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habits were so unlikel to lead him to su...
"WnO MADE THE POOR? "Who made the poor ?...
London Labour and the London Poor. B y H...
TaWs Edinburgh Magazine. January, 1851. ...
WORKS RECEIVED. The Girlhood of Shakespe...
DItURY-LAXE THEATRE. After three years' ...
STANDARD THEATHE. This elegant house, wh...
ASTLEY'S. The performances during the ho...
QUEEN'S THEATRE. An interesting drama in...
Riches are hut ciphers-it is the mind th...
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Habits Were So Unlikel To Lead Him To Su...
January 4 , 1851 . m „ „ __ THE NORTHERN STAR , - \* . 3
iiOfirU $ oeirg
"Wno Made The Poor? "Who Made The Poor ?...
"WnO MADE THE POOR ? "Who made the poor ? > ' oi He whose throne is heaven , God : by whom earth was given , Jail that therein is , seed , herb , and tree ; ,. ] fowl that cleave the air , and fish that swim the « ea ; A beast that range the field to man for food ; Sot God the great and good , Whose bounty ' s scattered o er The earth like grain on garner'd floorj le did not maSh the poor . '
But God made man . "Who bade the planets roll , \ nd formed the woiid ' rous plan That srirds the eternal pole Of Heaven , with world ' s illuming space ; jlc who to each assigned a place , Gave man a reasoning soul , d bade hi ™ stan < ' on iH ' terrestrial ball s-Mune in bis o * form—erect , and lord of all . Some tr aitors to their kind , Whose tongues almost persuade That ni 2 ht were day—have bent their mind Go ! cave them , to degrade Their equal : lower than the brute , - \ nd threaten those who dare dispute Their power , with dungeon gloom ; Yet " like a r " '' ' fr " om tne t <» mb , The ' voice of Nature rises still ,
And while one good man lingers here YoUsit batb . it ever will ; \ ndthcy who dread it snail revere The sound "fits eternal truth , - \ s iu th * tarliuess of youth Ere Avarice lured the soul astray , Or niad Ambition led the way Through paths , whose ruggedness i n To domes that never sheltered Peace . Yes , yes , it shall be so ; The tyrant and the slave In mutual hate , shall cease to go
On grappling to the grave . Mii'd . " wakening o ' er the world , Uplifts the mental dart tfiiich , sudden as the lightning hurled , Strikes to the trenibling ' hcart Of pale oppression—deeper far Tc anall the brands and bolts of war . Let Reason give the word . Be that by millions spoken ; ITaar , though the soldier grasp his sword But as a weapon broken ? 'Twould idle iu his hand remain — Pure bloodless battles Mind must gain .
Man hath been taught to bow To Cunning ' s traitorous sway ; Bat 'tis not as it hath been . "Sow Be hold the sturdy toiler ' s brow—There beams a calmer ray Of purer intellectual fire , TLan lit the aspect of his sire ; Ji prouder glance that seems to say , "The worse , our mental bounds are riven Apd soon shall da « ntho glorious day , We shall resume the sifts of Heaven . " For well Le knows a sceptercd King , Or coronetted Lord To be a vain , unwanted thing . Less worshipped than abhorred—To be tbe enemy of toil , Ail locost , like a thing of spoil '; And passing by the guarded door ,
"Where s ' talks the well-lashed sentinel , Xeed not be told " Who made the Poor ;" The fears of those within who dwell , If ' twere not known , the tale would tell The day will come , it must advance ; Hut not at point of sword or lance , 3 > lid pealing shot nor spreading flame And deeds of dread too dark to name-Intelligence shall in its might . And not in rain assert theright
Of labour by its toil to live . Enjoying more than tyrants give . Labour creates the wealth it craves , Euweaves the cradles , shapes the graves Erects the palace , rears the tomb "Where despots live or lie in gloom . God ' s handmaid Labour yet shall learn , All power usurped by Pride to spurn ; To wish and have , to ivill and make Oppression yield for Justice sake : She asks but that : her ceaseless cry ,
In hut or hall , on heath or moor , Is Justice—ere her clildren die Through want—from those who made the Poor . C . Coze .
London Labour And The London Poor. B Y H...
London Labour and the London Poor . B y Henr y May / hew . "Nos . I ., II ., III . To the intrepid , honest , and able author of ihesjepapers we are indebted for the idea , and partl y for the realisation , of one of the greatest and most important ideas ever given to the public . Political economists and statisticians are so commonly led astray b y deceptive " averages , " that however correct their postulates may be , their conclusions no more square with actual facta than those of the ingenious Professors in the College of Laputa—they pt'iht to "be correct , but are not . We hailed
the inquiry into the state of" Labour and the Poor , * ' by the Morning Chronicle , as the commencement of a new era in journalism , providing that inquiry was faithfully and impartiall y carried out It proposed to supply what was one of the great wants of the age—an accurate anatomy of society ; to depict the actual condition of the labouring classes—the sources from whence they drew their livingthe modes in which their earnings were expended—the general circumstances by which they were surrounded—and the reacting
influence of these conditions on their minds , habits , dispositions , and physicial well-being . Never was there a more important or imperative task undertaken —\ ve will not say by any journalist , bnt by any government . To prosecute it successfully , required not merely the command of large funds by those who instituted the investigation , but what was far more valuable , and more difficult to obtainintellectual and moral qualities on the part of those engaged in it , which are rarely met with i in combination .
Of the gentlemen who embarked in this inquiry , Mr . Mayhew , from the commencement , showed himself possessed in a hig h degree of the peculiar combination of faculties requisite for the task . He had the educated eye and quick perception , which enabled him to grasp the whole of any single group of facts , their relative position and bearing to other groups—the faculty of patientl y analysing these facts in detail , and tracing them to their source , and , above all , of , as it were , Daguerrotyping the mental and moral phenomena of Labour Life in the very words of the
parties themselves . It was his letters which excited the true and genuine sympathy of the public with the suffering and toiling masses—a sympathy which evinced itself in an earnest , if not philosophical manner , by the pouring in of subscri ptions , to be applied to at least the temi » orary relief of those whose toils , whose poverty and misery he so graphicallyportrayed . The other " Commissioners " were able men , tat throughout their productions there was evidently a pervading bias in favour of the fashionable generaiism , and received canons « Tolitical Economy . They went about their w ork far more with a view to make facts square with pregone conclusions than to state
facts exactl y as they found them , and leave social philosophers to build up a sound societarian system out of these facts afterwards . This tendency was especially observable ^ in their earlv letters . Subsequently the excite"oient-and admiration created by the lively , life like aud striking p ictures of the condition of the labouring classes , presented in Mr . Mayhew ' s fetters , led his colleagues in the manufacturing and agricultural districts to copy his example , and let the people speak for themselves . This " n * as however , done under careful limitations , wi the tendency in favour of capital and ^"" gs as they are , was always sufficiently apparent
Mr . Mayhcw , on the contrary , began without prepossession or prejudice—he recorded ti'e phenomena that presented themselves to i 3 observation , simply and truthfully ; but , ere long , what he saw and heard , produced on | an honest , but warm-hearted man , their natu-| r'd effects . It has been to us not the least re " , jtoarkable thing connected with . this remark-P ^ investi gation , that a gentleman like Mr . r % hew , whose previous associations and
London Labour And The London Poor. B Y H...
habits were so unlikel y to lead him to such conclusions , should , have been driven by the force of facts and his o \ ra investi gations to the adoption of precisel y the same Bocio-economical creed as that held by the most thoughtful and intelli gent of the working classes themselves . The result we all know . Honesty of purpose , and strict adherence to the maxim"Tell the truth and shame the devil , " are not the qualities which most certainly conduce to honour and emolument in the region of orthodox journalism . Mr . Mayhew was too truthful . He did not act on the advice of Burns to his young friend : — lhabitswere so unlikelv tn i—a i .- - , *
Aye , free off hand ye ' re story tell , When wi a bosom crony : But yet keep something to yersel Ye'll scarcely tell to ony . Ho told all—and , alas ! that all , somehow or other , came into collision with the worshi p of the golden calf and the gospel of the Economists—and the consequence was , being an infidel to these " sacred" things , he was made a martyr . The Morning Chronicle did not wantimpartiattruth-telling " Commissioners , " but clever sharp fellows , who could see just as much as was convenient , and , when necessary , " run with the hare and hold with the hounds . "
TFe have allowed Mr . Mayhew , in a previous number of the Star , to tell for himself the circumstances under which he left that paper , aud we now heartily welcome the first three numbers of his now work , in which he presents faithfully and ably the results of his researches into the "Mysteries of London Life . " The first section of the inhabitants treated of b y him , is that designated by him " The street folk ; " and as far as hehasyet proceeded , the new series contains an account of
the numerous and varied occupations , recreations , and Ulabits of the class usually termed coster-mongers , which is not more valuable for its accuracy than it is surprising in its revelations of the actual life of this nomadic tribe in the midst of our dense and settled city population . We may say , however , to those who have read the letters in the Chronicle , that Mr . Mayhew ' s new periodical is by no means a reprint of these letters . The valuable material he collected in the course of his
inquiries is here systematised , classified , and presented in all its fullness , breadth , and variety , under approp riate headings , and in a thoroughly artistic style . This , while it does not detract from the merely popular interest of the work , adds largely to its value as one of reference and for literary purposes . The engravings from Daguerrotypes , by Beard , are wonderfully minute , and yet forcible ; though whether it is owing to the sun by whom the portraits are painted in the first instance , or to some other cause , we know not , but the costermongers depicted to us have rather a holiday look about them , which does not exactly asree with onr recollections of the class as a whole .
The low p rice at which this important work is published—its bearing on all the great questions of social progress—and the thrilling interest which readers of every class in society must feel in the revelations it makes , will , we hope , combine to give it the enlarged circulation it deserves . It excells the most imaginative romance in the strangeness of its incidents ; while the question it raises will , for the next generation or two , occupy the best energies and highest faculties of our greatest
statesmen . Premising that Mr . Mayhew estimates the number of costermongers in London at 80 , 000 persons , and informs us they are all Chartists , a fact of which we have considerable doubt , we shall g ive one quotation , because it is appropriate to the present holiday season : —
VIC . GALLERY . On a good attractive night , tbe rush of costers to the threepenny gallery of the Coburg ( better known as " the Vie " ) is peculiar and almost awful . The long zig-zag staircase that leads to the paybox is crowded to suffocation , at least an hour before the theatre is opened ; but on the occasion of a piece with a good murder in it , the crowd will frequently collect as early as three o ' clock in the afternoon . Lads stand upon the broad wooden banisters about 50 feet from the ground , and jump on each others' backs , or adopt any expedient they can think of to obtain a good place . The walls of the well staircase having a remarkably fine echo , and the wooden floor of the steps serving as a sounding board , the shouting whistling , and quarrelling of the impatient young costers
is increa ? ed tenfold . If , as sometimes happens , a song with a chorus is started , the ears positively ache with the din , and when the chant has finished it seems as though a sudden silence had fallen on the people . To the centre of the road , and all round the door , the mob is in a ferment of excitement , and no sooner is the money-taker at his post than the roost frig htful rush takes place , every one heaving with his shoulder at the back of the person immediately in front of him . The girls sh' -iek , men shout , and a nervousfear is felt lest the massive staircase should fall in with the weight of the throng , as it lately did with the most terrible results . If " a hat tumbles from the top of the staircase , a hundred hands snatch at it has it defends . When it is caught" a voice roars above the tumult , " All right , Bill , I ' ve got it " -for they all seem to know one another— " Keep us a pitch and 1 U
bring it . , _ . „ . ., To anvone unaccustomed to be pressed flat it would be impossible to enter with th * mob . To see the sitfhtin the gallery it is belter to wait until the first piece is over , the ham-sandwi « h men and pigtrotter women will g ive you notice when the time is come , for with the first clatter of the descending footsteps thev commence their cries . There are few grown up men that go to the " Vic" gallery . Tbe generality of the visitors are lads from * about twelve to three-and-twenty
and though a few black-faced sweeps or whitev brown dustmen may be among the throng , the gallery audience consists mainly of costermongers . Tounc girls , too are very plentiful , only one third of whom now take their babies , owing to the new regulation of charging half-price for infants . At the foot of tbe staircase stands a group of boys begging for the return checks , which they sell again for lid . or Id ., according to the lateness of the hour .
At each step up the well-staircase the warmth and stench increase , until by the time one reaches the gallery doorway , a furnace-heat rushes out through the entrance that seems to force you backwards , whilst the odour positively prevents respiration . The mob on the landing , standing on tiptoe and closely wedged together , resists any civil attempt at gaining a glimpse of the stage , and yet a coster lad will rush up , elbow his way into the crowd , then jump up on to the shoulders of those before him , and suddenly disappear into the body
of the ¦ ftllctv The gallery at " the Vic" is one of the largest in London . It will hold from 1 , 500 to 2 000 people and runs back to so great a distance , that the oid of it is lost in shadow , excepting where the little gas-jets , against the wall , light up the two or three faces around them . When the gallery is well packed , His usual to sea piles of boys on eaoh others shoulders at the back ; while on the partition boards , dividing off the slips , lads will pitch themselves despite the spikes . ... As you look up the vast slanting mass of heads from the upper boxes , each one appears on the with faces
move . The huge black heap , dotted , and spotted with white shirt sleeves , almost pains the eye to look at , and should a clapping of hands commence , the twinkling nearly blinds you . It is the fashion with the mob to take off their coats ; and the cross-braces on the backs of some , and the bare shoulders peeping out of the ragged shirts of others , are the only variety to be found . The bonnets of the "ladies" are hung o ver the iron railing in front , their numbers nearly hiding the panels , and one of the amusements of the lads in the back seats consists in pitching orange peel or nutshells into them , a good aim being rewarded with a shout of
laughter . When the orchestra begins playing , before "the eods" have settled into their seats , it is impossible to hear a note of music . The puffed-out checks ot the trumpeters , and the raised drum-sticks tell you that the overture has commenced , but no tune is to be heard . An occasional burst of the full band bein" caught bv gushes , as if a high wind were r-unn" ltcco t'nitions take place every moment , and " Bill Smith" is called to in a loud voice from one = ide and a shout in answer from the other asks uwu-i nn ? " Or family secrets are revealed , and <« tbTri'ler"is asked where " Sal" is , and replSJid a mr of laughter , that she is a-larnin a 1 ounester , who has come in late , isj auu " .- '" ¦» _ i " . , u crs at the door , and doubjpmps up ojor the slicmldera m 2 . bimself in o . a baH "Jj for eacll one S £ ^ fflV !& rt *» **>*• rresen <*
London Labour And The London Poor. B Y H...
frSTwVT £ F - and then e ? ery on ° « ses S £ £ * 'toptog and shouting ; three or four CS . T Ml t 0 > the audience waving their SM tto-novu-g mMS seems like microscopic eels m paste . But the commotion ceases suddenly Silence ! ' " Ord-a-a-r ! " ' « Ord-a-a-r ! " make more noise than ever . « JSfe . r T " " ! allery >" s not to be moved by touching fSW They prefer vi S ° rous exewfoeto m emotional speech . "The Child of the Storm ' s " declaration that she would share her father ' s ueath or imprisonment as her duty" had effect . .,.. . .
, no at all compared with the split in the hornpipe . The shrill whistling and bray vos that followed the tars performance showed how high ] v it was relished , and one " god" went so fur as to ask " how n vV done ' " The comic actor kicking a dozen Polish peasants was encored , but the grand banquet of the Czar of all the Russias onl v produced merriment , and a request that he would " give them a bit" was made directly the Emperor Took the willow-patterned plate in his" hand . . All affecting situations were sure to be interrupted by cries ot " ord-a-a-r ; " and the lady begainff for her
father s life was told to " speak up old gal ; " though when the heroine of the " dummestic dreamer " ( as they call it ) told the general of all tho Cossack forces " not to be a fool , " the uproar of approbation grew greater than cver-and when the lady turned up her swan ' s-down cuffs , and seizing four Itussian soldiers shook them successively by the collar , then the enthusiasm knew no bounds , and the cries oi "Bray-vo Vincent ! Go it my tulip ! " resounded from every throat . Altogether , the gallery audience do not seem to be of a gentle nature . One poor little lad shouted out in a crying tone " that he couldn ' t see , " and instantly a dozen voices demanded "that ho should be thrown over . "
Whilst the pieces are going on , brown , flat bottles are frequently raised to the mouth , and between the acts a man with a tin can , tjlitteriri" in the gas-light , goes round crying , " Port-a-a-a-r ! who 3 for port a-a-a-r . " As the heat increased the faces grew bright red , every bonnet was taken off , and ladies could be seen wiping the perspiration from their cheeks with the play-bills . Xo delay between tho pieces will be allowed , and should the interval appear too long , some one will shout out—referring to the curtain— ' -Pull up that there winder blind ! " or they will call to the orchestra , saying , "Sow then you catgut-scrapers ! Let ' s have a ha-purth of liveliness . " Neither will they suffer a play to proceed until they have a good view of the stage , and "Higher the blue , " is constantly shouted , when the sky is too low , or "Light up the moon , " when the transparency is rather dim .
The dances and comic songs , between the pieces , are liked better than anything else . A highland fling is certain to he repeated , and a stamping of feet will accompany the tune , and a shrill whistling , keep time through the entire performance . But the grand hit of the evening is always when a song is sung to which the entire gallery can join in chorus . Then a deep silence prevails all through the stanzas . Should any burst in before his time , a shout of " orda-a-r" is raised , and the intruder put down b y a thousand indignant cries . At the proper time , however , the throats of the mob burst forth in all their strength . The most deafening noise breaks out suddenly , while the cat-calls
keep up the tune , and an imitation of a dozen Mr . Punches squeak out the words . Some actors at the minorthcatrcsmake agreatpoint of this , and in the bill upon the night of my visit , under the title of " There ' s a good time coming , boys , " there was printed , "assisted by the most numerous and effective chorus in the metropolis "—meaning the whole of the gallery . The singer himself started the mob , saying , "Jfow then , the Exeter Hall touch if you please gentlemen , " and beat time with his hand , parodying M . Jullien with his baton . An " angcore " on sueb occasions is always demanded , and dispite a few mnrmcrs of " change to Duck-legged Dick" invariably insisted upon .
Taws Edinburgh Magazine. January, 1851. ...
TaWs Edinburgh Magazine . January , 1851 . London : Simpkin , Marshall , and Co . The opening article in this number is entitled to the careful perusal of all who wish to understand the essential difference between Continental and English Government . It is an examination of the "Bureaucracy and Military Systems of France and Germany , " based on Mr . Laing ' s recent valuable book on "the Social and Political State of tbe European People iu 1848 and 1849 . " The writer says , bureaucracy is one of those peculiar features which pre-eminentl y distinguish the social structure of continental countries . "Mr . Laing , " he adds , — Calls it / ttiictioiiamiu , which is perhaps , a better name . This is a difference which , even more than
that connected with the partition of the soil , pervades the daily and domestic life of the nation , and modifies its whole aspect as presented to tho eye of the passing stranger . In England the civil servants of the Government are few , unconnected , and unobtrusive ; on the Continent , they are innumerable , omnipresent , and constitute a separate , organised , and powerful class . Iu England they confine themselves to absolute necessary functions ; on the Continent they interfere in every transaction and event of life . In England , as a general rule , a man is only reminded of their existence by the annual visit of the tax-gatherer , unless , indeed , he has to appeal to the law , or has rendered himself amenable to it ; on the Continent scarcely a day passes , scarcely an operation can be concluded , without coming into contact or collision with one or other of their
number . Many of the duties perfermed by officials on the Continent are here performed by elected parii-h or municipal functionaries ; many are left to individual discretion ; many more are not performed at all . With us a man ' s free will is limited only by his neighbour ' s free will , or his neighbour ' s rights ; in France and Austria it can be exercised only subject to Government permission previously obtained . Bestriction is the exception here , it is the rule there . Throughout the Continent a citizen cannot engage in business , build a house , or take a journey , without leave ; and leave is only obtained through an established routine of tedious and annoying formalities . " In France , Switzerland , Belgium , and
the constitutional States of Germany , says Mr . Laing , " people call themselves free , because they enjoy more or leas of the forms of representative government , and have more or less political liberty ; but they have no more civil liberty , and no more sense or feeling of it , than when they bad no constitutions at all . They live , act , and have their being under a system of interference in every man ' s movements and doings , precisely as in Austria , Prussia , and States without any constitutions or political liberty . * * Tho reality of civil liberty in the free use of time , industry , and capital , and in the free action of the individual , is unknown to the continental man . It is amusing to hear a German
or a Frenchman discussing constitutional forms of government , universal suffrage , the qualifications of representatives , the equal rights of citizens ; and , when he has settled all these points to his satisfaction , in a theory which proves very clearly that we enjoy no real liberty in England , and do not understand its first principles , to ask him to take a jaunt with you to Tours or Marseilles , Cologne or Lei psic . « Oh , ' says he , ' I must run to the bureau for our passports . I must get them signed by the proper authorities , countersigned by other proper authorities , viieed by the proper authorities in every town we stop at on our journey , in order to prevent trouble with the police ; and I must get this done before the bureaux are shut for tbe day , or we shall have to wait till tomorrow . ' To be free and
independent in the sense that the common man in England is free and independent , seems not to be a want in the mind of the continental man , even of fortune and education . The English traveller in France or Germany who has gone himself to the Hotel de Ville , or the passport office , to have his passport viseed and signed , instead of leaving it to his valet de place , and who has seen the crowd of tradesmen , country dealers , travelling artisans , and peasants from the neighbouring villages , who have been at the fair , standing for hours to have their papers examined and signed , will return with a pretty distinct idea of the difference between political and civil freedom , between the mind , spirit , character , and social state of the English , and of the continental people . "
The working of this system , in its various phases , is very ably analysed by the writer , though we arc not quite certain that both lie and Mr . Laing are somewhat one-sided in their estimate of it . Seeing so clearly as they do all its defects and mischievous results , they have unconsciously forgotten what mi ght be urgedontheotherside . It would , we think , not be a very difficult matter for an advocateof /« Hctionarism to gather a host of facts , relative to the sanitary , social , domestic , and moral operation of our local and municipal system of self-government , which would make a formidable show in favour of the other side . On the whole , however , we agree with the following statement of the essential difference and comparative results of the two
systems : — The different ideas which lie at the root of the two svstems may be thus stated : a certain amount of wisdom is required for the conduct of affairs , and the management of associated life . This requisite wisdom is supposed by functioiratism to reside in the rulers , and by municipality to reside in tbe people .: In England and America we assume that every man understands his own interest , and
Taws Edinburgh Magazine. January, 1851. ...
can direct his own business better than any government can do it for him . I „ France and fefraany they assume that tho people are unknowing and incompetent , and will mismanage both tfieir 0 S 1 private affairs , and all associated business unless supervised and directed by the superior knowled ge , a niJa Xpe Tr r 60 ^ traiEcd and «* d class of lulers . The fundamental notion on which tho superstructure of continental bureaucracy is built , is ™? L ° . I ? at tbe government is wiser than its sub ects , hut-that the wisdom of its subjects is inadequate to the ordinary cases of individual or social action .
» i ., T' i 1 eyidcnt "iat this assumption has an aiaiming tendency to realise and justify itself . The incapacity which is presumed will sooner or later be created . A people that is always regarded as in a state of pupillage , and kept in leading-string ? , can never emereo into mature manhood . It is undoubtedl y true , that trained functionaries may often be ah : e to manage each individual department better than municipal or parochial amateurs could do . It is probable that they may give useful advice , and that they will often avoid those multitudinous failures , those abortive experiments , and those monstrous and costly blunders , through which a self-governing people struggle onward to sensible and wise results at last ; but , in the first place , that
invaluable national education which is carried on during the progress of these efforts , and tho elimination of these errors , is entirely lost under the bureaucratic system ; and , in the second place , the plans adopted not being wrought out by the people , but being forced upon them from without , will seldom either be well adapted to their wants , or have so strong a hold on their affections . The incapacity for sell-government which bureaucracy has engendered among the continental nations was stvomrly shown in 1 S 4 S . They threw off their sovereigns , they proclaimed republics , or substituted other dynasties ; but they had no ability to organise new institutions , they could not emancipate themselves from the old army of civil functionaries , occawsc
they were unable to dispense with them ; and thus , one by one , they gradually fell back under the old regime . "W hereas in California , peopled by a sudden influx of emigrants , wild in their tempers , lawless in their habits , ' greedy for gold , thirsty for sudden opulence , without chiefs , without guidance , without control , the innate and ineffaceable genius of a race of men long accustomed to govern and to guide themselves , has enabled them , with an almost miraculous rapidity , to educe order out of the chaos , and to establish something like a civilised and legal community , without the smallest assistance or interference on the part of the central authority . In England , were our complicated go . vernment of King , Lords , and Commons , swept
away to-morrow , we could soon re-organise the ruling hierarchy , perhaps on a better footing than before , because every town , and almost every village , could afford us most of the materials , and much of the experience , required . Uufc , in ISIS and 1849 , all the collective wisdom of the bureaucratic countries of Germany and Franco with a Clearfield before them , were able to strike out little that was sensible , and nothing that was new . One thing is , however , abundantly evident —that bureaucracy creates a class numerous and powerful , which , though nominally the
servants of the nation , become , to a great extent , its masters . It is perfectl y alarming to think of the swarm of official locusts , who eat up the substance , and interfere with the business of the people ; and there being little doubt that much of the system is kept up exclusively for their benefit , the difficulty of changing it will bo proportionally great . We have an example at hand which will strike all parties who have made a run across the Channel for a few days' ramble in France . The passport system is an unmitigated nuisance—a source of official extortion for no
possible public purpose ; and yet , when tho Government lately endeavoured to abolish it , the functionaries were too powerful for them . The nuisance still exists in all the plenitude of its abomination . A glance at the comparative number of functionaries on the continent and in this country , will explain why this has occurred : — In Prussia we have no means of ascertaining the truth . In Austria , with a population of thirty-six millions , they tire stated at 120 , 000 , In France , also , with a population of thirty-six millions , they are variously given by different authorities , according as these take in only the regular and permanent paid officials , or add to these the unpaid , the
occasionally paid , and the retired ; but the lowest estimate exceeds 350 , 000 . We believe the following will be nearly an exact list of the actual employes under each department , who are paid in some shape or other , leaving out . the pensioners and the municipal authorities . It is taken from a recent Sport to the Legislative Assembly : —¦ Ministry of the Interior " 344 , 000 „ of Justice 11 , 100 „ Worship and Instruction 50 , 000 „ Public Works , Commerce , and Agriculture 10 , 000 „ Foreign Affairs 032 "War and Marino 43633 € ljiuit l
... . „• ,, < .. .. V » ... v . V , WW „ Finance , Customs , & Excise 10 , 000 535 , 365 Compare this enormous army of paid officials with the modest government provision in Great Britain , which has a population of thirty millions . Ill 1835 the whole civil service of tho State was conducted hy 23 , 578 persons ; and since that period , we believe , the number has rather diminished than increased .
The exposition of " The Military Organisation of Franco aud Germany , and its social consequences , '' will amply repay perusal ; and although we do not come to the Dame general conclusions as the writer , we cannot but commend this instructive paper to the thoughtful consideration of all , who are desirous of studying social science , by the lig ht of the experience derived from varied and differing social institutions . From a sketch entitled " Places I have Seen , " we take the following brief glance at the present condition of the late Daniel O'Council ' s residence : —
Darrynane nestles in a thick wood which springs luxuriantly up , sheltered from the Atlantic by a stalwart arm of tho mountain , which encircles and seems to clasp it to its rugged bosom . A medow of the most vivid green lies in front of tbe building , and stretches down towards a bright strip of sandy beach ( a beautiful object on a rock-bound coast ) , which shoots out towards tho little island on which stand the fragments of the abbey . The mountains close round the bay on the land side , and the fantastic forms of Scara and Hog Island seem to guard it to seaward like two gigantic sentinels . " The last jintleman" [ car-driver , interloeutor ] " as I druv to Derrynane before the Liberator died —rest his soule!—was a mighty grate inimy of the
Liberator up in Dublin ; only ho came down here to see him on some law business . ' Don ' t take the horse out , ' says he , * I'll ounly be stopping a quarther of an hour . ' ' Very well , sir , ' fays I . Well , sir , the Liberator wouldn't hear of it : first he must see the hounds , or he couldn ' t talk to him at all ; and thin he must see a hunt , aud shure he couldn't do that till the nexth day ? and thin there was Misther Maurice ' s yacht , the same ye see vender ; and thin , beyunt and above all , there was the cbampain and tbe clar ' t as must bo dhrunk . And so , to mako short work of it , bedad he stopped there three days , an' myself with him ; an' sure it was little himself and the Liberator were inimies afther that . Ah , sir , there's a change since those times !"
A change indeed ! The very bridge over which the mighty of the land , by genius , learning , birth , and wealth , flocked to the presence of him who was then mightiest among them , over which the bare-footed post-boy , with his tin horn dangfing from his nek , bore those missives , dated " Darry nane Abbey , " which shook the kingdom from Cape Clear to Fair Head—that very bridge is broken down , and liea in fragments in the bed of the stream it spanned .
" Webster ' s Duchess of Main , '' is a genial and admirably-told prose version of the tragedy , which has recently been revived at Sadler ' s Wells , and carries the sympathies and the interest of the reader along with it throughout . " What is it all about , " treats of the Papal question in a deprecatory and depreciatory tone , declares that there is no ground whatever for the alarm and indignation which has been so universall y expressed ; and concludes thus : —
_ Dr . Wiseman ' s documents are no new manifestations of the nature of Popery , and his appointments confer upon it no new power , Still more—and here again we approach the root of all the mischief done out-of-doora , and rumoured as likely to be done in the Cabinet and Legislature—you ought not , and you cannot legislate against influences . We ought not—it is persecution " : if vre , as Liberals think Romanism has a ' despotic tendency , Tories think Protestant dissent has a democratic tendency ; and if legislation , or attempts at it , had a beginning , where would be the end ? We cannotall history shows in letters of hlood that these things are too subtle for laws and penalties : > n the present case , to forbid the names would bo paltryto forbid the thing would bepersecution ; but both are practically impossible . The check and cure for
Taws Edinburgh Magazine. January, 1851. ...
bad influences is the application of good ones ' . We say with Milton , "Let Truth and Falsehood grapple " and perish all force and " protection ' us puerilities and poltrooneries . A similar view is enforced in " A Speech of Oliver Cromwell , in opening Parliament , '' in which the manner both of Carl ylo and the Great Protector is happily imitated . The other articles are of average merit aud interest .
Works Received. The Girlhood Of Shakespe...
WORKS RECEIVED . The Girlhood of Shakespeare ' s Heroine . Tale 11 ^ The Thane ' s Daughter . Simkins , Marshal , & Co the Poetic Companion . No . I . The Public Good . Xo . XIII . Romanism , the Religion of Terror . B y S . P . Dav . Townsend ' s Faritian Costumes . Simpkins , Marshall it Co .
Ditury-Laxe Theatre. After Three Years' ...
DItURY-LAXE THEATRE . After three years' absence Mr . Walter Lacy has returned to the London stage . Ho made his rentr ' ea on Saturday evening last . at Drurv-lane Theatre , in the character of Wi Idrake iu tlio ' Zucc Chase , which he had never before sustained in London . The novelty of a new part was not necessary as a stimulus to the many admirers of Mr . Walter Licv ' s acting , ile bad left behind him a reiuitationas being one of tho very few gentlemanly light comedians of whom we can boast , while he had also shown , in some few characters , a large amount of histrionic aptitude , and no little originality in his conception and grasp of characters . We need scarcely say that Mr . W . Lacy received a warm and
cheering welcome . Ilis Wildrake is a highly intelligent and humorous embodiment of the quaint fancy of Sheridan Ivnowlos ' s muse . The sheepish shyness and the love-taught cunning arc artistically blended , not forced into violent contrast . The great scene , where he frightens Constance out of coquetry , by announcing his intended marriage , was a striking instance of this artistic intelligence . Mr . Lacy is not an actor content to raise a vulgar laugh at tho expense of the consistency of the character he is for the time embodying . Of Mrs . Sisbett ' s Neighbour Constance what can we say that has not been said a thousand times by a thousand admirers ? It is one of the richest , raciest , and most buoyant outbursts of unforced , flowing humour
ot which onr stage can boast . Who that has evei heard her joyous , ringing laugh , as she chuckles over her tormented cousin but feels the same sensation of springing pleasure as when list he was under its magical influence ? Mrs . Nisbett probably never played this , her favourite character , with more elaboration and finish than on this occasion . She seemed on her mettle , and therefore carried her audience in triumph . A new comer , Mrs . Parker , sustained the part of the Widow Green with much tact and humour . This is tho lady who made a hit in a small part , that of a cynical American Puritan , in Mrs . Mowatt ' s comedy of Fashion , at the Olympic Theatre . The piece was well acted . Miss F . Vining played with much delicacy , dignity and feeling as ' Lydia .
The new pantomime , entitled Harlequin and Ihimpty Dumpty , or llobbin de Bobbin and the First Lord Mayor of Lun ' on , is eminently successful , aad the principal pantomimic personages are ably represented by Mr . Duclin ( Harlequin ) , Mdlle . Theodore ( Columbine ) , Mr . J . Duclin ( Pantaloon ) , Signer Parkini ( Sprite ) , and Mr . Seymour ( Clown . ) On Tuesday night Mr . Barratt made his debut in the character of Falbtaff , in Henry the Fourth . His physique is decidedly in his favour ; but ho is also nn actor of intelligence and discrimination , and of no little humour , lie was very successful ; and , if his perfonnanee in other characters be at all equal to his Falstaff , he will prove an acquisition to the stage . The play was well acted and well mounted ; Mr . Vandenhoff sustained the part of Percy , and Mr . Anderson that of the Prince .
Standard Theathe. This Elegant House, Wh...
STANDARD THEATHE . This elegant house , which lias been greatly enlarged and newly decorated , still continues to tittract crowded audiences . The new drama of Pride and Patience commences the evening ' s performances . Mr . Lyon , as Sir Bobert Marston , shows , in a strong light , the baneful effects of ancestral pride . Mrs . Iloimor , as Lady Marston , gives groat effect to a well conceived character ; and the acting of Mr . Cowlc , as a returned convict , burning under a sense of treachery and injustice , was true to nature , and well received by the audience . Mr . G . Nelson , as a wily lawyer , and Mr . II . Lewis , as a sharper , made the most of their respective parts . Miss E . Terry and Mrs . Cowlc also contributed greatly to the success of the piece , nor must wo omit Mr . Gaston , who , as the meddling servant , and tho treacherous friend , had a wide scope for his well known abilities .
The performance concluded with a new pantomime , entitled Ihrleqxdn Buttercups and Daisies ; or Great A , Little A , Bouncing B , the Cat ' s in the Clipboard and she can ' t see . " _ The plot , trifling and insignificant in itself , by judicious acting and welltimed hits at the events of the day , kept the audience convulsed with laughter . The scenery and decorations were most magnificent . Mr . II . Saunders , as Harlequin , M . Silvani , as Silver Sprite , and Messrs . Buck and Doughty , as Clowns , maintained their well-earned fame , and contributed greatly to the hilarity of the audience ; whilst au Elfin hand of fifty children , us Buttercups and Daisies , and their various transformations , gave great delight to the juvenile portion of tho audience . The whole concluded with a novel moving Panorama of the principal shops in Shoreditcb , and the curtain fell upon a crowded house , amid great applause .
Astley's. The Performances During The Ho...
ASTLEY'S . The performances during the holidays commence with the grand historical drama of Kenihvorth . We have already noticed this piece , and can only say that , independent of the plot and dialogue , which are excellent , the dresses , scenery , decorations and properties cannot be surpassed , and are but seldom equalled in any theatre in tho Kingdom . The scenes in the circle are more than usually attractive owing to the introduction of M . Plasche " the great barrel equilibrist" to an English audience , whoso daring ascent from the circle to the top of the stage on a small beer barrel , propelled by his feet along a carriage-way of plank not a foot in breadth , which is raised several feet in heigth , and forms a
very steep incline , excited intense interest . Some singular gymnastic feats were exhibited hy the Francisco family , which riveted theattention of the house , and elicited hearty expressions of approbation . Mr . John Bridges went through an astonishing act of horsemanship as the Bounding springer of the Alps . A dance was then performed with singula accuracy hy two horses , under the guidance of M . Ghelia , and the " Scenes of the Circle " wound up with a variety of dances on horseback by Miss A Bridges . The entertainments of the evening were concluded with the new and original grand , historical , eqcestrian , Christmas Pantomime , " entitled Harlequin and O'Donaghue ; or , the White Horse of Killarney , which entirely succeeded in attracting the attention of the audience . Dermot Astoro , betrethea to Kslhlccn , is entrapped by an emissary of the evil spirit of Ireland into drunkenness and gambling . A series of
adventures succeed , in which the Fairy Prince of Killarney , ycleped O'Donaghue—a splendid looking personage , whose white horse plays a prominent part—appears as the supernatural champion of temperance , and rescues poor Dormot Astoro and Kathleen from all their difficulties , to -bo changed into Harlequin and Columbine , and the entertainment closes with a succession ol amusing pantomimic transformations . Among the most ramarkable hits are , the Great Exhibition of 1851—the Sweedish nightingale at New York—and Jim Crow , ( both represented as birds , pursued by American managers , with salt boxes , sprinkling salt upon their tails , )—the American sea serpent—clown ' s balloon ascent on a real donkey—Patty's menagerieliaynau at the Bankside brewery , and the bedchamber scene . The pantomime concludes with a grand allegorical tableau . This house is nightly crowded to the ceiling .
Queen's Theatre. An Interesting Drama In...
QUEEN ' S THEATRE . An interesting drama in two acts , written by Miss Mellon , and entitled The Witch of Vesuvius , has been produced this week . This piece possesses more than ordinary merit ; tbe plot is good , and the language abounds with sparkling wit and thrilling narrative . The principal parts are well sustained by Mr . E . Green , the Miss . es F . Hamilton , E . Farrell , C . Gibson , Rivers , and Mrs . 0 . Boyce . It would oof be good taste on our parts to particularize the acting of the abovo artiste s , whose talents have deservedly gained for them the appellation of favourites , lhe pantomime , by Mr . C . S . James , of Cin derella , is of the most lendid description . Twenty new and
sp eorgeous scenes have been painted by Mr . C . J . James , the spirited manager and lessee , and the whole is presented on a costly scale of grandeur . Mr . Ambrook appeared as Harlequin , Mr . Harrison as Clown , Mr . White as Pantaloon , and Miss C . Gibson as Columbine . Tho acting and singing of Miss E . Farrell , as the Fairy Fiction , and also of Miss Hamilton , who personated tho Prince , deserves especial notice . Miss C . Gibson is a most graceful and ag ilo Columbine , and the evolutions of tho corps de ballet ( her pupils ) were loudly applauded . The pantomime is a decided hit ; the actors endeavoured to outvie each other , and the house , which was crowded in every part , was kept in a continual roar of laughter and delight ,
Riches Are Hut Ciphers-It Is The Mind Th...
Riches are hut ciphers-it is the mind that makes the sum . Question' for . Debating Clubs . — Can a man while asleep in the day-time have the ui ght-mare ? Use of Monet . —To some men it is indispensable to [> e worth money , for without it they would be worth nothing . Plain ( iuEsiiT . vNs . -Did yo ivrer naw onny bodily we crenkin shoes , but wor suar alias to get ta plaices a \ vurslii | j lato ? Did yo ivver naw oimy boddv go tut knife-box for a knite , but wot they alias gat Loud ov a fork t'furst ? —Iwjuioor Oancnack . What Emopj-ax Capital denotes a patient who is always changing his medicine ? — Constautinoole ( Constant to no pill . )
What ahe tJis most tmsoci . ible things in the world ?—Milestones—you never see two of them together . Why is a vain young ; lady like a confirmed drunkard ?—Because neither of ( hem are satisfied with a moderate us ? of the glass . Matrimonial bliss has been said to be somethins like butter ; the thinner we spread it the further it gups . A stcdext in want of money sold his books and wrote homo— " Father , rejoice , ' for I now derive my siippiirt from literature . " A srcrkt is like silence , you cannot talk about it and keep it ; it is like money , when once you know there is any concealed , ' it is half-discovered .
-xliKR , speaking of a celobrafptl musician , said : "lie has led a vtry abandoned Ufa . "—' O , res , " repii-Ml bcaley , " the whola tenor of his life has ' been WlSlJ . UoME .-An Irishman said that Home had the most laiucaiu government in the world . \' ou mi-ht lull a man in the street , and nobody look the Imst notice of it . "You charge me fifrv sequins , " « tid a Venetian gentleman to a sculptor , "for a bust that costvou only ten days' labour . "— ' You forpot , '" replied " tho artist , " that I was thirty years learning to make that bust in ten days I " A uuHal poet , in describing his ln <' v-lnve , snysshe is as graceful as a waicr-lily , while her breath smells like an armful of clover . His case is certainly approac ' iiii" a crisis .
Lo . vdon CiiAniTius . —These charities annually disburse in ;> id of their respective objects the amount of £ 1 , 76-1 , 733 , of which upwards ol" £ 1 , 000 , 000 isrni » ed annually by voluntary contributions ; the remainder from funded property , sale of publications , & c . "FiGGKiis voxt lie , vill they ? " muttered a cockney arithmetician , who had just reeled out of an anti-temperance resort , and was holding on to a lamp-post . " Veil , perhaps they vent , " remarked an ohserver ; " but I see a litrger as vont stand any how ! " ' ' " Why , Sarah , I am told that when you met voiir old flame , Mr . J ., the other day , he treated vou quite bearishly . "— " Imlerd he diiin ' t ( blrs ' iing ) ' ; ha seemed very glad to see me . "— "That is what I mean . I understand he gave you a prodigious hugging . "—Sarah screamed ati'i fainted .
A late traveller , after examining the murderous furniture with which Gibnilter is supplied , says it ' s a marvel to think that soldiers will mount such places for a shilling , and ensigns for four-and-ninqience a day . By the way , how it strips war of Us glory to apply arithmetic t » it—don ' t it ? Tuk Seciiet or Grrat Acquisitions . — "Tlvi chiefart of learning , " says Locke , "is to attempt but little at a time . The widest excursions of the mind are made by snore ilights frequently repeated ; the most lofty fabrics of science are formed by the continual accumulations of single propositions . " Education . —lie that has found a way to keep a child ' s spirit easy , active , mid free ; and yet , at the same time , to restrain him from many things he has a mind to , and to draw him to things that arc uneasy to him ; he , I say , who knows how to reconcile these seeming contradictions , ha- , in my opinion , got tho true secret of education —lode .
Fighting in Peace . —Maloney says that Ireland is the only country where people can fight in peace and quietness . In London they jerk you up " with an act of Parliament , " if you only have a taste of a brush in the back yard . " At Donnybrook , on the contrary , you can fight all day , and with as much comfort and respect as if you were going to church . I . vternal Convulsions of the Earth . —The Newfoundland Times give facts establishing the probability that the whole island is rising out of the ocean , with a rapidity which threatens , at no distant period , to materially affect , if not utterly destroy , many of the best harbours on the coast of Newfoundland . A similar upheaving has been noticed in Sweden for nearly a century .
A Hint to Quick Writkbs . —Locke says , that the faster a man writes tbe slower others read what lie has written . "Napoleon could write Fourteen pages in a minute ; unfortunately , however , each page consists of eight blots and a splatter . Some of his lines to Maria Louisa appear to have been scattered over the paper by the explosion of a bomb shell , they are so knocked into cocked hats and mashed cockroaches . A Pabental Hint . —When an accident occurs , learn whether it was through misfortune , negligence , or wilfulness before you pass sentence . Accidents are frequently of great servire , and children often learn more caution and real information from their occurrence than from fifty lessons ^ He it remembered , that the perfection of science h owing to the occurrence and remedy of its early accidents .
A Sipn Paintek carried a bill to a lawyer for payment , The lawyer , after examining it , said , " Do you expect any painters will go to heaven , if they make such charges as these ?"— " I never heard of but one that went , " said the painter , " and he behaved so bad that they determined to turn him our , hut there being no lawyer present to draw * up a writ of ejectment , he remained . " Secrets . — ' 1 'he llussiims have a _ singular method of extorting disclosures from the prisoners . In their libations is mixed a drug , which has the effect of
rendering them delirious , and in this state they are watched and interrogated , when secrets are divulged . A Labv asked a very silly Scotch nobleman how it happened that the Scots who came out of their own country were , generally sneakisut , men of more , abilities than those who remained at home ? " Oh , madam , " said he , " the reason is obvious . At every outlet there are persons stationed to examine all who piss , that for the honour of the country no one be permitted to leave it who is not a man of understanding . "— "Then , " said she , " I suppose your lordship was smuggled . "
M ' llb Franck , at the Boston theatre ( U . S . ) , after executing a brilliant pus , was called before the curtain . She acknowledged tbe compliment three times , and at last advanced to the footlights , and addressed her admirers as follows : — " Lady et Gentilhomme—I av take vara grand plaisir at mose agreeable compliment at your hand . I have no coinprehendez le Anglaise moch—by bye I know him better —den I was tell you how moche you do me pride . " Tremendous applause , of course . Irish Uoaos , —An Englishman having asked a son of Erin if the roads in Ireland were good . Pat replied , " Yes , they are so fine that 1 wonder you do not import some of them into England . Let me sec , there ' s the road to love , strewed with roses ; to matrimony , through nettles ; to honour , through the
camp to prison , through the law ; and to the undertakers , through physic . "— " Have you any road to preferment ? " said the Englishman . "Yes , faith , wchave ; but that is the dirtiest road in the kingdom . " " Beautt , " says Lord Katmes , " is a dangerous property , tending to corrupt the mind of the wife , though it soon loses its influence over the husband . A figure agreeable and engaging , which inspires affection without tbe ebricty of love , is a much safer choice . Tho graces lose not their influence like beauty . At the end of thirty years , a virtuotis woman , who makes an agreeable companion , charms her husband more than at first . The comparison of love to fire holds good in ono respect , that the fiercer it burns the sooner it is extinguished . "
Charming Beds . —It is said that a German is constructing a musical bed for the Exhibition . When the occupant presses it , soothing airs will be emitted ; and , thus lulled , " be may sink luxuriously into the arms of sleep . " A Frenchman has invented something more useful , which ho calls Un Lit a Reveille Matin , or , in plain English , abed which awakens the sleeper at any fixed hour at which he may wish to rise . By the adaptation of a simple contrivance to clock-work , tho bed is made to incline forward , and the sleeper is thrown on his feet , his character for punctuality in his matinal engagements being ensured at the risk of breaking his nose .
Liability of Clerks . —The cashier of Mr . Fry , builder , St . John ' s Wood-terrace , lately had one hundred and nineteen sovereigns out of one hundred and twenty abstracted from a bag of silver and gold coin in an omnibus , and his employer sutL-moned him in the Court of Common Pleas to replace the money lost , as was alleged , through negligence . The defence was , that the theft was not attributable to negligence , but to the dexterity of the thief- The jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff , takingcare to exonerate the unfortunate cashier from the slightest imputation on his character .
Lodgisg-House Ivekpeiis' Looic—The Lodging-House Keepers of London are beginning to calculate the probable profits of the Great Exhibition season of 1351 , or , in other words , they arc •' ccuntiiif ' their chickens before they air . hatched ; " that ia to say , before they shell out . Somebedy has said that 4 , 000 , 000 of strangers will be pnurcd into London , and as there are not more than 1 , 000 , 000 bids to let , the rules of arithmetic call upon us to divide one by four , and as four into one won ' t go , we recotsmf nil somo of the intended visitor * , before they leave a comfortable bed at home , to " sleep upon it , until they ha ye made sure of a substitute .
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 4, 1851, page 3, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/ns2_04011851/page/3/