daybreak in the morning- until dork at night . I bare not had my clothes- off fox six -weeks , only just to look for the filth accumulated ; there is not a man—officer , soldier , or general- —tout what are lousy here . We cannot help it : some men have worn their shirts two months . I thank Godi I have two shirts . I gave 10 s . for about a pound of . acap , which I go * , at Balaklava . I ; went : down with our captain , and we bought a small jar of butter , about a pound and ; a half , which was 18 s .
A private of the 77 th gives us same more details of the state of the Balaklava market rr" I must new inform you of what -we-are at present enduring-, and I wish you to put those few lines into a newspaper . We are treated rascally , and we have now been three months without receiving one farthing of pay . We applied for some payment , when we were offered Is . per man . Now I leave ^ you to guass how far it would go when I tell you the price of provisions at Balaklava , a distance of four miles . Tea , 4 s . perlb . ; ssgar , Is . ditto ; cheese , Is . 6 d . ditto ; potatoes , Is . for a dozenj small size ; butter , 3 s . per lb . Now we can only , get fib . of biscuit , Jib . pork , or beef , | oa . of coffee , burnt by ourselves like , cinders , Aoz-, of sugar ,, and no wood or
fuel to cook . with . Now , is not a shilling a grand treat ? Our ^ commanders ss » y that if we got more we . should only " get drunk . Another thing I , must say ,,-we . could go over to the Freneh encampment ,, pay 5 s . for one pint of rakee , or what they call rum . We are dropping . down on our journeys -to and from the entrenchments merely for want of provisions . We have not time to wash our faces , for as soon as we get to camp from the trenches , it may be at- night , about Q P . at , we are tired and fatigued , and get a . glass , of grog , we then lay down , in our wet clothes , and remain until about . 4 a . m ., and start for tlie trenches or picket . Our pork ox beef is sent to us , and you might put : it into your eye and see no worse . Now we applied for 10 s . per man to purchase some- tea , sugar , cheese , & c , and they could give us "no more than Is ., a nice thing for a fighting soldier . We . are now infested with vermin , half or nearly wholly
starved for want of provisions , and only sometimes we get- our . allowance of grog . I think our commissariat department is not looked sharp enough after . I only wish I had the management of those gentlemen ; -I think if I had we cotdd have plenty of rations .. I have now given you a short description of our well-equipped army that left the shores of Britain to fight for our Queen and country ' s rights . We were to have porter and preserved potatoes , but where are they gone to ? I had two pints of porter and half a pound of potatoes in Turkey . I relished them welL Now I leave you , to guess whether I am fit to eat another half pound of potatoes . —JL-have now-had-wet feet -this . last fortnight . Our men are seized with cramp , taken to the hospital , die in less than twelve hours , are buried / in their blankets , and no more about them . Everything , is gloomy in appearance . There is no likelihood of Sebastopol surrendering . "
A personal narrative of Inkermanj from a gallant Rifle , is interesting . The writer bears , as do many others , strong testimony to the affection entertained by the English soldiers for our allies : — "I wag two hours in a hole , firing as fast as I could , and I believe every shot told ; the enemy were so numerous it was almost impossible to miss . We exhausted our ammunition several times , and had to use the bayonet , which is unusual with us Rifles . My comrade ( we generally go in pairs ) was shot in tho arm . A bullet just grazed my neck , scarcely ruffling the skin . " Alma was not to be compared to Inkerman . Iwas nearly all that day ( on which the former battle was fought ) running about after the Cossacks . " Our men ore very fond of tho French . If it wero not for them , wo might all go home and leave Sebastopol .
" Tho Circassians are fine fellows , but tho Turks are worse than nseless . Some of our mon would rather kill one than a Russian ; they are not worth fighting for . " After I had used my powder at Inkerman I wont , with some others , to protect tho colours of tho 77 th , which were nearly taken , but wo succeeded in keeping them . I do not like these colours ; they only servo to draw tho enemy ' s fire upon tho men . Tho Rifles havo no such dangerous encumbrances . " Three days after the 5 th I foil msouBlblo out of tho
ranks , and remained so eight hours . Tho doctor said it was from living so long upon raw poTk , and packed mo off to Scutari , but when I got there I was as well as over , and so they made mo hospital orderly . I don't much like being with sick and wounded all the day . I should like to go back again to my regiment , and if so I hope thoy will tako tho town by storm . Hero is one for tho forlorn hope , if thoy will havo me . It is miserable work in tho trenches , up to tho knocs in water . " Wo quote , almost entire , a letter from " An Ofllcor who has been mentioned for Distinguished Conduct
inliOTtJHagfen's Despatches-. ** Thisi » , perhaps , ttie most solid batch of eotnplaihts yet matte . The question of Eord Raglan- being in the camp oriir iLontRm is almost justified by other statements , which affirm that he has not been seen forms weeks : — " Camp before Sebastopol ,. DeculSL " We are going on much as usual , receiving reinforcements , sometimes by a . regiment , or two , sometimes by draughts , but in both , cases burying ; them , or BAnfl fr ^ r them to . hospital qnite as fast aa they arrive . A shjp oomea into Balaklava "with men . on . board , it . is r * "T"'qig ' in torrents , but ; a staff officer in snug , quartern shows-his zeal and ^ his smart manner of doing his- work . by . sendii ^ g an order for their immediate disemharcationand joining the camp . It is promptly obeyed . A hundred , or a thousand men , as the case may be , wet through « , » " *
through , and up . to the tips of their shakos in mud , sometimes without blankets , often without tents , take up their ground at a late hour , and there tMey lie . If they have something , to eat , they are lucky t if they have not , they go . without . They grumble and swear violently , and that is all they have for it . They thus begin to learn , to be reckless at starting . Their frightful exposure Tarings on certain disease , and in a few days the dying and ; the sick are the exclamation of every one . Lord Raglan . ( £ f Lord Raglan be really here , and not in London ) i » never seen . Whether he knows anything of how things are going , on or not I do not know ; . I am sure he ought . to do so . I have drawn anything but an exaggerated picture of what happens over and over again . The 9 th Regiment marched up without a medical officer at all ; tfcey had several eases- of serious- illness the next day , and when a medical officer came there was no medietne .
' Themefieineehes * had not accompanied the regiment , Because they had no draught- animals armeans of carry-1 ing'it . This is- precisely the way in wMch everything is * conducted , and yet Lord Raglan has been made a FieM Marshal . The blood of his officers and men Bas won it for him , and not his own abffitfes . lam told Sir De Lacy Evans will speak out , and I most earnestly hope he may . He can make great exposures , and do much good , if he wflL It is generally understood that he has gone home in the greatest disgnst with everything . It will hardly be credited that , although the exposed state of' our right flank before the Inkerman battle was the snbjeetoffrequentcomment , Lord ^ Raglan never once rode over the ground , nor knew anything of ituntil after the Russians attacked us . .
" Everything about tEe French contrasts with . us » most strongly . Their sickjtre not numerous ; their men are always clean ancj , -uniformly dressed . They seem' to have good rations , cook them well , and seem a happy set . Our men are a mass of dirt , rags , and misery . They seem , sunk in despondency and indifference ; nothing moves them but an alarm , for they have no hope but to fight it out and get it over . They think , poor fellows , that another good fight must decide it . Our sick yesterday under canvas , exclusive of the shiploads at Balaklavs and in the hospitals of the Bosphorus , were 3181 . The Freneh , with their large army , take charge
of 1000 of them for us to-day . The 46 th Regiment diaembarked . on-tbe 10 th ofNovemb « fcZ 06 ^ strong . JThey have lost 114 men up to this day , and they have at this moment 257 sick . If things go on as they are doingand as the winter advances there is every chance of their beingworse rather than better—we shall h ave no-army left . If the fine weather we have just now holds for but a few days , you whI soon hear of the assault being given . The Russians' have certainly shown a great want of enterprise in leaving ua so long unmolested , situated as we are . We are most careless and court ruin over and over again . The indomitable courage of men and officers alone saves ua . 1 have never heard of anyone
getting an order yet in any action I have been in . We all do as wo like . We have had two alarms lately—the ona last night , tho gusts of -wind preceding the storm . We shall have a decisiv * affair before long . It is , however , a very dreary prospect before us . It is said that the Emperor Nicholas engage * to send all that are left of us in the spring- away in a . single line-of-battle ship . Our eacaaapment iaone mass of graves and . dead bodies of horses and cattle , but there is no offensive smelL " The above letter , written on the 12 th , is confirmed by the record of many similar instances by an officer who writes on tho 13 th : —
" The fearful experience of tho 9 th Regiment and our draughts show how deadly hard work is to new arrivals ; tho 9 th havo lost half their regiment in tho ten days thoy have been hero . Thoy marched up from Balaklava , pitched their tents on a wot day , slept on tho wet soil ; tho next night , also wet , they relieved us in the trenches , and that sealed their death warrants . They wore oil old soldiers , and had been some years in tho Mcditorra""" " i was in tho trenches the night I came in with our next after
draught ; it rained without , ceasing . By tbe - noon four of them wore dead , and since then , out of 120 mon , 42 arc buried . Now thoy allow nonew arrivals to go in tho trenches for tho first week . The 46 th and 57 th , too , havo suffered very much ; but for the IaBt week , thank God , tho weather has been dry . Thoro Js rumour that iron houses ore coming out from England , but I am afraid thoy will bo too late for any good . Tho return , a fow days ago , of xn « n fit for duty in tho Avholo British army was 17 , 060 , of whom 9000 > voro on duty ,
Leader (1850-1860), Jan. 6, 1855, page 3, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/l/issues/cld_06011855/page/3/