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IT is natural to connect the end with the beginning-, and contemplate time as a large comprehensive circle , and particular periods as smaller ones , or cycles , as they are called , 'there are few years , however , that make . such cycles of themselves ; even these require a larger periphery than the sweep of twelve months . Two or three of such periods at least , are usually demanded for the constitution of even a comparatively ' insignificant cycle , regarding a series of events as having a beginning , a middle , mid . an end . The year now closing , however , is singular in-this respect ; beginning , as it did , with the intimation of Napoleon III . to the Austrian ambassador , and ending with the pamphlet , Le Pope ct le Cong res , which may be taken , as the Imperial warning to the Papacy . In these two facts , we have at least . the beginning , and if not . quite the end , yet the beginning of the end clearly indicated .
To some the latter fact will look like the commencement of a newseries , in which case , the pamphlet itself will be accepted as . close of the old . And such may even be its operation ; for , as we write , it is rumoured that Cardinal Antonelli objects to meet Congress , unless the fatal publication be disowned . It is probable , or possible , that on the same account the Congress may never meet and thus the mysterious pamphlet of December will close the series commenced in the mysterious intimation of January . " Between the acting of a dreadful tiling , . And the first motion , all the interim is " . ' . Like a phantaama , or . a hideouB dream . '
And such has been the character of the interval to Europe , between , that January and this December . The action of the world has been phantasmal / and we are but just now waking from the dream of war and ambition . The chief source of perplexity has been the general ignorance of the motive in which the difference commenced , and the ultimate purpose which , its originator intended it to subserve . Some meii are so " loose of soul , " that all their policy , is transparent at once '; others are ' ' reticent ; that-the-end in view is not gxiessed until it occurs . We -believe , that , the Emperor of the French is naturally ' '•" the latter turn of mind . Secretiveness is , doubtless ,, among his prominent organs . Reason enou « l » , however , . exists for the exercise of . the faculty in the jHiture of his position / and the necessities ¦ '" of-. ' the age . It were not only unsafe , but- impossible , Jo . iuwli > .+. « rW iu > on Fra-ncri vr / . ivht aeomplish . . It is easy-tr ) promise
much , and do . little ; and .-hard to anticipate hotv much or how little can , under the circumstances , be effected . The moral of the year , deprived from its experiences , is in favour of this reticence . Once the Imperial mind was moved to speak plainly , to pronounce explicitly a noble and far-roachiug purpose . " Italy , " it proclaimed , " shall be free from the Alps to the Adriatic . " The declaration proved , in its result , to bo but a wise indiscretion . It was wise , because the announcement - -was one that went i ' nv towards its own fulfilment , and will , doubtless , notwithstanding temporary impediments , yet work ouC its own issue . But it was indiscreet ,- because 'difficulties lay in the way , which , for a time , . might be , and proved to be , insurmountable . The Peace of Villafranca defined a different barrier , which needs new operations in order to its removal . No" w forces must arise , before it can be broken through . The wheel of fortune , mayhap , must take sundry turns first . The fate of Italy could not be decided by war . It awaited
the circumlocutions of diplomacy , and the- ' chapter of chances . What remained to be effected of Italian liberty , became again a subject of doubt , a theme of suspicion , and the object of fresh complications , but few of which it is possible to foroseo . That this same ' . reticence belonged to the time as much as to . tho man , may be gathered from the conduct of the Derby administration . How far it -concurred with Austria or with . Franco it was afraid to stato ; and ,-alternately , it censured both , while professing to serve either . Eventually , it became too apparent that the sympathies of tho English Government wore with Austria * But those of tho pco-plo . of England were with Italy , and decidedly against tho barbarian power by which the peninsula was enslaved , That administration had therefore- to wiako way for one more popular , ami in some measure- pledged to assert the rights of the Italian people
against their oppressors . On England itself , however , a certain silence was imposod , on account of Ivor Protestant position , anil hex * inability to share- in tho initiation of the " idea , " which her spirited Ally ha ' d assumed as the special privilege belonging to himself and the 'lively nation whoso destinies fie was permitted to wiold . England might look approvingly on , but she continued to preserve a singular taciturnity , awaiting- events before she expressed a decided opinion as to the actual measures pursued ; simply intimating that , under any circumstance's , tho Italians inunt bo lo ( t to choose their own form of government . Meanwhile , the Italians thomwolvos hnvo boon laudably active ; but they have sufforod mud * from , the prevailing roticonco on all sides . Thoy luivo put questions to Sardinia , to which tho answers have baon equivocal enough . Novortholess .: thoy have not boon daunted . Thoy rigjitjy iwtiitW them
from tho general silence , that tho real answoV rested witu - , , , Ht solves . On jth . oir , .-own determination to win their independence n" « secure their liberty , tho whole depended . That fully pronounced , it involved by necessity tho reply of Victojb Emmanum ,. The iittitticlo astfujnqd by both" portioa at tho present tune is worthy oi iiu admiration .
Jan . 7 , I 860 . ] The Leader and Saturday Analyst . ... -. 11
aleevedsurtout of the Regency did Geobge the Fourth . But with much effort we have at last , as we say , succeeded . In Elizabeth s time , the old caricaturists represented an , Englishman as standing naked , a bale of cloth in one ha ^ nd , and a pair of scissors ^ m the Other doubting as to what fashion his doublet should be , cut , VVe have now outgrown all doubts j and how much soever w * once stole fashion from the French , no one who has travelled but will know that at present they steal quite as much from us . 11 vour ladies imitated the bombast of . crinoline , they have the merit of having introduced the piquant hat , which , with pheasant s breast and duclcwing feathers , renders the Amazone so bewitching ., irom us , also , our neighbours have taken the fashion of the morning coat , and that close-buttoned and comfortable walking-dress which Mr . Lbecji has immortalised , arid Mr . Punch has given the name of . " . Noahs Ark . Vainly do they seek also to imitate our riding-coats , and to array their lower extremities in top-boots and white cords—garments which , in spite of the Gallic dictum that a Frenchman has the best legs in the world , never sit well on them ; Vainly , also , does the young French " swell" aspire , with padding , to eqiinl the broad-chested and stalwart young English gentleman . Manly , in perfect ease and freedom , the latter moves about , a well-dressed man . Neither the American , the Frenchman , the Italian , nor the Ejissian , can compare with him , and Pall Mall or Bond Street can boast ten times as many young fellows better dressed than the Corso , the Prado , the Rue Richelieu , Wall Street , or the Nevskoi Prospect at St . Petersburg . . ' « . . j -n This excellence we have attained with an effort , and Europe envies us . When M . Edmond About dresses out his Roman beggar with the end in view of making him surpass the prince , ho does not go to a French artist ; but to Poole and liuckmaster . Nor would a young Englishman order a coat to be built by a - -German Schneider * or a French or Italian operator . He knows the value of his compatriot ' s needle , and it is but just to say that he rewards him . Gold is the tailor ' s portion ; the young pntrician flings it to him as lie does to his opera dancer , his comic smyer , or hisjockey . A JENNErwaFLAXMA > -, a Tennyson , or a Foebes , never has one tithe of the chance of making a fortune that a fashionable coatnraker , or he who invents the " idoneoiis fitting " trousers , has . We have even forgotten to assail him with the opprobriou | names which were common enough when Foote wrote his-farce . He grows rich and thrives . He despatches emissaries by railway who enable the Sir Francis Wrongheads and the clergy of the provinces to vie with the latest " swell" on the town ; he employs a thorough artist to delineate his patterns * and " like . fhe Times and other powers in Europe sends a plenipotentiary to the seat of war , to take care that Hotspurs , Rinaldos , and Captains Bobadil shall not be sent t ? t ! ^!" last account without a complete outfit from a '•' . first rate hand . " We say little of the " poets ; " only" inferior " hands " employ them ; but to do justice to the . literary gentlemen we must own that their invocations to the various seasons are written in numbers as smooth as those of JDenham , and , were itnpt for the recommendatory bathos which lies perdu about the middle of each piece , would be considerably less ridiculous than the heroics of Sir Richard Blackmore . But the worst remains behind . Our tailors are triumphant , and our young fellows well dressed ,, but they are all alike . They have no originality , and they are far beyond eccentricity . When of old they apparelled Gargantua it needed the genius of . Rabelais to describe his ' costume , but now we have not half the variety in coats that our Shakesperian ancestors had . in beards . We dress not ns ¦* ' single spies , but in battalions . " We are regularly packed , sorted , and labelled in our dress . The artist assumes a picturesque carelessness , and is as much a martyr in his loose coat as was Beau Leslie when lifted into his buckskin tights . The high church priest in his M . B . waistcoat and straitcoat , is as much parcelled out in the street from the Methody in shabby black and dubiously white tie , as the Rector in the pulpit in the " richest armazino price sevenand « a-half guineas" is from the curate in tho reading-desk , in his : stuff cassock price twenty shillings . The " suit especially adaptod for « tho counting-house" distinguishes the . city gent from the west ¦ end swell in his Granville walking coat . The man who " boats ' dresses differently from him who " drives /* The person who affects n stable habit , has his trousers cut to look " ' ossy ; " ho who is literary and studious varies much froin , him w . ho belongs to a Government office and doqs a bit of Park at twenty minutes past four . Over all these is tho tailor triumphant , nay the costumo invades the tongue and infects the speech . The Cambridge or Oxford man talks differently from his follows ; barristers and clergymen modulate their speech variously , and tho latter assume an affectionately sympathising and Christian shako of the hand , and half pitying , half patronising manner of speech , which is excessively irritating to their poorer parishioners . The governing classes speak in tho old loud Norman way , which irresistibly reminds one that they have footmen , and that > the marble halls wherein they dwell are spacious . Whether those habits which wo have so lightly ( touched are exactly calculated to bind class . to class wo doubt . Whether they arc in sober truth proper and Christian is another question . Society seoms certainly to have clothed itself very much better , but they who dwelll in Kings' houses are as easily distinguished now-a-duya , although thoy wear surtouta and round hats , as if thoy woro clothed in the soft raiment of tho gospel . Ono thing is certain .,, T 1 KH tailor ' s supremacy may do good for trado , but > it intfst be hurtful to independent thought and feeling . Ho whois always thinking how he is dressed , will never bo at ease and feel like a gentleman . ^ Poor Goldsmith »* his immortal plum-coloured suit , made by one Fxlby , was no doubt a martyr , and not half so comfortable as in his ragged dressing gown in Qvoon Arbour Court . Tho true gontlonmu will
do well to follow the precept of not caring wherewithal he shall be clothed , not running into debt in college Or in town to procure fine garments , and above all in defying" as strongly as possible the tailor ' s supremacy . ' .
Papalismf And Protestantism/ ; ¦ 1
PAPALISM ^ AND PROTESTANTISM / ; '
Leader (1850-1860), Jan. 7, 1860, page 11, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/l/issues/vm2-ncseproduct2328/page/11/