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¦ FRANCE . . The Chamber op Deputies elected , on Friday , II . Sauret , as President , by . a . majority of 177 voices , H . Dupin having 120 , and M . Odillon . Barrot twent y rotes . This is a Ministerial triumph , though , had M . Dupin been elected , it would have been a Ministerialdefeat . , Ti . , - x , ,, Changes in the Ministry . —It is stated that M . Vfflemain Minister for Public Instruction , has been rtruck with insanity . Three persons are already indicated as likely to succeed him . in office—namely , Ckrant Montalivet , M . de Salvandy , and M . Rossi / peer of France ) . The latter will be the man , in all probability .
SPAIN . The Bix > ody Government . —A Madrid journal of Dec . 17 th , publishes the following list of ipdividuals who have been shot for political offences in Spain from December 1 st , 1 S 43 , to December 13 th ,
18 M : — In the barrack of San Francisco , General Sarvaez being present , three sergeants , a corpora ] , and a SOiUl & r *•• - «• * . * <••• • - ••• *** , •* *•• v By the Capt Gen . of Galicia , Feb . 21 , 18 « , a peasant 3 By General Roncali , at Villafranca , Feh . 14 th , 1814 , seven officers 7 Bjr General Roncali , at Alicante , March 11 th , 1 S 44 , officers and peasants * 34 In Galicia , March 13 th , 1814 i By General Koncali , March 15 th , 1844 3 By General Roncali , the unfortunate secretary , Garrido , March 20 th , 1 S 44 ... ... -4 By the Baron de Mecr , at Barcelona , March 23 rd , 13 M ... ... ••• «•• • • ••¦ ^ By the Baron do Meer , in Upper Catalonia , April
23 rd , 1844 . « By General Villalonga , in the Maestrazgo , shot in cold hlood , after heing made prisoners , besides thosewhofeUin the field , Jnlvl , lS 44 i 120 By General Breton , at Saragossa , suspected of having been implicated in the shooting of Estella , July 13 , 1844 S By General Breton , at Gaspe , July 16 , 1844 , three officers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 By the Baron de Meer , at Barcelona , suspected of being engaged in the Theatre conspiracy , Nov . Jl 7 XXssa *«• «*« ••• •** •• " ••• By the Baron de Meer , Capt . Sanjust , J Nov . 1841 ... 1 In Uov . 1844 , at Valencia , two officers - la Kor . 1 S 44 , at logrono , Zurbano ' s two sons , brotherinlaw , and five others ... ... ... .. ••• S InNov . 1 S 44 , atAaso , by Gen . Breton 3 'At Anso and Echo , by the same 1- ' At the same places , Dec . 13 , 1 S 41 3
Total . 217 Abolition- or the . Slave Trade . —M . Martinez de la Bcsa has presented to the Cortes a bill for the abolition of the slave trade . The principle contained in this bill has long been recognised by our Government , agreeable to pending treaties , but a law was wanted , making the trade a penal offence , which is the object of the present measure . More Abkests . —M . Caballero , Minister of the Interior under Lopez , who was living in seclusion at Ms country seat , has been arrested and imprisoned , 33 have also several respectable inhabitants of Cuenca .
SWITZERLAJSiD . The Helvetic of the 24 th inst . contains the decree of the Government of Lucerne , ordering the rc-organization of the landsturm , " to protect persons and property against the attack of foreign hordes of bri gands . " All men able to carry arms were to be incorporated with the landsturm , and to assemble in ihe chief town of their respective districts at the first sound of the tocsin , and " march to destroy the in-Taders . " Dr . Steiger , one of the prisoners taken
during the last revolt , had been permitted to visit his patients , accompanied by two gendarmes and eight soldiers . The authorities of Lucerne had seized a sum of 8 O , 90 Of . in specie , deposited by M . Jules Salzmann in the hands of a banker of that city . Colonel Guggenbuhler had died at Lcnzbourg in the arms of his wife and sister . Confined by illness during the whole summer , he left his bed to defend the cause of liberty , and the fatigues he experienced an the outbreak of the 8 th inst . had completely exhausted his strength .
Great Excitement in the Cantons . —The excitement occasioned by the late conflict in the canton of Lucerne has by no means subsided , but it seems to spread ratherthan otherwise . A popular assembly of about 3 , 000 persons , chiefly composed of citizens of Berne , Soleure , and Argau , and refugees from Lucerne , was held in the church of Faubrunnen , on the 16 th . ult . A plan for an association against the Jesuits was organised , andapetitionto the government Of Berne finally agreed upon , calling upon it to pfcw itself at the head of the cantons opposed to the esta-Wishmcnt of the Jesuits in Switzerland . Hostile resolutions were also passed in a meeting at Zofingue . The canton of Schwytz marched troops to the frontier of Lucerne * on the 16 th . Meanwhile ,
de executive council of Lucerne addressed to all the cantons a federal resolution , according to -which the formation of volunteer corps is prohibited . The irritation is displayed in the most violent language . A radical journal , printed at Argau , offered a premium of 75 Swiss francs to whomsoever shall till a Jesuit , or one of their adherents . M . TValeer , & meniber of the grand council of Argau , had tendered the resignation of his seat in that assembly : — "Baring participated in the expedition against Lucerne / ' he says , "I cannot remain any longer a member of the councils of the republic . It is with their carbines that tin * Swiss people must , in future ,
dictate their wishes ; for the federal compact no longer exists . It has been long since torn and replaced by the golden league : the league of the Borrowmeans ( Catholic party ) . Not a vestige of that compact is now entire . " The grand council refused to accept this resignation . The grand council ol Zurich assembled on the 16 th , for the purpose of appointing a burgo-masterf The election , under exist ing circumstances , was considered of the highest importance . After five ballots , M . Zehnder , the literal candidate , obtained two votes more than his competitor , M . BluntschL the Conservative candidate , and was declared duly returned .
TURKEY . CosaTAvrixorXE , Dec . 11 . —The progress of diplomatic negociations has again been impeded by the birth , on the Oth inst , of another child to the Sultan . This time it is a princess , who hears the name of Munire , t . c , Brilliant . To-day the Sultan holds , in consequence , a rikkiab , or levee , which is attended by all the high functionaries , who are , therefore , absent from their offices . By the last aecountsfrom Persia it would appear that Dr . Wolff will be called upon to make a nrotractcd stay at Tehran , until the settle
ment of the pecuniary obligations he contracted on withdrawing from the * territories of Bokhara . Reports state that during the late storms some six or eight English vessels have been lost in the Azoff and Black Sea . The weather has cleared up at last , and \ rc shall soon ascertain the real extent of the alleged losses . We have gales here every winter which generafiv moderateatthe endof three or fourdays , whereas ikeprcsent- Listed , off and on , a full fortnight . Even at present the bosom of the sea is anything but a bed of roses .
UNITED STATES . THE PRESIDENT ' S SPEECH . —ANTICIPATED WAR BEIWIEK
THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO . Liverpool , Sunday Evesinb . —The British and North American Royal mail steam-ship Caledonia , Captain Lott , arrived in Boofle-bay at four o'clock ibis afternoon . The Electoral College had unanimously . confirmed the late Presidential and Vicepresidential elections . Congress met on Monday , 2 d inst ., and the President ' s message , which we annex , was delivered on the following day . The anterior Tiviceedines of Congress are interesting . In the Senate , on the 3 rd , Mr . M'Dufie introduced a joint resolution for the annexation of Texas to the United States . The resolution provides that the first eight articles of the treaty rejected by the Senate last session , shall be the fundamentallaw of union between
ihe United States and Texas , as soon as the supreme authorities of that Republic shall agree to the same ; and , also , that whatever was stipulated to be done immediately , or at a fixed period aftcrthe ratification of the treaty compact , shall be done immediately , or in a like period after , the authorities of Texas shall have formally agreed to the resolution . It was referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations . A similar joint resolution was also reported in the House . On tie following day Mr . Benton introduced his bill of last session , providing for the " re-annexation of Texas f and this was also referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations . On the same day a resolution , introduced by Mr . Allen , calling upon the President of the United States for information concerning the state of the negotiations pending on the Oregon questions , was , after some opposition ,
adonted by a vote of twenty-four to sixteen . Another resolution , calling upon the President , if not incompatible with the public interest , for copies of all cor-Tespondence between France and the American Minister at Paris , relative to the proposed annexation , was adopted . A bill to establish a uniform line for ihe election of electors of President and Vice-presi dent was under consideration . We have received a mass of official documents connected with the question of annexation . It appears that during the past spring and autumn an active and exceedingly lengthy correspondence has been taking place between the United States , Mexico , Texas , France , and no doubt England , with respect to annexation ; the most important facts disclosed by which are , that , in pursuance of instructions received from Calhoun to " use strong language , " Mr .
Shan-? This section includes the unfortunate Bonet ^ general and president of the revolutionary body . t These murdered victims were Carlists . The remaining 97 of the 217 were Bepublicans or liberals , opposed to toe infernal tvranny of Mnnoz , Karvaez , and Co . % Capt San Just , one of the most devoted and heroic of * he Kepublican defenders of Barcelona . This hero , who , at the period of his death , was but twenty-two years of age , was collaterally descended from St . Just , the immortal legislator of the French Revolution .
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non , the United States Minister to Mexico , at once proceeded to do so , by protesting , " in the most solemn form , " against the invasion of Texas , and against the manner in which Mexico was acting towards that country in regard of General Woll ' s order of June last . According to the generality of the accounts , Mr . Shannon had suspended diplomatic relations with Mexico , but the reports want confirmation . The remainder of the correspondence referred to above shows that Texas , alarmed by the threats of an invasion by Mexico , applied to the United States Government for the fulfilment of Mr . Murphy ' s
pledge ot military assistance ami protection , which , it may be remembered , Mr . Murphy was rebuked for giving , as k-yond his authority .. This fact was adverted to in the reply to the application , which declined rendering the assistance , on the ground that the promise was to be in force only while the treaty was pending ; and as the treaty had fallen through , by the refusal of the Senate to ratify , the promise had fallen with it . Outbreaks of the most serious cha racter had certainly occurred in different states of Mexico . Nearly one-half of the Mexican army had revolted , and declared against Santa Anna , if the reports brought by these vessels are correct . The Government were put to the greatest trouble to obtain money to prosecute the war against Texas
and even-thing was at odds and ends . Congress had voted unanimously an approval of Scnor Rejon's correspondence with Mr . Shannon , and it was thought that Santa Anna , through the impending war , might be able , by obtaining command ot the puree , to keep possession of the sword of State . Meantime , General Paredes has placed himself at the head of a revolt , and has publicly denounced Santa Anna , complaining of the disorganization of the army , the abuses of the treasury department , the disorder existing in the public offices , alleged breaches of law and violations of right on the part of the Dictator , and the invasion of Texas , not on the score of right on the part of the Tcxians , but on that of the mismanagement of the proceedings against that province .
THE MESSAGE . It is impossible for us to give this document entire , occupying , as it does , nearly a page of the London daily papers . All the " points , " however , we do give , and no fact of importance is omitted in the following digest : —
SUCCESS OF THE DEMOCRATIC EXPERIMENT . — STABILITY OF REPUBLICAN INSTITUTIONS . To the Senate and Some of Representatives of the United States . We hare continued cause for expressing our gratitude to the Supreme Ruler of the Universe for the benefits and blessings which our country , under His kind providence , has enjoyed during the past year . Notwithstanding the exciting scenes through whicli we have passed , nothing lias occurred to disturb the general peace , or to derange the harmony of our political system . The great moral spectacle has been exhibited of a nation , approximating in number to 20 , 000 , 000 people , having performed the high and important function of electing their Chief Magistrate for the term of four years , without the
commission of any acts of violence , or the manifestation of a spirit of insubordination to the laws . The great and inestimable right of sufirage has been exercised by all who were invested with it , under the laws of the different states , in a spirit dictated alone by a desire , in the selection of the agent , to advance the interests of the country , and to place beyond jeopardy the institutions under which it is our happiness to live . That the deepest interest has been manifested by all our countrymen in the result of the election is not less true than highly creditable to tbem . Vast multitudes have assembled , from time to time , at various places , for the purpose of canvassing the merits and pretensions of those who were presented for their suffrages ; but no armed soldiery has been necessary to restrain within proper limits the popular zeal , or to
prevent violent outbreaks . A principle much more controlling was found in the love of order and obedience to the laws , which , with mere individual exceptions , everywhere possesses the American mind , and controuls with an inlluence far more powerful than hosts of armed men . We cannot dwell upon this picture without recognising in it that deep and devoted attachment , on the part of the people , to the institutions under which we live which proclaims their perpetuity . The great objection which has always prevailed against the election , by the people , of their chief executive officer , has been the apprehension of tumults and disorders , which might involve in ruin the entire Government . A security against this is found not only in the fact before alluded to , but in the additional fact that wc live under a confederacy embracing already
i-ivcnty-six States , no one of which has power to controul the election . The popular vote in each State is taken at the time appointed by the laws , and such vote is announced by its electoral college , without reference to the decision of the other States . The right of suffrage and the mode of conducting the election are regulated by the laws of each State ; and the election is distinctl y federative in all its ^ rominent features . Thus it is , that , unlike what might be the results under a consolidated system , riotous proceedings , should they prevail , could only affect the elections in single States , without disturbing to any dangerous extent the tranquillity of others . The great experiment—apolitical confederacy , each member of which is supreme as to all matters appertaining to its local interests , and its internal peace and happiness , while , by a voluntary compact with others , it concedes to the united power of all the
protection of its citizens in matters not domestic—lias been so far crowned with complete success . The world has witnessed its rapid growth in wealth and population ; and , under the guide and direction of a superintending Providence , the developments of the past may be regarded but as the shadowing forth of the mighty future . In the bright prospects of that future , we shaU find , as patriots and philanthropists , the highest inducements to cultivate and cherish a love of union , and to frown down every measure or effort which may be made to alienate the States , or the people of the States , in sentiment and feeling , from each other . A rigid and close adherence to the terms of our political compact , and , above aU , a sacred observance of the guarantees of the Constitution , will preserve union on a foundation which cannot be shaken ; while personal liberty is placed beyond hazard or jeopardy .
THE FUTUBE OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLIC . The guarantee of religious freedom , of the freedom of the press , of the liberty of speech , of the trial by jury , of the habeas corpus , and of the domestic institutions of each of the States—leaving the private citizen in the full exercise of the high and ennobling attributes of his nature , and to each State the privilege , which can only be judiciously exerted by itself , of consulting the means best calculated to advance its own happiness;—these are the great and important guarantees of the constitution , which the lovers of liberty must cheriih , and the advocates of union must ever cultivate . Preserving these , and avoiding all interpolations by forced construction , under the guise of an imagined expediency , upon the constitution , the influence of our political system is destined to be as actively and as beneficially felt on the distant shores of the Pacific as it is now on those of the Atlantic Ocean . The only formidable impediments in the way of its
successful expansion ( time and space ) are so far in the progress of modification by the improvements of the age as to render no longer speculative the ability of representatives from that remote region to come up to the capital , so that their constituents shall participate in all the benefits of Federal legislation . Thus it is that , in the progress of time , the inestimable principles of civil liberty will be enjoyed by millions yet unborn , and the great benefits of our system ofgovernientbe extended to now distant and uninhabited regions . In view of the vast wUderness yet to be reclaimed , we may well invite the lover of freedom , of every land , to take up his abode among us , and assist in the great work of advancing the standard of civilisation , and giving a wider spread to the arts and refinements of cultivated life . Our prayers should evermore be offered up to the Father of the Universe for His wisdom to direct us in the path of our duty , so as to enable us to consummate these high
purposes . OBJECTIONS TO BEP 0 BLIOANIEH ANSWERED . One of the strongest objections that have been urged against confederacies , by writers on government , is the liability of the members to be tampered with by foreign Governments , or the people of foreign states , either in thenlocal affairs , or in such as affected the peace of others , or endangered the safety of the whole confederacy . We cannot hope to be entirely exempt from such attempts on our peace and safety . The United States are becoming too important in population and resources not to attract the observation of other nations . It therefore may , in the progress of time , occur that opinions entirely abstract in the states in which they may prevail , and in no degree
affecting their domestic institutions , may bo artfully , but secretly , encouraged with a view to undermine the Union . Such opinions may become the foundation of political parties , until at last the conflict of opinion , producing an alienation of friendly feeling among the people of the different states , may involve in one general destruction the happy institutions under which we liva . It should ever be borne in mind that what is true in regard to individuals is equally so in regard to states . An interference of one in the affairs of another is the fruitful source of family dissensions and neighbourhood disputes ; and the same cause affects the peace , happiness , and prosperity of states . It may be most devoutly hoped that the good sense of the American people will ever be ready to repel all such attempts , should they ever be made .
PEACE . There has been no material change in our foreign relations since my last annual message to Congress . With all the pbwers of Europe we continue on the most friendly eras . Indeed , it affords me much satisfaction to state ,
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that at no former period has the peace , of that enlightened and important quarter of the globe ever been , apparently , more , firmly established . The conviction that , peace is the true policy of nations would seem to be growing and becoming deeper among the enlightened everywhere ; and there is no people who have a stronger interest in cherishing the sentiment , and adopting the means of preserving and giving it permanence , than those of the Dnited States .
THE OBEGOK . Siaeo the closing of your last session , a negociation has been formaUy entered upon between the Secretary of State and her Britannic Majesty ' s Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary , residing at Washington , relative to the rights of their respective nations in and over the Oregon territory . That negociation is still pending . The President proceeds to recommend the establishment of military posts at suitable points , to protect American emi grants proceeding to the disputed territory . He adds—It will afford the greatest pleasure to witness a happy and favourable termination to the existing negociations upon terms compatible with the public honour ; and the best efforts of the Government will continue to be directed to this end .
CLAIMS ON THE BEITISH OOVEBNMENT . It would have given me the highest gratification in this my last annual communication to Congress to have been able to announce to you the complete and entire settlement and adjustment of other matters in difference between the United States and the . Government of her Britannic Majesty , which were adverted to in a previous message . It is so obviously the interest of both countries , in respect to the large and valuable commerce which exists between them , that all causes of complaint , however inconsiderable , should be with the greatest promptitude removed , that it
must be regarded as cause of regret that any unnecessary delays should be permitted to intervene . It is true that , in a pecuniary point of view , the matters alluded to are altogether insignificant in amount when compared with the ample resources of that great nation ; but they , nevertheless , more particularly that limited class which arise under seizures and detentions of American ships on the coast of Africa , upon the mistaken supposition , indulged in at the time the wrong was committed , of their being engaged in the slave trade , deeply affect the sensibilities of this Government and people .
FOREIGN TREATIES . The President then goes on to state the result of negociations with other nations : — I informed the two houses of Congress , in my message of December last , that instructions had been given to Mr . Wheaton , our Minister at Berlin , to negociate a treaty with the Germanic States , composing the Zollverein , if It could be done—stipulating , as far as it was practicable to accomplish it , for a reduction of the heavy and Onerous duties levied on our tobacco and other leading articles of agricultural ' production ; and yielding in return , on our
part , a reduction of duties on such articles , the production of their industry , as should not come into competition , or but a limited one , with articles , the product of our manufacturing industry . The President adds that , owing to untoward circumstances , this treaty had failed , but the United States Minister at Berlin had received instructions to re-open the negociation , which , it was hoped , would result in ultimate success . Belgium had assimilated her flag to that of the United States , for purposes of direct trade . Negociations were pending with other states .
MEXICO AND TEXAS . The President proceeds to a consideration of the unsatisfactory state of affairs existing between Mexico and Texas . He says—Mexico has threatened to renew the war , and has either made , or purposes to make , formidable preparations for invading Texas . She has issued decrees and proclamations preparatory to the commencement of hostilities , full of threats revolting to humanity ; and which , if carried into effect , would arouse the attention of all Christendom . This new demonstration of feeling , there is too much reason to believe , has been produced in consequence of the negociation of the late treaty of annexation with Texas .
After stating that a strong representation was made from the United States to Mexico , he proceeds to argue against the practice and policy of the proceedings of the Mexicans , to show that the Texians had only done what was natural and inevitable , for which the Mexicans were rasldy bent on provoking a contest , the consequences of which must be fearful . He then comes to the annexation treaty : — Upon the ratification of the treaty , the executive was prepared to treat with her on the most liberal basis . Hence the boundaries of Texas were left undefined by the treaty . The executive proposed to settle these upon terms that all the world should have pronounced just and reasonable . No negociation upon that point could have been undertaken between the United States of Mexico , in advance of the ratification
of the treaty . Mexico threatened war with the states if the treaty were ratified ; but b y that threat they were not to be influenced , nor was it required . The President adds , his opinion was , that if the treaty had been ratified by the senate , it would have been followed by a prompt settlement , to the entire satisfaction of Mexico , of every matter in diflerenee between the two countries . The treaty was not ratified ; but , said he , a controlling majority of the people , and a large majority of the states , have declared in favour of immediate annexation . Instnictions have thus come np to both branches of congress from their respective constituents in terms , ' the most emphatic . It is the will of both the' people and the states , that
Texas shall be annexed to the Union promptly and immediately . It may be hoped , in carrying into execution the public will , thus declared , all collateral issues may be avoided . The Texians , he proceeded , were still desirous of throwing themselves under the protection of the states , and no complaint could be apprehended from any other quarter . It was a question for their decision whether she should be received or not , the forms of annexation having been already resolved upon between the two governments . The decree of Mexico in relation to retail trade , and the order for the expulsion of foreigners , were in violation of the treaty of amity ; and these questions remained unadjusted .
THE FINANCES . The President next congratulates the nation on the improved condition of the treasury : — The paralysis which had fallen on trade and commerce , and which subjected the Government to the necessity of resorting to loans , and the issue of treasury notes to a large amount , has passed away ; and , after the payment of upwards of 7 , 000 , 000 dollars on account of the interest , and in redemption of more than 5 , 000 , 000 dollars of the public debt , which falls due on the 1 st of January next , and setting apart upward of 2 , 000 , 000 dollars for the payment of outstanding treasury notes , and meeting an instalment of the debts of the corporate cities of the district of Columbia , an estimated surplus of upwards of 7 , 000 , 000 dollars , over and above the existing appropriations , will remain in the treasury at the close of the fiscal year .
BANKINO AND TAXATION . It must also be a matter of unmingled gratification that , under the existing financial system—resting upon the act of 1789 , and the resolution of 1816—the currency of the country has attained a state of perfect soundness ; and the rates of exchange between different parts of the Union , which , in 1841 , denoted , by their enormous amount , the great depreciation , and in fact worthlcssness of the currency in most of the states , are now reduced to little more than the mere expense of transporting specie from place to place , and the risk incident to the operation . In a new country like that of the United States—where so many inducements are held out for speculation—the dcpositorcs of the surplus revenue , consisting of banks of any description , when it reaches any considerableamount , requires the closest vigilance on the part of the
Government . All banking institutions , under whatever denomination they may pass , are governed by an almost exclusive regard to the interest of the stockholders . That interest consists in the augmentation of profits in the form of dividends , and a large surplus revenue intrusted to their custody is but too apt to lead to excessive loans and to extravagantly large issues of paper . As a necessary consequence , prices are nominally increased , and the speculative mania everywhere seizes upon the public mind . A fictitious state of prosperity for a season exists , and , in the language of the day , money becomes plenty . Contracts are entered into by individuals , resting upon this unsubstantial state of tilings , but the delusion soon passes away , and the country is overrun with an indebtedness so weighty as to overwhelm many , and to visit every department of industry with great and ruinous embarrassment . The greatest vigilance becomes
necessary on the part of Government to guard against this state of things . The depositaries must be given distinctly to understand that the favours of the Government will be altogether withdrawn , or substantiaUy diminished , if its revenues shall be regarded as additions to their banking capital , or as the foundation of an enlarged circulation . The Government , through its revenue , has at all times an important part to perform in connexion with the currency ; and it greatly depends upon its vigilance and care whether the country be involved in embarrassments shnilar to those which it has had recently to encounter , ' or , aided by the action of the treasury , shall be preserved in a sound andhealthy condition . The dangers to be guarded against are greatly augmented by too large a surplus of revenue . When that surplus greatly exceeds in amount what shall be required by a wise and prudent forecast to meet unforeseen contingencies , the logislaure itself may come to be seized with a disposition to
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indulge in extravagant appropriations to objects , many of which may , and mostprobably would be , found to conflict with the constitution . , A fancied expediency is elevated above constitutional authority ; anda reckless and wasteful extravagance but too certainly follows . The important power of taxation , which , when exercised in its most restricted form , is a burden on'liibour and production , is resorted to , under various pretexts , for purposes having no affinity to the motives which dictated its grant , and the extravagance of Governments stimulates individual extravagance , until the spirit of a wild and ill-regulated speculation involves one anil all in its unfortunate results . In view of such fatal consequences , it may be laid down as an axiom , founded on moral and political truth , that no greater taxes should be imposed than are necessary for an
economical administration of the government ; and that whatever exists beyond should be reduced or modified . This doctrine does in no way conflict with the exercise of a sound discrimination i n the selection of the articles to be taxed , which a due regard to the public weal ivould at all times suggest to the legislative mind . It leaves the range of selection undefined ; and such selection should always bo made with an eye to the great interests of the country . Composed as is the Union of separate and independent states , a patriotic Legislature will not fail , in consulting the interests of the parts , to adopt such course as will be best calculated to advance the harmony of the whole ; and thus insure that permanency of the policy of the Government without which all efforts to advance
the public-prosperity are vain and fruitless . This great and vitally important task rests with Congress , and the Executive can do no more than recommend the general principles which should govern in its execution . The President then proceeds to observe on thereports of theSecretariesofWar , the Navy , Ac ; which , however , do not contain any points of general interest . He strongly advises the establishment of lines of steam-ships to ply regularly between the United ; States and foreign ports ; and concludes by congratulating the houses of Congress upon the happy auspices under which they had assembled , and the improved prospects of trade , manufactures , and revenue . The following is the concluding paragraph of the Message : —
Under these circumstances and with these anticipations , I shall most gladly leave to others more able than myself the noble and pleasing task of sustaining the public prosperity . I shaU carry with me into retirement the gratifying recollection that , as my sole object throug hout has been to advance the public good , I may not entirely have failed in accomplishing it ; and this gratification is heightened in no small degree by the fait that when , under a deep and abiding sense of duty , I have found myself constrained to resort to the qualified veto , it has neither been followed by disapproval on the part of the people nor weakened in any degree their attachment to that great conservative feature of our Government . ^ John Ttleb . Washington , December , 1814 .
Conviction of a Murderer . —New York , Dec . 4 . —The trial of William Miller , which has been in progress before the Circuit Court at Troy for some days past , on a charge of murdering George West , more than two years ago , in the town of Sandkke , Rensslaer county , was terminated on Tuesday , Dec . 3 rd . The evidence , though wholly circumstantial , seems to have been conclusive ; and the jury , after being out afew hours , brought in a verdict of Guilty . On Wednesday morning Judge Parker pronounced sentence of death upon the prisoner , assuring him there was no hope of pardon . The 28 th of January is the day fixed for Miller ' s execution .
CANADA . The Canadian Parliament met , as appointed , on the 28 th ult . ; the House of Assembly chose as Sneaker , Sir Allan M'Nab , who was opposed for that office by Augustin M . Morin . We give the following extraet from the Governor-General ' s speech : — Many subjects in which the welfare of the province is deeply involved will he entitled to your earnest consideration . None can be more important than the improvement of the education of the people , which is one of the most urgent duties of the State ; and I anxiously hope ' , that in addition to such other amendments of existing laws on this momentous question as may be required in either section of the province , your wisdom may be able to devise some arrangement respecting the University of King ' s College , that may receive the sanction of the Crown , and give general satisfaction in the colony . The municipal institutions of the province , theprovisions for which have ,
in Lower Canada , proved , to a great extent , nugatory , will , no doubt , engage your attention , as well as the state of the prisons and the want of lunatic asylums . The melioration of the means of communication throughout the province , on which its prosperity mainly depends , for production is unavailing if means do not exist of reaching a market ; also deserves consideration . The eastern townships of lower Canada are peculiarly destitute in this particular ; and the town of Kingston , in Upper Canada , which has unavoidably suffered much by the removal of the seat of Government , is devoid of a road through the inland territory , towards the Ottawa , which is essential for the prosperity- of that neighbourhood . Notwithstanding the unavoidable expense attendant on the removal of the seat of Government from Kingston to Montreal , and other claims to be submitted for your consideration , a considerable surplus revenue will remain , affording the means of making some provision towards the liquidation of the public debt .
INDIA AND CHINA . By extraordinary express , despatches have beer received from China of the 31 st of October , and from Calcutta to the 16 th November inclusive . There is no news from China . The Intelligence from India is not very important . The Kolaporc insurrection has been put down , but it proved of a more serious nature than was anticipated . The murder of Captain Alcock , of the 46 th N . I ., on his way to Neemuch , has created a great sensation . ( From the Bengal HurJtaru , November 16 , 1844 J
The past month has not been prolific in events of a very stirring character . The insurrection in the Kolapore country , which proved to bo of a more serious character than we supposed when last wc wrote , has been put down , alia the disturbed districts seem to be tolerably quiet . In this Presidency nothing of a very important character has occurred . The Governor-General is still at the Presidency , and rumour is silent on the subject of any intended move from the seat of Government . He appears to be quietly perfecting himself in the business of his administration ; and such indications as have yet been manifested seem to point to a tranquil and pacific government , pregnant with good to the people of the soil . There is no talk of a war in the Punjab ,
or any other immediate employment of our troops . Even the civil war , which many anticipated , in that long-agitated country , seems to be no longer imminent . There was a deal of vapouring between the two chiefs , Ileera and Golab Singh , but , as we surmised , they were not in earnest , and nothing came of all their menaces . They have now come to a pacific understanding , and matters will speedily be settled , though , probably , only to be disturbed again . In the meantime , Sawun Mull , the Governor of Moultan , one of the most able and energetic , and at the same time the most moderate and respectable of the Seikh chiefs , has been gathered to his fathers . He was shot by amalefactor , whilstslttlng on the judgment seat , and after lingering for a few days
died of his wound . He has been succeeded by lus son , Mool Raj . The intelligence from Afghanistan is , as usual , not very clear and reliable ; but it would seem that the dangers which Dost Mahomed apprehended from the designs of tho Usbegs and Tartars have blown over ; that the successes of the Hindoo Ki osh have rolled back the tide of invasion , and thfit the intrigues of Bokhara have been defeated . From the latter place Dr . Wolff has emerged in safety—but of this , in all probability , intelligence will have been received in England before the arrival of the present despatch . Within tho Presidency two domestic events have occasioned some interest of a painful character . One of these is the suicide of the Rajah of Berhampote , who having committed , through his instruments , some acts of cruelty on the person of a dependent , which occasioned , in the sequel , the poor man ' s death ,
came down to Calcutta , where intelligence of the tragic issue reached him , coupled with the information that a warrant was out for his arrest . Dreading the indignity of falling into the hands of the myrmidons of the police , the wretched man blew out his brains . He had previously made a wiD , leaving the bulk of his large property to be devoted to the establishment and support of a university . The coroner ' s jury brought in a verdict of Felo de se . The other event is the murder , by Dacoits , of Captain Alcock , of the Quartermaster-General' s department , who was intercepted oh a journey , by a band of notorious dacoits , of whom the police were in pursuit , and being taken for Mr . Unwin , the magistrate , was dragged from his palanquin , and cut to pieces . Several of the wretches concerned in this murderous deed have been apprehended . Such events are of rare occurrence , and the present one has , therefore , created a very great sensation .
ARRIVAL OF THE OVERLAND MAIL . London , Friday Morning , January 3 . —We have received the Overland Mail from Bombay , and are enabled to publish the following intelligence . The dates are , Bombay , Dec . 2 nd ; Calcutta , Nor . 23 rd ; China , Oct . 12 th . Bombay , Dec 1 . —The intelligence of this month is , in the main , unimportant ; the chief interest attaches to tho affairs of Southern Mahratta country , which still continues much disturbed . The second of the two principal forts , for some time besieged , has
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fallen to our hands by surrender , but the country continues full of troops . Colonel Ovans , the newlyappointed resident , has fallen into the enemy ' s hands ; and is . kept by them a prisoner . V An insurrection has broken out ' inthe Sawunt Warree country ; and in the two together an army of nearly 8000 men is occupied in quelling disturbance . Everything continues tranquil in Scinde . Tho health of the troops in the lower countiy is good . At Shikarpore and Sukkur sickness prevails to a very alarming extent . Her . Majesty ' s 78 th Regiment , with the exception of about 100 men , is wholly in hospital ; out ot about 1000 cavalry and native infantry at Shikarpore , between 70 o \ and 800 are . in hospital . The Punjaub chiefs have become reconciled to each other , and comparative tranquillity reigns in the
country of the Five Rivera . There seem to be some slight discontents in Gwalior , but not such . is to occasion alarm . Peace and prosperity prevail throughout India at large . Sir Henry Hardinge has continued since his arrival constantly at Calcutta , and seems to have been gaining golden opinions of all sorts of people . His administration promises to be a plain , practical , and peaceful one . The state of education amongst the natives was the first thing to receive his attention , and seems to occupy a most prominent place in his mind . The encouragement of science , and the promotion of domestic improvement—the improvement of
agriculture—the opening of fresh roads , and the construction of bridges , have all received more or less attention ., The most peace-loving suffer from no fears .- ; the most war-loving entertain no hopes of conquest or invasion under the present rule . A twelvemonth of such management will get rid of the excess of expenditure over income , latel y amounting to about a million and a half sterling . News from China extends to the . 10 th of October , but it is entirely commercial , and not important . So extensive has adulteration been practised at Bombay , that Malwa opium is quoted at 50 dols . to 750 dols ., and is getting rapidly out of repute , so that the swindlers have their reward in a ruined market .
TURKEY . The Difference between Great Britain and the Porte . —The ConstituUonnel publishes a letter from Constantinople of the 18 th ult ., confirming the statement which announced that the T rebizond affair had been at hist settled . The Pasha of that city had been blamed by the Divan , and ordered to wait on the British Consul , and apologise for his conduct towards the dragoman . As respects the latter , the Porte having succeeded in establishing that he was an Ottoman subject , the Governor was Only "invited to treat him in future with more moderation . "
AUSTRALIA . We have advices from Sydney to the 4 th of September . The colonies were slowly—very slowly reviving . Great distress prevailed amon « j the operative classes , and a public meeting had been held to memorialise the Government to take their case into consideration .
SOUTH AUSTRALIA .. To our readers generally , but especially to those who have relations or friends in South Australia , the following extraet from a late number of the Adelaide Observe ); will , we think , prove acceptable . In our last number we announced the return of his excellency the governor from his expedition to the southeastern portion of the colony . Since then the remainder of the Government party have reached the oity , and we are happy to find that their reports of the country beyond Rivoli Bay arc most satisfactory , there being now no doubt as to the existence of a great extent of good land in that recently-examined portion of the province . His excellency appears to have made a successful journey , and many places hitherto scarcel y known will now be laid down as
additional to our maps and charts . We understand their route lay along the overland track to Port Philip , as far as Lake Hawden , after which quite a new country was traversed , and the drays reached Rivoli Bay in little more than a fortni ght after crossing the Murray . The desert and inhospitable region that stretches inland from the sand-hills of the Coorong begins to improve gradually as the Coorong ceases , anda chain of salt lagoons and swamps stretches along parallel to the coast . A grassy she-oakcountry , with banksia flats , affording good feed , occurs inland from Lacepede and Guichen Bays . The appearance of Rivoli Bay is described as pleasing , and likely to afford a good anchorage for small vessels . Two whalers from Van Dieman ' s Land had already piloted themselves into the bay , and were awaiting the chance of success there , intenclinc
to remain during the season . A reef extends across the mouth of the bay , and a rocky island shelters it from the N . W . . The governor and party visited the island and reefs , and found the former covered with innumerable penguins , whilst the latter afforded the rather formidable sport of a sea lion hunt . One ot these huge animals , eight feet in length , was shot through the head by his Excellency , and afterwards knocked down by clubs and quickly despatched . The skin , we understand , is intended as an addition to the national collection in the British Museum , together with a variety of rare birds , & c , which are the result of his Excellency ' s indefatigable zeal in adding new discoveries to the fields of science . From Rivoli Bay , which was made a temporary depot for the drays and men , the party . attended by the police , proceeded on horseback to Mount Schank and Mount Gambier , a distance of eighty miles . Beyond , the Bluff Kaye , south of Mount Muirlicad , and thence to the Mount
Gambier country , an extensive and beautiful tract of land was found , distinguished both by its richness of soil , and the abundance of excellent grass it affords . At the foot of those ranges water occurs in tea-tree swamps , and in one instance a clear running stream gushes up from beneath the limestone rock . But the finest land was yet to come . The rich volcanic region about the extinct craters of Mounts Gambier and Schank afforded an agreeable surprise to the travellers , who describe it as superior to the best of the Mount Barker land , and verdant to excess . The timber is principally huge black wood and mahogany gum . Water is contained in hollows or old craters of vast depth , andis remarkably pure and limpid . Kangaroo of the largest species were seen in flocks of eight or ten together . The climate of Mount Gambier is considerably cooler than that of any other portion of the colony , and we doubt not but that shortly it will become a nourishing and well-settled district .
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.~~ London. Tuiwagain-Lahe, Dec. 31.—At ...
LONDON . Tuiwagain-Lahe , Dec . 31 . —At the usual weekly meeting of tho members of this locality , ' Mr . William Dear in the chair , the delegate from the District Council gave in his report ; and a subscription was opened for the benefit of that sterling democrat , Mr . Preston . The chairman then left the chair .
BURT . Tea Party . —The Chartists of this town held a Tea Party and Ball , in the Garden-street Lecture Room , on Monday evening . The room was tastefully decorated with flags , banners , portraits , and evergreens , which gave the place a pleasinging appearance . About 200 working men and their wives sat down to tea , and after doing ample justice to thegood things set before them the tables were cleared , when Mr . Nuttall was unanimously called to the chair . The meeting was addressed by W . P . Roberts , Esq ., and Messrs . W . Boll , of Heywood , and Wm . Discar , of Manchester . The dancing then commenced , and was kept up with great spirit until a late hour , when the company broke up , highly delighted with the evening ' s entertainment .
BIRMINGHAM . Two Lectures were delivered in the Democratic Chapel , Thorp-street , on Sunday and Monday , December 29 th and 30 th , by Mr . M' Grath . For eloquence and clearness of reasoning , these lectures have not been excelled in Birmingham . We hope soon to be favoured with another visit from Mr . M'Grath , which wc have no doubt will do much good .
DEWSBURY . The District Delegate Meetino was held on Sunday last , when the following Delegates were present : —Edward Cramshaw , George Roberts , William Chapman , Ebcnczer Clegg , Ralph Frost , Isaac Wood , Francis Brook , John Waring , Frederick William Sucksmith , who was called to the chair ; the following resolutions were passed : ¦—ThatF . W . Sucksmith be secretary for the Dewsbury district . —That the secretary be requested to correspond with the follomnglocalities , viz ., Heckmandwikc , Batley , Dawgreen , Earisheaton , and Stanley , requesting them to aid in carrying out the objects of tho Association . — That this meeting be adjourned to the 19 th of January , 1845 , to be holden at the Chartist-room , Dewsbury , at half-past one o ' clock in the afternoon . —That the secretary be instructed to insert in the Northern Star , that the notice calling a West Riding delegate meeting was a mistake . It ought to have been " a Dewsbury district meeting . "
MANCHESTER . Mr . Doyle . —The Chartists of this town held their usual weekly meeting on Sunday evening last , in the Carpenters' -hall , Garret-road , when that sterling advocate of democracy , Mr . C . Doyle , of the Executive , gave an account of his labours in the West or England and Wales . The audience was large and respectable , and gave Mr . Doyle their unanimous thanks for his indefatigable exertions in the peoples cause . Mr . D . acknowledged the compliment , and the meeting separated .
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SHEFFIELD . Fro Tree Lane . —On Sunday evening , Mr . Richard Otlcy lectured in the above room , and gave general satisfaction . The speech of Mike Walsh at the Boston Convention was read from the Star , and elicited the most unbounded applause . . Public Discussion on Free Trade—On Monday evening a public "' discussion on Free Trade' ^ took place in the above room between Mr . Thomas Cliffo of Halifax , and Mr . John West . Long before the hour of meeting the large room was filled in every part . At half-past seven o ' clock , on the motion of Mr . West , seconded , by Mr . Cliffo , Mr . Chapman , an elector for both borough and count y , was called to the chair . The chairman opened the business by observing that he had never been in
that room before , but as he had been called upon to preside , he hoped the meeting would assist him in preserving order , and securing for each speaker a candid hearing . The question was one ot vital interest to the working classes , and it was by meetings of that kind that truth could be best arrived at , and correct opinions formed upon any subject . He woidd read the conditions of tho debate , to which he hoped each gentleman would rigidly confine himself , and so afford a useful example to those who called themselves the "Collective Wisdom of the Nation , " but . who were very often destitute of common sense . He then read the conditions of the debate , which were , that Mr . Cliffc should open with half an hour , and Mr . West reply the same length of time , and then alternate quarters till the close . Both gentlemen maintained
their respective positions with great cleverness and much good tempei ' , mainly agreeing as to the facts , but differing in the conclusions to be drawn from those facts . The audience listened with the most intense interest , and at the conclusion expressed themselves highly gratified and instructed . Many of the middle classes * and several of the Trades Delegates , were present , thus evincing the deep interest the members of that powerful body are now taking in all questions affecting the interest of Labour . As the debate was more for eliciting truth than for a victory over the representatives of rival partisans , no resolution was submitted , and after a vote of thanks to the chairman the meeting separated : many anxiously recommending that the debate should bo resumed on some other
NORTH LANCASHIRE . Delegate Meetino . —The North Lancashire dele- ; gate meeting took place at Accrington , on Wednesday , December 25 th . Delegates were present from Clitlicroc , Sabdcn , Burnley , Marsden , Haslingden , and Bacup ; Colnc was represented by letter . Mr . John . Holt was called to the chair . Mi * . Barker moved that Mr . M'Grath ' s travelling , expenses be paid by the whole district . Carried unanimously . The following motions were agreed *>¦» - " That the question of paying any future district lecturer , by an equal levy upon the members in all localities throughout the district , be brought forward at the next delegate meeting , and that each delegate bring the subject before his constituency . " " That the next delegate meeting be held at Bradshaw's , Temperance Hotel , Burnley , on Sunday , January 10 th , 1845 . " " That the district secretary be empowered to make
application for Mr . Doyle's services for one month longer , and if not obtained , to solicit for Mr . Clark . " An address to- the Chartists of North Lancashire was then drawn up , and adopted unanimously , after which the delegates separated . Hagoate . —On Sunday , the 29 th . inst ., the members of the Ilaggate Association held their usual weekly meeting , when Mr . Todd ,, a young man from Marsden , was called to the chair , who opened the business of the meeting in a short but eloquent address , shewing very forcibly the necessity for a proper and a . well-directed union among the working classes , to accomplish their just rights . The meeting was addressed by others to the same effect : after which it was unanimously agreed , upon , that discussion classes be formed forthwith . This body of Chartists is likely to do well .
Burnley . —A number of Chartists held a meeting on Monday , the 30 th inst ., for the purpose of forming a locality of the National Chartist Association No . 2 . Seven mem bers were nom inated to serve on the General Council , and twenty-four cards were ordered to be procured from Mr . Wheeler . Not knowing Mr . W . 's address , it is requested that he -will forward the cards through Mr ; Heywood ' s parcels from London to Manchester , which Mr . H . will forward in Mr . Richard ' s weekly parcel to Burnley ; Mr . Rickard will order Mr . Hey wood to cause the payment for the same to Mr . Wheeler . All letters to be directed to John Mortimer Lavcry , secretary , care of Mr . Richards , bookseller .
CORNWALL . Soiree at Penzance . —Tho Soiree announced in tho Narthem Star on tho 21 st , took place on Monday evening in O'Brien ' s Long-room—125 sat down to tea ; immediately after whicli the National Chartist Anthem was performed in good style by a select choir . Mr . _ William- Salmon , of Truro , was called on to preside . Mr . James Skewes , jun ., of Camborne , responded to " the People ' s Charter , " and gave such a lucid explanation of the six points thereof , as afforded the highest satisfaction to the assembly . " Rally round him again , and again ! " was sung by the entire meeting . " The people" were spoken to by Mr . H . J . Longmaid , of Truro . Mr . William Davy , a miner ,
who , alter a hard da / s toil , walked eight miles to meet the friends of Democracy , replied to the sentiment , " Oppression , may it soon cease . " His speech was most eloquent . " The downfall of Aristocracy , " was responded to by Mr . W . J . Griscott , of Penzance . '' The Democratic press , " was responded toby Mr , Skewes . The proceedings ended with three cheers for 'Feargus O'Connor , three for the Northern Star , and three for the People ' s Charter . Wc had some excellent son"s and recitations in the course of tho evening ; and the dancing was kept up with great spirit to a late hour . Ten shillings , the proceeds of tho soiree , I despatch with this letter for the Executive . —Corres ) xmdent .
LEEDS . Chartist Lectures , —Two lectures were delivered in the Chartist-hall , Briggate , Leeds , on Sunday last , by Mr . Wm . Dixon , of Manchester . The subject of the afternoon ' s discourse was—The Rise and Progress of Chartism . In the evening the meeting was a bumper , the spacious hall being crowded . Mr . Harris , a sterling democrat , was called to the chair . Mr . Dixon took for his subject—Trades' Unions aa they are at present constituted , and how they ought to be constituted , in order to make them a Protection to the Working Man . Mr . D . addressed the meeting for upwards of an hour upon this important subject , and concluded with an earnest appeal to those present never to relax in their exertions for making the People ' s Charter the law . of the land . After the lecture , a collection was made for Mi * . Muns , one of the Spanish refugees , which amounted to 12 s ., for which he returns the Chartists of Leeds his heartfelt thanks .
Manchester Carpenters' Strike.—The Conte...
Manchester Carpenters' Strike . —The contest between the Carpenters and Joiners of this town , and Messrs . Pauling , Henfrey , and Co ., still continues , neither party showing a disposition to relinquish the contest ; notwithstanding the paragraphs which have appeared in sonic of the newspapers , stating that the strike was at an end ; that Messrs . Pauling , Henfrey , and Co ., had conceded to the men all they wanted , and agreed to the Manchester rides , and that the men had returned to their work . These reports arc calculated to do much harm , inasmuch as parties at a distance , who have been in the habit of sending their aid , believing ' these statements to be true , have naturally ceased sending the supplies . To
prevent these evil consequences the following statement of facts may be necessary;—Thirteen unprincipled fellows , who turned out from 'Messrs . Pauling and Go's ., have , in a dastardly manner , gone to work for them again ; and in order to make themselves iippcar as white as possible , have stated that the firm had agreed to work by the Manchester rules . The fact is , one honest man went with thorn , and was present at the interview , and afterwards reported it to the body , to the effect that they had stated that the men who had gone in might work by the Manchester rules , but that the men previously at work
might continue to work by the firm ' s rides . We leave the reader to judge if such an agreement could bo accepted by honourable men . An aggregate meeting of the Trades has been held , at which it was resolved , " That the strike did not now rest in the hands of the Joiners and Carpenters , but in the hands of the Building Trades of Manchester ; and they would not work for that firm until they agreed to the Manchester rules , and discharged the knobsticks . " Parties who have been misled by the press , will now see that the strike stands as it did , and that there is no truth in the statement that it has been brought to a close .
Bradford Shoemakers . —On Wednesday evening a special meeting of the Shoemakers' Society was hold in tho Boy and Barrel Inn , Westgate , to hear the report of Mr . Smyth , who had visited the Committee of Management in London . The decision of the Executive with respect to the strike was stated by Mr . Smyth ; when the meeting resolved " That the conduet'of the Executive was partial and unjust , and that that body was not worthy of the confidence of the trade . Secondly , that the Bradford Strike Committee deserved the thanks of this meeting for the able manner in which they had conducted the strike . "
Rochdale Miners . —A Public Dinner was given to that sterling champion of Labour ' s rights , W . P . Roberta , Esq ., by the Coal Miners of the Rochdale district , on New Year ' s Day . The party met at the Amen Corner Inn , the large room of which was filled with a respectable company of Miners . Tho dinner was one of tiic old substantial John Bull description , and did much credit to the host and hostess . After the cloth was removed , the usual toasts were f iven , and responded to by W , P . Roberts , Esq ., lr . W . Grocott , and several of the agents of the Miners' Association .
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 4, 1845, page 1, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/ns2_04011845/page/1/