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" 23" W* baf» received a long letter from Mr. irO'Connor, bat the crowded statecf onr columns pre a eludes its insertion this week.
IRELAND. SABRATITE OP MALCOtM M'-RESOR. ...
Those who ma; be disposed to view (he pr...
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VOL. X. NO. 480. LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUA...
THE HTIOIJrL LAH0JHD LABODB BANK. Reckle...
TO FEARGUS O'CONNOR, ESQ. Sin,—In reply ...
LINES UPON HEADING MR. OOMMINO'S LETTER ...
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E. N.—Dewsbury and Others.—VTe shall not...
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" 23" W* Baf» Received A Long Letter From Mr. Iro'connor, Bat The Crowded Statecf Onr Columns Pre A Eludes Its Insertion This Week.
" 23 " W * baf » received a long letter from Mr . irO'Connor , bat the crowded statecf onr columns pre a eludes its insertion this week .
Ireland. Sabratite Op Malcotm M'-Resor. ...
IRELAND . SABRATITE OP MALCOtM M ' -RESOR . SO . Tin . I I had spent many happy and highly instructive li evening ! in the society of my venerable host , Mrs . h Miboney contributing her fair share of hospitality I awl attention during his absence ; andjtruth to say , ; the hospitable Pastor could not have been better h represented than in the person of his housekeeper . I I devoted the greatest portion of each day to
i visiting the peasantry at work , or their wretched n families in their wretched hovels , and had purposed « devoting my present paper to a faithful narrative of i what I saw , the existence of which would be i doubted by all who cannot draw largely upon their i imagination ; my narrative , however , must be dii rected to another , and a more mournful subject , one 1 which wrong my hart with deep sorrow and anguish , and stamped a scene of misery upon my memory which no time can efface , or circumstance obliterate .
One evening , after a long walk through the mountain ' s rugged and intricate windings , with which I had now become familiarr and after the return of my kind host from ft day of more than ordinary fatieue , consequent upon the increasing cold and destitution of his Sock , we had jnst sat down to dinner , when we were roused by a tramping of feet , followed by a loud yell and a knocking at the door : " Good God , " said the anxious Pastor , " what can this mean ? " when Mrs . Mahoney , with the colour of death in her cheek and the wildness of sudden fear in her eye , rushed , or rather staggered , into the pailcur , unable to speak . " Speak , speak , woman , " ejaculated the affrighted Priest .
"I can't , I can't , —she rejoined , " 0 my God , my God , there's a ruction at Crief , sure the troopers and the Captain has been there , and but Jim and Keddeen is outside , and says how they thinks Phelimeen is shot or murdered , or hurt among them . " * ' Phelimeen murdered ! " exclaimed the Pastor . " What , " said I , " my guide , my companion , the young and hearty peasant-youth who accompanied me here bat the other day ; the prop-of his aged fattier and mother , and Kathleen's only brother ?" While we were in a state , not of suspense , but of paralysis , two youths rushed into the room almost frantic with fear , horror , and surprize , and ejaculated
together" Come , come , your reverence , come , or blessed be God , you won't find poor Phelimeen alive—my God ! my God 2 the troopers shot him . '' The Rev . Mr . O'Farrell looked as I never saw mortal look before ; he was calm , but his countenance presented a mixture of sorrow , anxiety , and wounded pride . Mrs . Mahony , who had recovered from the first shock , asked if she should order the boy to get the mare"No , " replied the priest , " 111 walk , the way i shorter * , put some wine in a small bottle . " And which being done , he was rushing out of the door , when I asked permission to accompany him . " 4 s you pleise , " he replied , " if yon have a stomach for ttisery . ' '
The consent , though repuhive , was sufficient , and I Mowed ; Mrs . Mahony having put the priest ' s cloak on my arm , asking me to give it to one of the gossoons to carry , as his reverence would miss it coming home . During the whole of onr race , for such it really was , to the O'Donnell's house , the Priest never once opened bis lips , and , strange to say as be subsequently informed me , for the first time in his life he omitted paying homage to the blessed care , by which we passed .
We were met at the little gate leading from the road , by the uncle of Phelita , who implored us to make as little noise as possible for fear of alarming he poor ould woman , who did ' nt hear it yet , as it would be sure to break her heart . We had now entered the cottage , where , but a few nights since , I , a stranger , had been received as a guest , and treated with generous , genuine hospitality , and when all about me was animation , hilarity , contentment , and joy , but alas ! how changed the scene . As we entered , and just in front of the door lay the father ' s hope , the mother ' s joy , and the sister ' s protector , a
cold , lifeless , bleeding corpse , stretched upon a bench with a pillow under his head , covered with a white ibeet , and his death bed hong round with linen . The effect of a gun shat wound upon the countenance is horrifying in the extreme , and cannot be conceived by those who have never witnessed it ; it is of such a nature , that no living man could identify the sufferer by his countenance , and such was the appearance in death of him whose manly beauty was the parish pride , and bis parent ' s boast . As I approached the corpse , my heart sank within me , while the house of death presented , for Ireland , an unusual
stillness , nothing audible but a deep suppressed tone , all being cautioned to spare the poor mother's feelings . The priest kissed the cold lips of his kins - man , and as he rose I observed the large teats following each other in quick succession down his pallia cheek , He did ' nt , hecould ' nt , breathea syllable . hi tie chimney corner sat the O'Donnell , in a state rf subdued frenzy ; while Kathleen knelt at his side with her head buried in his lap and motionless , and the relations and friends of the family hang over the corpse in brooding vengeance and sullen silence , sow and then exchanging looks and suppressed autterings , significant of injury and revenge .
When the reverend pastor had recovered his Etne , he requested the uncle of Phelim , who met us at ib = gate , to communicate the whole transaction toliinj , but in such a tone as would not reach the ack mother's ear . He took the priest into an adjoinin g room , and 1 followed , when the uncle narrated the whole transaction , as follows : — " Shortly before dusk I was standing at my own floor , when 1 see the troopers pass , and the Captain s ' ding with them . Well , I thought I'de follow them a Vit , and seeing them turn down the lane to the O'DcmwITs bouse , I mended my gait , and came
tooss the short cut to the corner of the house just as they entered , and sure Phelimeen was driving the twliome to he milked , when the Captain says to Catcl pole and two more that was with him , ' Seize thai cow and drive her on the road , while I go down ' * zi distrain the corn . ' Well , my jewel , sure the ' tee runs at Philemeen and begins driving the cow , ad , he says , standing before them , ' Where are ye ' s $ ag with that cow . ' ' I distrain her in the name ° f the Queen and the law , ' said the Captain , and by r irtnc of a decree . ' There ' s enough to satisfy you Vl » hc ut taking the drop of milk from mv sick
pother that can't take anything else . ' says Phelim , ' *!* the mare and the corn , but you shan't take the <** . vou shall have my life first . ' 'Do you resist JK" says the Captain . 'I do , ' says Phelim . \ Mr . Spilsby , ' says he , turning to a young °° per that was with him , ' I order you to fire . 'J , my dear sowl , sure no sooner said than done , £ e « ord was ' ntout ot his mouth , when the other *} V Men , fire . ' And sure , blessed be God , my /* Phelimeen fell just forenainst his own door ,
"it , indeed , I thought my heart was in my ^ tr when I see him fall , for sure , I thought , ^ xwilti ' nt fire s o ready , but the Lord helps us , »»» , 1 Said that he ' de 8 arve Phelim out thls kui ! wa - , a " > M'd the uncle with a sigh , ' . ' »* 't all , and it didn't last longer than I'm -i ' JiY if a ilt ° " ' and sure when they had their will of ^ ' VtllUr ' the * went off M < 1 ldt tne cow behini 1 ifJ ?^ ' upon m . conscience , if they had only Jim ° D ten miuutes longer , but not a man of * ould go home t 0 teil the story , as the
Ireland. Sabratite Op Malcotm M'-Resor. ...
O'Donnells and the Crief boys were mustering in all directions over the bills when they see the troopers , and sure they weren't hardly gone when the lane was full , and , indeed , only for Tim . Mahony there would be bad work , and sure , I suppose , we did ' nt hear the end of it yet . Hanng heard this frightful narrative , we returned once more to the room of death , where Mr . O'Farrell , approaching the bewildered father , in whose lap Kathleen ' s face was still buried , and putting his arms around the aged man's neck , and kissing him , he said , while the tears rolled quickly down his
cheek"ODonnell , yours is a sore trial ; but you must hear the will of God with forbearance and resignation . " " Oh , God is good , " responded the old man , adding , " and God ' s will be done ; but holy and blessed Redeemer 1 isn ' t it a sore case to see my fine boy that was well and hearty at nightfall a cowld corpse stretched on the door , for trying to keep the dhrop of milk with his poor sick mother . " During these ejaculations , the sighs of poor Kathleen were 'frequent and heart-breaking , and , no longer able to restrain her grief , or conceal her feelings , she rose , and looking towards her brother's corpse , she gave a death-like shriek , and fell hack motionless upon her father's neck .
u What—what's that ? " said a faint voice from the inner room . " What ' s that—and where ' g Phelimeen from me all this time ? He never was so long without bringing a drink after milking before . Where is he . '—Where is he ? ' ' An appalling silence was the only response to this appeal ; when the sick voice again asked , — "What , are ye ' s all dead , that no one will come near me ? Where ' s Phelim . I say ?"
Still no answer ; when , to my horror , the door of the sick room slowly opened , a spectre , supported by the jamb , looked wildly round , and , with a sudden and elastic bound ( though she hadn ' t walked for several weeks ) , she sprang to the side of the corpse—she raised the cold hand , which by a'broken nail she recognised as her son ' s—she threw herself upon the body—tore every vestige of covering from the cold corpse , flew to the fresh wounds , from which the young hot blood still gushed ; she sucked , disgorged , and sacked again ; until , at length , exhausted and overcome , she stood up , looked frantic at all round , gave a hideous death-yell , and fell back lifeless in the arms of the Rev . Mr . O'Farrell !
The barrier to loud grief being removed , the house resounded with the song of death , a dismal howl which still rings in my ears . It is a thrilling sing song yell , a constant repetition of Hullagone Hullagone !! Hullagone !!! Here , then , is a subject for the painter or the poet . My pen can but feebly sketch the outlines . O'Donnell , like a petrifaction , sat chained to the chimney corner , Kathleen swoouing on his neck ; the mother , but a moment before electrified by nervous apprehension , transformed , as if by magic , from a rheumatic cripple to a hounding fairy , and as suddenly spell-bound and struck a cold clay corpse
to the ground , still disgorging her dead son s blood and that son the darling of her heart , the prop of her house , and the hope of her old age . Poor Kathleen was bat restored to consciousness to lose her reason , she flung herself from her aged father ' s neck , and , in the attempt to embrace her brother ' s corpse , she fell over her dead mother , rose and laughed and sung , and , with her long flowing auburn locks streaming on her shoulders , she waved one hand to the mourners , and , placing her finger on her lips , with a wild and frantic look she muttered , " Hush , or the Captain and troopers will come and take my mother and brother from Kathleen . "
[ She threw herself wildly upon her brothers corpse , and smiling upon all around exposed the fresh wounds , telling them to look how many mouths her Phelim had , and how rosy and warm the lips were that the Captain and the troopers made for him , and then she'de slap his face , and laugh and exclaim , " You ' re not ray Phelim , you ' re an ugly fellow , my Phelimeen was the pride of the parish , and would smile on his Kathleen , but yon look sulky , " then turning round to her mother , she said , " Get up mother and take a drink of the milk that Phelim brought you . Heigho , sore Phelim is married and I must dance at his wedding , " and she sung some sweet wild air and danced around the corpse til ) flesh and blood could no longer bear the sight , and ,
with the assistance of the female mourners , the broken-hearted priest prevailed upon her to go to bed , and it was daylight before we left the house of mourning . On our arrival home , the worthy pastor , who had not tasted a morsel during the previous day , took a cold bath , as was bis custom , and in less than an hour he was on his holy mission . I gave vent to ray sorrow in a flood of tears , after which I lessened my own load of grief by imposing a portion of it on poor Mrs . Mahony , who assured me the job wouldn ' t end there , for , as sure as life , there would be a black list jury , and but the O'Donnells would have blood for blood if it was in twenty years , and but the Captain might as well fly the country . The old man is delirious , and Kathleen frantic
said I , " wisha , the craythers , God help them , sure no wonder for them" says £ he , giving vent to her feelings in a flood of tears . ( To be continued . )
Those Who Ma; Be Disposed To View (He Pr...
Those who ma ; be disposed to view ( he present number of our tourist's narrative as a picture of ro . mance , will please to read the following account of the Ratucormac massacre , extracted from a Cork paper : — While the weeping widow ' s son lay a bleeding corpse at her door , the pious archdeacon took a prayer-book from his pocket , and asked the widow to swear upon it . that she would no longer resist the payment of HIS tithes , and pointing to her bleeding child , added , " Now , will you pay your tithes ?"
Two fine young men , one twenty and the other twenty-one years of age , sons to a poor widow named Collins , ran across the field when they heard the firing in the direction of the widow Ryan's house , and in less than ten minutes were stretched lifeless upon the green sward , many bullets having perforated the bodies . The mother went in search of her children when the firing was over , and , to her horror , met their dead bodies coming towards her home in a cart , she sprung upon them , threw herself between them , and first sucked the blood from the wounds of one , then disgorged and sucked the other ' s
wounds , until surfeited she lay fainting upon her dead children . Two poor wretches were dragged out of a pig-sty , whither they flew for shelter , and by order of an officer were butchered in cold-blood , m / st of those shot and dead were hit in the back while leaving the scene of action , and many fell at a distance of a hundred yards from the position occupied by the military . Our undaunted member , Mr . O'Connor , preached a funeral oration over tbe slain , from the steps of tbe barracks occupied by the
staff of the Cork militia , surrounded by two regiments of ' . dragoons , the dead bodies in coffins supported by the friends of deceased and surrounded by an immense mass of country people , excited fo an extreme pitch . In the course of his funeral sermon , Mr . O'Connor , turning indignantly to those officers whosfrbreasts were decoratedlwith Waterloo medals , told them to tear their faded honours from their valiant breats , and replace them with a bleeding widow ' s heart , emblematic of their greater victory . ( Continued to the Sixth Column . )
Those Who Ma; Be Disposed To View (He Pr...
M * O'Connor concluded ft heart-rtnding oration in the following words : — You are heroes now , but the day will arrive when rhe murderer shall stand in the awful presence of that great God , into whose councils neither the Itctum of the Cabinet , the quibble of the Judi-e , or ttie pr . ju . dice of the Jury , shall dare to enter , where murder will besnch , but not by construction of human law or political ingenuity . After the oration , the vast assemblage departed in sullen silence to deposit their slaughtered friends in the cold grave . Wo understand that Mr . O'Connor has had a very angry contest with Mr . Coroner Foote , who threatened to commit him , upon which he drew back from the table , and with a terrific kick upset all , sending the hatful of packed Orangemen , ( . elected as jurors to the ceiling , and before the ' fracas terminated Messrs . Jones and O'Brien , coro-\ r » rvn ... , i .
ners , arrived , Mr . O'Connor having dispatched a chaise and four for each , when be discovered the partial manner in which the proceedings were likely to be conducted , " ' ' Let the reader also bear the following facts in mind . After an inquest , which lasted 13 days , Mr . O'Cohr . nor 8 Ui ' , eded in obtaining a verdict of "Wilful ' Murder &^ mt Archdeacon Rider , Major CoWs . and oapt . liagly . Lord Bcerhaven was High Sheriff , and actually inyjted the said Major Collis to serve upon the brand Jury , beforo wnom bills were to be preferred against him for Wilful Murder . James Smith Barry ' ,, a noted orangeman , was foreman of the Grand Jury ; liaron 1 'osier , a fool , who m-wi . tat , t „ , t * , „ n k ,. ; 0 f « .
elevated to the Bench for his high church and Tory ' ' principles , was judge . According to his direction , the foreman of the Grand Jury , "not to inconve- * nience the gentlemen , " immediately appeared in the ' brand Jury -gallery , and smiling triumphantly at ' us who attended to prosecute the murderers , an * " * nounced with fiendish exultation , that they had ignored the bij ] , and were complimented by the orang & ' judge . The writer saw the widow Rjnn upon tne same day , when sho told him that the Grand Jury only made game ot her , and asked her if Mr . O'Connell and the priest would support her . The writer further moved three resolutions in the House of Commons upon tbe subject , early in the nextgessi-n . whea the Whigs were restored to office . Mr . Daniel O'Con- . nell and Mr . Joseph Hume requested him not to hamper the Whig government with the subject , and neither would second his resolutions , and thus has the Rathormac massacre , like all other Irish grievances , been BLOWN TO THE FOUR WINDS OF HEAVEN . En . N . S .
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L - . . W • ®|T Ilifttitnt Skm, And Nati...
l - ®| t ilifttitnt Skm , AND NATIONAL TRADES' JOURNAL .
Vol. X. No. 480. London, Saturday, Janua...
VOL . X . NO . 480 . LONDON , SATURDAY , JANUARY 2 , 1847 . rire "j ™ "j"E ™«* - . .-. > ' Five MbillingH nnd Sixpence mer oam ter
The Htioijrl Lah0jhd Labodb Bank. Reckle...
THE HTIOIJrL LAH 0 JHD LABODB BANK . Recklessness , want of economy , indifference of the doubtful future during the prosperous present , have ever been the most unanswerable charges brought by the wealthy , the wily , and the fortunate against the labtfaring classes . We are not prepared to defend this wholesale charge in the abstract , while we contend that the want of thriftiness evinced by the many is ^ consequence of our institutions , both commercial and political , being framed and altered from time to time for the convenience , security , and protection of || e hasty made capital of the wealthy , rather than for the accumulated savings of the daily labourer or-slowly thriving shopkeeper . For instance , our gianljjtrade and commerce preclude the possibility of the poor man becoming a competitor with the rich speculator , while our monetary system rejects him as an aUy from the impossibility of qualifying himself as a partner or participator from his daily or
weekly savings . The Savings Bank becomes his only , alternative , the only depository for his daily or weekly parings , and from the fact of this department being his only source , , the government charges a large profit in diminished interest for the convenience afforded by the institution , For instance , the speculator with thousands , or even with hundreds , in the commercial or money market can command the highest rate of profit or interest , while the poor man is reduced to the alternative of being his own depositor without interest , or accepting the highest rate that his gradual savings can command . Hence the man with * thousand pounds may secure four per cent , upon mortgage , the man with a hundred pounds something over threa per cent , in Consols , while i % poor accumulator during the process of saving , and who has not a sufficient amount to take advantage of any of these securities , receives no more than £ 2 . 18 s , per cent , secured upon his own industry and the dissipation of his thoughtless fellow-labourer . He is reconciled to this lower rate of
interest—Firttly . —By the fact that it is the only market open to him-Secondly . —That it presents security . —Thirdly . —That it guarantees the power of with drawal in seasons of necessity , but even this power is restricted by condition ' s sometimes harsh and inconvenient . Thus we establish the value of co-operation without industry at one pound two per cent ., that being the difference between the rate of interest received by the poor saver and hira who can command a sufficient amount to insure the highest rate of interest . We have been reminded to surfeit that the glory of England . cohsists in the equal opportunity afforded to all in the market of speculation . We admit the fact , while we assert that the sun of England ' s glory would speedily set if all men were mere agents for the transfer of property , and none were producers of property . And it is in order that the latter class , whichiriH ever be the large majority , may be armed with the power of co-operation as a means of placing them upon an equality in point of protection with the former class that we advocate the principle of co-operation , and propose to establish the only medium by which it can be efficiently carried
out—The National Land and Labour Bank . We may be told that Joint Stock Banks , Railway Companies , Mining Companies , Steam Navigation Companies , and all other undertakings introduced to the world with a fascinating prospectus establishing a fictitious amount of shares , and a mere nominal amount of call , present the desired opportunity to the small capitalist . The result , however , of attempting to engraft this fascinating reality upon an unheeded fiction , has been the ruin of thousands ; and the effect has been as follows : —Many a poor man , jumping at the promise of high interest , and unscared by the phantom of future calls , has paid the required deposit , which an inconvenient call compels him to sacrifice altogether , or preserve as a forlorn hope , at the expense of future contributions , until the society ' s affairs are woundup , and he finds himself liable to all losses ; a few wily concoctors and solicitors taking his crippled child to nurse ; and thus fattening upon bis credulity . Hence , we show the simple value of Co-operation without industry , while we assert , without fear of contradiction , that the carrying on the necessary operations of trade depending ' upon individual industry , is not restricted to three , four , five , ten , or even fifteen per cent . Indeed , the value of capital can be best appreciated by the enormous amount of wealth that its possessors have been enabled to accumulate out of hired labour .
Let us illustrate this position . A tenant holds a hundred acres of land at one pound an acre , and dear in its present state . It will require £ 500 , or £ h an acre to drain it , and then it becomes worth £ 2 an acre—thus returning the tenant twenty per cent , upon the expenditure of £ 500 , so that , had he given fifteen per cent , for the capital , he would still be a gainer of five per cent , by the transaction ; while , through that amount of expenditure in labour the district shopkeepers would be benefitted , through them the domestic manufacturer and merchant , and , through all , the government . But this source of speculation is stopped by the landlord ' s indifference to benefit his tenant , and the tenant ' s indifference to benefit the landlord ; whereas if it helongedto the occupier the work would be done . But how much more pointedly the fact will present itself to the reader , when the capital is applied to enable and encourage the small husbandman to prosecute his own industry . The summary of these observations is that
A Nation ' s Greatness is better secured by individual prosperity than by commercial traffic , which must restrict industry . The duty of a government is to increase the national resources of the country to the highest state of cultivation they will admit of j and the way to insure this national good is , by the application of free labour , and the equitable ( NOT EQUAL ) distribution of its produce ; while the error of the present system is , that those who possess capital have the power of resisting the cultivation of our national resources to that particular standard which insures them the largest monopoly of the produce . We hold it to be an indisputable fact that the application of free labour , which means the labour of the small proprietor to the land , the cultivation of our mines , minerals , and fisheries , can alone develope the national resources , and at the same time establish a satisfactory standard of wages in the artificial labour market , while the hig her rate superinduced by well requited industry in the natural market , could be borne by the manufacturer , the merchant , and trader , by the incalculable impetus given to domestic trade and commerce , through the increased consumption of the free labour class .
The industrious man who has contributed a long life s accumulation of property for others must start at the announcement of our present prime minister : — 11 That the criminal law is a problem yet to be solved . ''— " That the sanatory condition of the people is miserably deficient , " and " That our whole system of education requires deep consideration and improvement . " Now we hold that governments , and governments . only , are answerable for the law's inequality and imperfections , for sanatory deficiency and educational regulation ; and we further hold that free and well-requited labour would render our criminal law , now a problem , if not obsolete , at least a thing of rare application to an improved and moral society . That the free labourer can best educate his own children , ventilate his own house , and preserve his own and family's health . In the free labour mar . ket we estimate a man ' s labour cheaply , very cheaply . at £ 50 per annum , and thus , if we have a million of paupers whose strained labour is now worth £ 10 a year each , the nation loses £ . 40 , 000 , 000 per annum , added to an expense of seven millions per annum wrung from the labour of the industrious , for no other purpose than to keep up an idle reserve at other people ' s expense , for the capitalist to fall back upon as a means of reducing and keeping down wages in the artificial market . Here then is a national sacrifice to class gain and individual monopoly . In order , then , to illustrate our plan for creating a free and independent labour class , whose industry shall be applied to the cultivation of our national resources , we propose to establish
The National Land and Labour Bank upon the following principle : —viz . That it shall consist of three departments ;—a Deposit Department ; a Redemption Department ; and a Sinking Fund Department ; and we shall now treat of those several departments each under its proper head .
Deposit . TheDepositDepartmenttobe open to all who wish to vest their monies upon the security of the landed property of the National Co-operative Land Company . and bearing interest at tbe rate of 3 } per cent , per annum . The capital deposited to be regulated by the following scale : —that is to say , —that for every £ 60 payable as rent-charge by the occupants , over and above the amount necessary to pay the interest of £ 4 per cent , on the Redemption Fund , the directors will be empowered to receive JS 1000 , thus leaving a sinking fund in this department , over and above the company ' s liabilities , of two and a half per cent .
Suppose , for instance , an estate producing * 600 a year over and above the Company s liabilities of £ 4 per cent , ( upon the amount in the redemption department ) to be occupied by the members of the company , who will each have received a conveyance in fee of his allotment , subject to a rent-charge proportioned to the purchase money and outlay ; upon this estate , conveyed by the trustees as security to the bank , the directors would be empowered to raise £ 10 , 000 , and would be liable to £ 350 a year interest at 3 J per cent , upon the borrowed capital of £ 10 , 000 Each depositor of any amount not exceeding £ 10 would be entitled to draw that amount on demand . A depositor wishing to draw any amount from £ 10 to £ 20 , roust give one week's notice . From £ 20 to £ 50 , a fortnight's notice ; and from £ 50 , to any amount , one month ' s notice . The amount of deposit at any one time not to be less than two shillings and sixpence .
Redemption Department . The Redemption Department to be open to the members of the Land Company , and who , whether occupants or shareholders , will be entitled to deposit their funds in that department upon the following conditions : — That each shareholder may deposit any amount not less than threepence at one time , and for which he shall receive interest at the rate of four per cent , per annum . This fund will he applicable to the purchase of Land or fining down of the occupants' rent-charge , at the rate of four per cent ., or twenty-five years' purchase—that is , that a depositor having £ 25 in the redemption Department when he is eligible for occupation , will be entitled to a reduction of £ 1 per annnm from his rent-charge—that is , the member who , if not a depositor , would be liable to a rent of £ 8 a year , will , when he has paid up £ 25 , be entitled to receive his allotment at £ 7 rent . We state £ 25 , but the depositor of any sum under that amount , down to £ 5 , would be entitled to apply his deposit to the reduction of his rent at four per cent . The additional half per cent , being guaranteed in consequence of shareholders who deposit their monies in the Redemption Department not being allowed to withdraw more than one-h alf the amount deposited , and being obliged to give a month ' s notice before they can draw any portion of their deposit from that department , which however would be equivalent to ready money as a transfer of the deposit less the month ' s interest ( th « lender receiving the interest ) could be effected .
Sinking Fund Department . The funds of this department would consist of two and a-half per cent , in landed property over and above the liability of three-and-a-half per cent payable as interest to lhe depositors . The profits from this department to be added to the redemption department , and equally applied to the purj chase or reduction of the rent of shareholders who had been depositors in the redemption department ; and to be applied in aid of the location of the poorer occupants , to be repaid by them in easy and convenient instalments . We shall now proceed to consider the LIABILITIES AND CONTINGENCIES consequent upon the deposit department , and the Company's means ol meeting them . We will presume that , £ 5 , OO 0 , or one half of the whole sum in the deposit department , was liable to be withdrawn on demand . The Company should , consequently , be prepared with that amount , to meet any contingency , and which it proposes to do in the following manner ; that is to say , by the application of the Company ' s floating capital for carrying on building and other operations , and which would be always vested in a Bank , paying two and a-half per cent , as at present , and would be constituted of funds paid upon account of shares , and not belonging to any of the three departments . The remainder of the funds in the several departments would be applicable to the purchase of land , erection of houses , and location of occupants .
Expenses . The expenses of the Banking Department are amply provided for by the payment of one shilling per year , per share , payable by the shareholders in the Land Company , and the surplus in the several departments to be applied to the benefit of the shareholders upon tbs winding up of the section to which they belong . Mode of Securing the Means of Meeting Liabilities ,
The Land Company proposes to locate its members upon two acres of land which shall have cost £ 18 . 15 s . per acre , or £ 3 / . 10 s .: to erect a house which shall cost £ 30 , and to expend in improvements , and give to the occupant , the sum of £ 15 , making a total of £ 82 . 10 s ., andfor which preliminary expenditure the Company charges £ 5 a-year ; and five per cent upon all monies above that sum expended in the purchase of the Land and the erection of a house j that is , if the land costs £ 30 an acre instead of £ 18 15 s ., and the house £ 60 instead of £ 30 , the occupants will pay £ 5 per cent , upon £ 22 . 10 s . the additional price of the Land , and £ 5 per cent , upon the £ 30 , the additional price of the house , making a total increased expenditure of £ 52 . 10 s ., thus making the rent of occupant in the latter case £ 712 s . 6 d . per annum ; the same scale being applicable to any priced land and any priced house in a descending as well as auascending ratio—that is , if land shall be purchased at a less amount than £ 18 15 s , an acre , £ 5 per cent , in rent shall be deducted from the reduced price of the land .
Suppose , then , the occupant , whose land shall have cost £ 30 an acre , and whose house shall have cost £ 60 , and who shall have received £ 15 capital , that occupant will have cost the Company £ 135 , less £ 2 10 s . the original amount paid for the share—thus making the Company's expenditure £ 132 10 s . without taking credit for any portion of the £ 15 capital expended in operations of husbandry or other improvements which increase the value of the holding . For this £ 132 10 s . the Society receives £ 7 12 s . 6 d . in the shape of rent-charge , or within a fraction of 5 | per cent , upon the outlay , without any margin for the increasing value secured upon the expenditure of a man and his family ' s labour to that amount of ground . In the case of a man holding four acres of ground , and whose house would cost £ 80 , the Society ' s profit would be reduced to about 5 j per cent , upon the outlay . This scale shows the equity of the standard upon which the rent of allotments has been established , and , perhaps , may be met with the assertion , that it is a high per centage upon the outlay , and which assertion we meet thus—Firstly , —Without co-operation the occupants could not procure a single allotment .
Secondly , —An individual carrying out the scheme would charge rent according to the retail value , amounting to about £ 15 per cent ., regulated only by the convenience and desi'e of the poor occu pant to have a field whereon to expend his own labour . Thirdly , —The individual would not convey the convenient allotment in fee , and consequently the occupant would be liable to a periodical increase of rent as a tax upon his own industry . Fourthly , —All profits consequent upon saving of rent over interest is divided equitably amongst the several shareholders . Fifthly , —A small proprietary class is the only possible means by which the fair standard ol the price of labour can be established in the artificial market . The on ! y means by which poor rates a « d workhouses can be made unnecessary ; The only means by which the national resources can hs fully developed and profitably cultivated -, The onlv means by which famine—save that which is the will of God—can be averted :
The only means that can render man indifferent to foreign production ; The only means that can give an impetus to home trade and home industry ; The only means that can secure a national militfa , who will fly to the cry of " My cottage and my country are in danger !"; The only means by which education can be encouraged , health secured , and violation of the laws of society , be considered crime ; The only means by which the arts and sciences of Britain can be made to vie with those of any other nation upon earth . The only means by which the good in each man may be developed , and his evil propensities kept in subjection by the wholesome chastisement of public censure and disapproval .
To Feargus O'Connor, Esq. Sin,—In Reply ...
TO FEARGUS O'CONNOR , ESQ . Sin , —In reply to your application , I beg to say that I am the person who showed " One who has whistled at the plough , " over the Herringsgate estate , and that not one word in his account is true , from beginning to end , except that the weaver ' s wife did say that the roads were bad ; but she meant for the season of the year . He told me he had come over three hundred miles to inspect the estate , and if I had any thing to conceal , which I had not , I would not have been
very communicative to hira , as I formed the opinion in my own mind from his curiosity , that he was a spy or some such thing . 1 never said one word to him about windows , or the timber they were made of , nor did we try to shut any of them , nor did I make a single complaint of the drunken plasterers , or of there being but little water in the well . I told him it was over one hundred and sixty feet deep , and he did not see a single apprentice , nor has one
worked on the estate . He said he was very well acquainted with you . He put everything he heard in the public-house down in a book , and I mentioned to others that I thought him a spy ; he said he would return on the following Thursday for more information , but he appears to have made what he could not get here . He said the place was most beautiful . The apprentices he saw in the schoolhouse were grubbers , waiting for the snow to give over to go to work . I am , Sir , your obedient servant , Jamhs Tavloh , Painter .
Lines Upon Heading Mr. Oommino's Letter ...
LINES UPON HEADING MR . OOMMINO'S LETTER TO THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON . ( From The Labourer . J O ! merciful father , the fiver of life , I ' m williug to dig , or to delve , or to spin ; But the lows of the rich perplex me with strife , And teach me obedience to thine is a sin , I ' m starting , O God . ' while my famishing brood Are dying around me , in squalor and tilth ; I would work , I would toil , I ivould slave for theirfood , Tliefr bed ' s the cold clay , without pallet or quilt . Hush , hush , my own babe , till your father comas in , You'll break ray poor heart with your pitiful cry , Drink , drink , my life ' s blood , till my suck comes again , But AfACHUSHLA !~ MY BABY . '—MACKEE don't you die , I would cheerfully struggle thro' life ' s rugged maze , And would beg the wide world , sweet bnby , with thee ; I would never complain the longest of days , Or though bitter tie Wast , or trie cold wind might lyj . Your brothers and sisters lie dead on the floor ,
And your tender young limbs are as cold as a stone , O Heavens I she ' s gone , my osvn baby asthore , And I ' m left in this strange wicked world alone , I ' m raging !—I ' m frantic!—I long for the grate ;• And feel strength enough now to contend with the foe ; Sure , my God won ' t refuse to accept what lie g ; . ve , Or consign me to hell , if I strike the last blow ? She hugged her cold baby , unwilling to part , And grasped a cold dagger that hung by th : wall , Sho kissed tlie dead bodies and pierced her fo . id ho . irt , As the father came back to his desolate ball . His life ' s blood recoiled when ho saw the sad sight , And ho laid himself down by the mournful pile , Cold , famine , and fever , deprived him of might , He heaved a deep sigh , aud thus ended his toil . You pvinevs and nobltB , and cold Wooded men ,
You have murdered the poor of this ill-fated nation , You must answer to God when you meet them again , For the famine is your ' s and not God ' s dispensation ,
! Co Tfraim's # Cm-Ttgponnci; K
! Co tfraim'S # cm-ttgponnci ; K
E. N.—Dewsbury And Others.—Vte Shall Not...
E . N . —Dewsbury and Others . —VTe shall not issue the forthcoming plate to any but regular subscribers . We have nothing to do with the number of persons who join . " J , Sweet begs to acknowledge the receipt of fis , 2 d , for the Petition Convention , and also a sheet of signatures from ifr . Alexander Burgin , of New Kadt ' ord , and he hopes that all who profess to be Chartists throughout the county of Nottingham , would imitate the exam pie of the above starling democrat . Parliament will shortly assemble , and no further time must be lost i a obtaining signatures to the National Petition . Pet ' , tlon Sheets aud headings , can be obtained on
epilation being made to Mr . J , Sncet , News Agent , Goose Gate , Nottingham . John Arnott begs to acknowledge the receipt of fid . from a friend , for Mrs . Junes , also Gil . from Mr . Far ren , Somers Town , for Veterans , & c . Mr Josbph Majvriott late of 28 , Bow-street Covent Garden , will oblige by forwarding his address to John Arnott , 8 , Middlesex-place , Somers Town London , Maiciiester Carpenter ' s Stbike , —Notice . —All per . sons holding subscription Lists or Tickets in aid of the la » e Carpenter's strike , are requested to send them immediately to John Bush , I , York . strcat , Lambeth , or their names will bo published as defaulters in the balance sheet .
Samuel the Saxon—No room . J . A . C , Stamps received aud thanks , but his propo . Mtion for the purchase of tno small pigs U not admissible by the rules of the company , T , B . SheltoN , Staffordshire . —His excellent letter and plan shall be forwarded to the Editor of the Miners Advocate , Isle of Man . John IfiTcmtL , Beverley , —Yea ! There is a very summary way of making those Gentlemen disgorge , and that is , by employing W . P , Roberts , Esq ., Solicitor , 8 , Princes-street , Manchester , who will v » ry speedily recover the amount , IIebdew Bridge delegate Meeting . —Tbsir communication has been handed over to the Directors . Jtmci Chapman , —Appears to forget our Warminster Libel , We are not to be made a convenience of any more , nor do we think it very creditable for anonymous writ . rs to ask us to publish what they are afraid to put
their mime to . George Williams , —No . The marriegeis contrary to la * uud the children would be illegitimate . Thomas Who . We should be very sorry to publish th © very fooiish account he gives of himself , if he had consulted us in November last we would have savtd him £ 6 , bui the fact is , the people are fond of a bit of law . We trust he has now purchased sufficient dear bought experience , to teach him that the laws of the landlord do not recognize their tenants convenience . II . I ' , Bath—Rcoeived ; fhallbe attended to ,,--- ...... John Wibstbb , Spihiby , —We shall he ; Jiojr ^ h ^ yv 1 forward his views , but he must see M \ fit ^ oU . Be wholly out of our power to comply wiffi *» £ lf » jroMt ' 1 f W . Beisiev , Accrington . —His Utter haj befca r «« li * i with pleasure . 5 J ( ' ^ 1 ' - ' •' '• • . James Nugent , Park Head . —On hU fislttto SeotlWB , Mr . O'Connor will not past his frieniJSof ^ lb-kVSiad without a call , of which they shall h « e Mp ' pajt & PW . Com * , Jcn . —Should be satisfied wBh ^ Ofttlw ' <& last week , r ' tW * - '' - ' - ' V & fAf - -
If " I
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 2, 1847, page 1, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/ns2_02011847/page/1/