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different regiments . On this occasion all the troops quartered in the neighbour ing departatents have received orders * to march on Paris . . tte ; apothecary Pialin , the soi disant de Persigny , will he created Pnncearch- Chancellor on the day of the proclamation ofthe Empire . One circumstance alone can prevent the EmpireTitis the veto of the Emperor of Russia : But , af ter having trampled on ' the consitution of a whole nation , would you shrink before the veto of one' man ? An increasing ferment now reigns in France . The
agitatioa has reached the provinces . The bourgeoisie are on the alert . There might he something startling in that quarter shortly . In another direction the fusion of the two branches progresses . There are several points already on which they agree . A treaty containing four articles has been decided upon : —1 . The tricoloured flag seme with fleur-de-lis . 2 . The reign of Louis Philippe to be recognised . 3 . The Due de Nemours to go to the Comte de Chambord at Frohsdorf . 4 . The Comte de Chambord to visit
the Queen Amelie either at Clareraonfc or at Naples The Elysians are the ready hawkers of these rumours . In fact , the fusion occupies much of their thoughts . To punish the Legitimists , the decree which re-establishes the titles of the nobility , is only applicable to the imperial nobility . The Elysee declares that the decree shall not be applied to the ancienne noblesse . It is even still further in Contemplation to consecrate , by an imposing ceremony at the Tuileries , the conferring of the titles upon such of the nobles as would rally to Louis Bonaparte . To punish the Orleanfsts , however , it is said at the Elysee that a decree will be issued forbidding the defendants to appeal to the legal tribunals against the presidential decrees , and thus cutting short the legal warfare which the Orleans family are carrying on
against L . Bonaparte . No note has yet appeared in the Moniteur on the Swiss question . The most contradictory reports prevail on that subject . It is nevertheless patent that Louis Bonaparte flinched before the firm attitude of the Swiss Government ; so that now , feeling himself beaten , he is toadying to Austria . That country still speaks of intervention on her own account . Louis Bonaparte insists on his pretensions , and has declared to the court of Vienna , for the purpose of encouraging it , that iF Austria made an armed intervention , he would do the same .
A fresh menacing note has been addressed to Belgium . This time it is on account of a masquerade at Ghent , in whidb Louis Bonaparte and his heroic nose were turned into ridicule . The Belgian Government offered to dismiss the Commissary of Police of Ghent ; but Louis Bonaparte demands the sacrifice of the Governor of the Province , and the Belgian Government refuses . S .
CONTINENTAL NOTES . The Moniteur of Thursday published the estimates for 1852 . The State expenditure is ealculated at 1 , 430 , 363 , 244 francs ; the receipts at 1 , 449 , 413 , 604 . The import duties on fermented liquors are reduced by half , and those on liquors sold by retail raised by half . The war estimates are augmented by 7 , 000 , 000 francs ; those of the navy by 12 , 000 , 000 francs . The extraordinary works are augmented by 14 , 000 , 000 francs .
On Wednesday appeared a decree for the reorganization of the Legion of Honour . Louis Bonaparte declares himself to be its chief and grand-master . Many new formalities are introduced , and the admissions into theorderare tobeonamord restrained scale than hitherto . The Legion of Honour , however , has been too irremediably disgraced by the wholesale nominations of stockjobbers and place-hunters under Louis Philippe , and of adventurers and Decembrists under the new
Bonapartist era . The riband is now a bodge of servility , if not of dishonesty . Grnnior do CnHflngnnc , once the paid writer of Guizot on the Epoqne , defends tho confiscation decrees in the Constitutional , by heaping coarse and cowardly insults on the house of Orleans . AH tho documents , pro and con—tho protest of tho executors , tho legal Opinion against tho decrees , and tho pamphlet in their defence—are permitted to appear in . tho journals .
" The Bishop of Orleans has declined to accept a seat in the Supreme Council of Public Instruction . Tlio BiBhop is probably awako to tho insecurity of the tenure . Tho Sttisse ' , of Homo , of tho . ldith instant , publishes tho answer of the Federal Council to tho Fronch note of Jan . 24 . It ifl dated Fob . 9 ) is addressed to Count Salignao-Fenolon ; and , after quoting the arrogant terms in which tho demands of tho French noto woro couched , assorts that Switzerland is not tho scone of such plots against Franco or other states as is stated ; hut , woro it ho , tho Federal Council haa never rofusod to do whatever international law Ofttx justly require of it . The Answer then observes that
what is demanded in tto note of the 24 th of January is © atirely new- According to it > the authority ot the country is to have nothing further to say as tb . the ulterior . sojourn or expulsion of strangers who have been received in the country , and who live under the protection of its laws and its institutions ; iii future it will defend father upon a mere siffn from aforeign legation to decide what measures ^ the authorities shall take in the domain of the police regarding foreigners . If the Federal Council did not refuse to com ply with the demand inade to it , it would violate in the grayest manner the-Federal constitution , . as well as jts most saored duties towards the country , which , Bas confided to it dictatorial and superior executive power ; for it cannot but see in this demand a serious attempt against
the independence , the dignity , and the liberty pf the _ contederation . There cannot but be seen , moreover ^ in tins demand a decided interference in the internal affairs of Switzerland . But if the Federal Council declines to accede to the demand which has been addressed to it , it does not fp !« low that it will permit the refugees to take steps hostile to other states while they remain on the Swiss territory . The Swiss Federal Council hopes it has given all the assurances compatible with the honour arid independence of the confederation , and which fully satisfy the demand orinternatiorial law . Further , the threat by which the note is terminated cannot make it leave the path traced out for it as much by the profound sentiment of its duty as ^ by international law , and it doubts not by the voice of the Swiss
peop le . . . _ .. ¦ , « ¦ '¦ ¦ The Belgian newspapers entering France being now , in common with other foreign journals , subjected to a duty of three cents , per copy , the Belgian government has laid a similar impost upon ^ French papers entering Belgium . M . Hulsemann , Austrian Charge' d'Aflaires in the United States , is said by the Augslmrg Gazette tohave received orders to return to Washington . The Lloyd
of the 13 th announces that Prince Sehwarzenberg was sufficiently recovered from his indisposition to have had an audience of the Emperor on the previous day . The Grand Dukes Michael and Nicholas of Bussia arrived in Vienna on the 12 th . H . Anthony Kutschera , formerly editor ^ a Styrian newspaper , and since confined in the prison at Oratz for publishing sentiments displeasing to the ministry , emigrates to America , the government bearing his expenses .
In Bavaria there is a contest between the State and the Church . The German" journals publish a letter from the Pope to the Archbishop of Bamberg , commending 'f the priestly courage , solicitude , and circumspection" displayed by that prelate Jn asserting the prerogatives of the See of Eome against the monarch and the government , and assuring him of the continued hearty support of the Pontiff . Even"in this Catholic kingdom , it is complained the rights of the Church are not properly respected , nor have her powers free play . The Augsburg Gazette reports that the whole Episcopate of Bavaria has resolved to unite in new and strong representations to the king on the principles of their late ultramontane manifesto .
The Jesuit missions in Franconia ( Bavaria ) , all on a sudden , have been interdicted by special order of the King . From Baden and Wurtemberg thousands of emigrants are wending their way to France and Northern Germany , in order to embark for America . The troops of tho Duchy of Baden were released on the 13 th inst . from their oath to the constitution , and being re-sworn , undertook " to fight bravely against any enemy so often as and in what manner the Duke may think fit . " The Protectionist Cabinet in England is said to excite great apprehensions in Denmark on account of tho commercial activity which has sprung up between the two countries since the establishment of Free
Trade . We may judge , says the correspondent of the Morning Chronicle , pf the value of tho Danish agricultural export to England from the following list of the exportation from the western harbours of North and South Jutland alone , d \ iring the last year , by steamers only , which has just been laid before tho Diet : —Exported by steam from Jutland , 1851—Horses , 91 ; largo cattle , 17 , 456 ; calves , 8 ; sheep , 6346 ; swine , 1523 ; foxes , 16 ; turkeys , 21 ; butter , 882 f barrels ; corn , 2 > 11 \ barrels ; pork , 215 , 9 l 41 bs . ; eggs , 83 , 940 ; wax , 1279 lbs .
The Emperor of Austria has been to sea in tho Adriatic with tho Austrian ntcum squadron , which executed under v bis orders a sort of sham naval fi ght in tho Bay of Trieste .
LOUIS BLANC AND MAZZINI . WHAT FBKNCH SOCIALISM 18 , AND 18 NOT . ( To the Editor of tho JLmoter . ) ( Letter V . ) Tmb Fbenoh Socialists do not , in any sknsb on DEGBICE , AIM AT T 1 IM SUPPRESSION OIP CAPITAL . And tliis may bo affirmed , for tho very simple reason that the words BUPPbesbion ov capital are nonsense J What is Capital , in reality P The definitions given by
the econoniistB are not identical : their common meaning , however , is perhaps , as nearly as possible / resumed in that given by the philosophical theorist , John Stuart Mill t Capital is wealth appropriated to reproductive employment . : Whilst he is working , man has need of nourishment , of clothing , of a home : he requires the materials to work upon ;; he must have machin . es , implemen ts They are CAPiT ^ .. You . ; accuse the Socialists of de ^ siring to suppress OAPiTAir ? A ludicrous imputation " in . truthi You might as well ac cuse ua of d esiring to the that nourish
suppress crops us , the flocks that supply us with wool , the houses that afford us shelter in short , the whole of our materials of labour ! The Socialists know , believe me , marvellously well , that Capital is the most beneficent of divinities : that from its fruitful union with labour , spr ings weaxth : that when we decompose the price of any given product , of a pair of cottoii hose , for example , the necessity ajid the ) benefits of Capital are discovered in the analysis of the share that accrues to the squatter who cleared tho land in Carolina , to the canvass that drove the ship from New York to Havre , and to the machinery that
turns ten thousand knitting needles . The Socialists are not at all unaware that it is to the intervention of Capitol * in the form of wagons , of horses > of railways , of locomotives , that the workman is indebted for the power of doing in one day what , without such help , he would not have accomplished in two months . But it is precisely beaiuse Capital is fruitful , because it is necessary , becatise it assures to mankind the gratuitous cooperation of nature : yes , it is precisely because of all these its results , that the Socialists prefer a regime that would place it at the disposal of all , by the association of forces , to a . regime that commits it to the mercy of a few , :
What the Socialists combat is not Capital : it is Capitalism : that is to say , the absorption and the invasion , of Capital by a limited number , to the exclu sion of the mass . In his famous treatise on Corn Trade Legislationj l ^ Necker , supposes certain men who find the means of taking exclusive possession of the air , as others have taken exclusive possession of the soil . _ Then he represents them devising tubes ; inventing pnetunatic pumps , which would enable them to rarefy the atmosphere in
one place , to condense it in another , so as to dispose of the respiration of the human race . ^ Now what are we to think of then * reasoning if , in order to prove the legitimacy of their exclusive right over every portion of air fit to breathe , they insisted that air is in the highest degree beneficent and necessary ; that without air we could not breathe , that for want of breath we should cease to live ? What would be thought of their good sense , if , to those who might reproach them with monopolising the air , they took it into their heads to reply—You desire to suppress it , then 1
The sophism perpetually employed by the adversaries of Socialism / consists in confounding the utility of Capital with that of Capitalism . As if the utility of a thing depended on its being a monopoly , and not on itself . Here is a road , for instance , which is the exclusive property of a company of speculators ; whence this oonscquence—that we must pay for usin # it . Is it , then , useful because of this tariff ? No ; on tho contrary , the tariff is a barrier erected against whoever cahnot pay , and has the effect of limiting the use of the roftd j and so , the more limited the use , the less useful is tho road .
Here is a machine just discovered , which becomes through a patent tho exclusive property of the 1 inventor : 18 it the patent that makes the machine useful ? Far from it . Universalised in its application , and placed at the service of all the artisans associateu in work , it would immediately produce marvellou results ; whilst in the hands of one mnn only , »«« under the regime of anarchical competition , it runs tn risk of becoming a hostile weapon , a bludgeon wit which tho exclusive possessor will crush his rivals , a break the urma of thousands of poor workmen . t-Ai-TAL IB WEALTH BKUOTIFIED BY LABOUB : CAPl „ is a greedy intermediary , who , by the onerous c ditions ho imposes on tho union of the two , * "' whore , ho does not destroy its fecundity . LaflU \ u tho goose with the golden eggs : let us deronu
against those who are for cutting it open . What is credit ? According t 6 tho regime <> 1 . i n - dividualism , it is tho confidence which m < lu <* s 1 pitalist to Ion * to an industrious man , fora cortain , itlcd determined , and in consideration of a premium , oni . interest , tho uso of that portion of capital ot wine , latter has need to turn his industry to a dvantago- ^ Now , in order that this kind of transaction w'tf . ^ carried out , two conditions are indispensably req 1 st , That the capitalist shall find bi » M ™^ ° r ! of eenting thereto , and ho does find it in the rew ^
Leader (1850-1860), March 20, 1852, page 268, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/l/issues/vm2-ncseproduct1927/page/8/