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that the Emperor , when scarcely arrived at Nicholaieff , % kd , come to the resolution of going by Cherson to Perekop , whence he would proceed into the Crimea to inaroecfc / as well aa events would allow him , the diifcrcnt corps of the army of the Crimea . It is thought here that the presence of the Emperor will produce a great effect on the spirits of the soldiers . It appears that the resolution come to , by the Emperor had not been communicated to any one , not even to the Empress , who frua returned here from Moscow with her children . According ' to the opinion the Czar may come to after seeing the army of the Crimea , he will decide on the
movements of the reserves . It is said that , before leaving Moscow , the Emperor ordered the Generals of the reserves to make the necessary preparations for their departure , in case that step should bo required . It is said to have been in contemplation a short time back to withdraw the two divisions of Grenadiers from Finland , aa well as the other regiments of the line , all of which were to have marched to the south , and to have been replaced by battalions of militia ; but , on the pressing entreaties of General de Berg , who commands in Finland , and who declared that he could not answer for the defence of the coast with troops but little accustomed to war , the measure has been abandoned . —St . Petersburg Letter in the Patrie .
The Baltic—letters from Helsingfors state that the Russians are repairing with the greatest activity the fortifications of Sweaborg , which were so dreadfully damaged by the bombardment of the 9 th and 10 th of August . They are establishing new powder-magazines in the rock , in order to avoid the risk of fresh explosions ; the storehouses which were in wood are being built of stone ; the arsenal , which was completely destroyed , is to be placed in a more protected position ; the barracks , which before the bombardment were capable of containing 10 , 000 men , are being enlarged , and an attempt is to be made to fortify the Isle of Drunsio . General de Berg , the Military Governor , has visited the rock on which the French established a battery - , to see if it will not be possible to construct during the winter a sort of citadel there .
lyf Aftsw . AT . Peussier has received from the Ottoman Government the dignity of a Marshal of the Empire . Several of the French Generals have been made Pachas , and some of their colonels Beys . Siustkia . —The Journal de Constantinople affirms that the commander-in-cnief of the Turkish troops encamped on the Danube has received orders to prepare provisions for 40 , 000 to 50 , 000 French troops , who may be expected at Silistria by the end of October .
PUBLIC MEETINGS . LOBD PALMERSTON AT EO 3 J 8 ET . A kxsd of triumphant reception was given to Lord Palmeraton on Friday week at his native town of Komsey , in Hampshire , on the arrival of his lordship there in . passing to his seat at Broadlands . Evergreen arches were erected at various points on the road from the railway station ; and the Mayor and inhabitants , headed by a band of music and colours , -went in procession to meet the premier- An address having been delivered by the Mayor , Lord Palmerston , without leaving his barouche ( . i" which he was accompanied by Lady Palmerston ) , replied at considerable length , the text of his speech being ' the recent successes in the Crimea . Speaking of the designs of Russia in maintaining auch a fortress as that of Sebastopol , his lordship observed : —
" Although , on retiring , the Russians blew up fortified works , exploded great magazines of powder , and destroyed everything that could be burnt within the time allowed for their remaining stay , yet we know that , when the Allies entered that town , they found among those * blood-stained ruins' no less than 4000 pieces of cannon—( Cheers ')—an immense quantity of powder , an enormous amount of cannon-balls and shell , and materials of various kinds necessary for the prosecution of war . " Well , gentlemen , what does that teach ua upon reflection ? Does it not show us the vast importance -which the Government of Russia attached to that
stronghold of Russian power in the Black Sea ? Why wae that vast accumulation of warlike materials made , more than could be required for the most prolonged defence of the place ? " Why was it that the elements had been there accumulated for supplying great armies and for furnishing great fleets ? It was because they felt that this Sebastopol was the stronghold of their power in the East , that from this centre was to radiate that intense and extensive power which was to lead them to the conquest of Constantinople , and to onablo them from that centre of empire to sway in a great degree tho destinies of Europe . " ( Cheers . )
The recommendation which had been given by no mean judges of international or of military nnd naval affairs , " that we ought to have attacked tho Russians in the Danubian Principalities , and thence to have penetrated to the heart of tho Kussian Empire , would not , contended Lord Pnlmoraton , have led to such valuable results as the attack on Sevastopol , and would have imposed greater labours and perils on us . But , properly speaking , there had been no siege of Sebastopol , nor had that town becu deforided by a garrison .
" The Allied armies ot England and France , assisted from the beginning by a portion of the Turkish force , and assisted latterly by the brave Sardinians—a body of troops worthy of admiration by all for their discipline , their skill , their science , their good order and braveryhave not been besieging a single town and attacking a small garrison ; they have been fighting the whole military force of the Russian Empire . We have been contending , not merely with an army in the Crimea , equal to ourselves , and sometimes superior to ourselves in numbers , but—I say it without exaggeration—we have been contending with the whole military resources of that vast military empire , of that empire which devotes the great proportion of its revenue to the maintenance of an enormous standing army , an army which they call 1000000 menbut which may be set down at 600 , 000
, , , or 800 , 000 men . Well , gentlemen , almost the whole , or the greater part , of that force was set free , from the Baltic to the Euxine , by the neutral position of those powers which border upon the European frontier of Russia . Russia had nothing to fear from Austria ; she had nothing to fear from Prussia . She was , therefore , at libertv to send down to the Crimea and defend Sebastopol , and drive our armies , as she vainly boasted she would do , into the sea . She had nothing to prevent her from sending division after division and army after army—the garrison of Poland and the garrison of St . Petersburg—every man she could feed at so distant a place ; she had nothing of danger upon her frontier to prevent her reinforcing her Crimean army , and replacing by fresh recruits the losses she had sustained in battle . "
The idea of the invincibility of Russia had been destroyed ; and we had seen the great < lisadvantage at which that power is placed in having to transport her troops over many miles of barren steppe , while the Allies carried their troops fresh and unfatigued across the sea . Referring to the " neutral" powers , Lord Palmerston observed , " I believe that , if the nations of the Continent were to determine the course whicli they should pursue , simply according to their own sentiments and feelings , there are countries now resting in inglorious neutrality which would have joined the alliance , and done honour to he
themselves and the cause . " Subsequently , spoke of " mistaken views of their interests , as ho thought , " leading the " neutral"' Governments to a pacific line of policy . With respect to the Baltic operations , Lord Palmerston stated that our squadrons have never been superior in numbers to the ships of the Russians . His speech throughout was received with great enthusiasm . At the conclusion , three cheers were given for Lady Palmerston , and three for the Queen ; nnd the Mayor , gentry , &c , accompanied the premier to his seat . In the evening , the Mayor , the town council , arid the clergy , dined with his lordship .
SIR JOSEPH PAXTON AT COVENTRY . The architect of the Crystal Palace lias recently been at Coventry , the city which he represents in Parliament , and has been distributing prizes at tie School of Design , and presiding at the annual meeting of the Mechanics' Institute . He was also entertained at a public dinner given by one hundred and fifty of the electors . Sir Joseph addressed them in a speech of great amplitude , in which , after reviewing his parliamentary career , and staling his opinions in favour of army reform , he gave a short history of the Army Work Corps , lie said : —
" They would remember that on a former occasion he told them that in his opinion soldiers were unlit for trench-work and road-making , and ho suggested tho sending another class of men to do that particular work . In compliance with the wibhea of tho tiovernincut , ho carried out the principle : on a mnall ncalo , and 10 UU men as an Army Work Corps were sent to the Crimea . Their utility waa soon discovered , and Generul Simpson Hunt homo for more . Hy the end of tho week , including artisans and labourers , » 000 will hnve sailed . Their duty will be to do work to make the soldier comfortable , in order that ho may bo kept to his own particular work . Now , in obtaining this corps , ho acted upon a comnioroiiil principle . In order to get good men and oflieeru , you must pay them well ; and ho had not experienced the
slightest difficulty in getting such a class . Men had come from all partw to tho office in London , knowing that if engaged they would be well clad , have good rations , and be well paid . That , indeed , was really economy . What had tho war cost ? It had been stated that it would cost 80 , 000 , 000 / . or 90 , 000 , 000 / . this year . Why , if every soldier in tho Crimea received 1 / . a week , that would only amount to 2 , 000 , 000 / . during tho year out of tho 80 , 000 , 000 / . ; and where was tho rest gone ? lie made a suggestion to Government with roferenco to better pay being given to soldiers , a part of which they adopted , but did notgo farcnough . HoldlorH might readily have been bettor paid and had comforts in tho Crimea at Ichh cost than hnd boon expended , nnd their wives and families at homo might have received a portion of the pay . " ( Cheers . )
Sir Joseph warned his hearers not to mipposo that ho had entered inton contract with tho Governirtont : what he had < lono was done gratuitously , fur tin ; good which ho trusted would ruuult . Hd'erring to the
necessity for education nnd refining influences among the working classes , be made a very gratifying assertion . " Two million persons had visited the Crystal Palace , out of which not more than three police cases had arisen , and two or three cases of drunkenness . By different classes thus meeting together , a feeling of self-respect was engendered , and an improved taste promoted . He would have grounds for innocent recreation , with museums , reading-rooms , libraries , &e ., not in an expensively decorative style as somo of our largo exteriors now are , but neat and useful . As he had promised at Halifax so he would promise here (« r rather more here ) and elsewhere—he would give all the drawings and superintendence . " ( Loud cheers . )
S 1 K EDWARD BCLWEB LVTTON AT BUNTINGFORD . The annual meetiiiy of the Hertfordshire Agricultural Society was held at Buntingford on Thursday week ; and , at tho dinner which was given by the members of the society , Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton delivered an address , in which ho referred chiefly to the war . Having alluded to the noble and heroic officers whom Hertfordshire has produced , and more especially mentioned the names of Sutton , Powell , Clutterbuck , Bhike , Hyder , and Dehner-ltatcliffe , he
contended that , though repulsed in our attack on the Redan , we have materially contributed to the success of the siege . Yet he held that we had notoriously failed as regards the arrangements of our armyfailed , owing to our not availing ourselves of modern facilities and inventions . The war must be prosecuted with vigour ; and , to the credit of the House of Commons , no man who opposed himself to the national will in connexion with this struggle could maintain his position . Referring to his party , he
observed : — " Let me say this on behalf of the minority with whom I have for the most part acted , and with whose sentiments 1 am most familiar—I say , you cannot midjudge that minority more than by supposing that they , or those who may " be regarded as their leaders , are unduly anxious for the transfer of political power . I declaro that , during the whole of the startling vicissitudes of last session , I saw with sincere admiration their absorbing anxiety to make the safety of the country , the maintenance of the army , nnd the honour of tho Crown , paramount to all other considerations . " ( Cheers . )
m . r > i ; mktz on tiii : mettray reformatory . The Guildhall , Bristol , was the scene on Saturday last of a meeting of ladies am ! gentlemen interested in Reformatory Institutions , who assembled for the purpose of hearing a statement from M . < lo Met / ., the French philanthropist , with reference to his Reformatory at Mettray . ' Having mentioned that his attention was first called to the subject by the numbers of children brought before him in the performance of his duty ns jvulj / c nt Paris . M . de Metz ( who spoke in French ) ontimml : —
" M . de Courtcilles nnrt myselt commenced the institution of Mettray in July , 18 . 'W , by assembling twentythroe youths of rfcipei-tablo . parentage , whom for six months we occupied ourselves in training for teacher .- -. We thus began the Eeolts Prcpnratoirc , or school for officials , which I believe to bo the most important feature of the institution ; so important , indeed , that , if it were to be given up , HI ot tray itself must cease to exist . In January , 1 * 10 , we admitted twelve young criminals , and very gradually increased the number . Mettray 1 ms first forits basis religion , without which it is impossible for such an institution to . succeed ; secondly , the family principle for a bond ; and thirdly , military discipline as a means of inculcating order . Tl \ p military discipline uniform
adopted at Mettray in this : —The lads wear a , and they march to mul from their work , their lesson . - * , and their meals with t !\< : precision of soldiers , and to tho sound of n trumpet an A drum . But , as the sound of the trumpet and the drum load men on to perform acts of heroism , and to . surmount the greatest dillienltics , may it not reasonably be employed with the same object at « i reformatory hcIiooI , whore , ' in resist ing tempt nt ion and conquering * vicious haliits , true heroism is displayed , and a mnrvc-lloiiH power of overcoming dilnculties must Incalled forth ? A striking proof of tin ; hold the system had obtained over tho minds of the boys was given at the time of the revolution of 18 ' « H . France was then from one end of ( ho country to the other in a slate of anarchy , and all tho fJovernincDt schools were in rebellion . At Mot tray , without widln , without coon-ion , them was not not le child attempted
a sign of insubordination ; a sing to run away . It won li » allusion to the absence of walls that M . lo llaron do la Crowe , Nem ? tnir « du Stfn . it , observed , 'Here is a wonderful priM > n , whore there is no key but tho cl * f < lv « champ * ! H' your children remain « Ai » tiv « , it is proved you have discovered the key of their bonrtH . ' During the revolution , a biuid of workmen anno to Mot tray with Natf * Hying and trumpets bounding , and , meeting th « youth * returning tired from iMd labour , their pickaxon on tlmir uhoiddurs , thus addressed them : i My boys , do not l >(! such fools as to work any longer . Uroad is plentiful ; it in reiuly for you without labour . ' The «/«;/ 'wh (» was conducting tho IiuIh , and who behaved with tho givuttvil calmiui . irt and titut , Immediately cried , 'Halt ! form in line' Tim luds , being accustomed l » inarch liko soldiers , ilium diatcly formed . Tho ohvf tli <»
a £ fr . THE LEAD ^ k [ No . 290 , Saturday ,
Leader (1850-1860), Oct. 13, 1855, page 976, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/l/issues/vm2-ncseproduct2110/page/4/