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January 6, 1849. " THE NORTHERN STAR. 3
BEAUTIES OF BYRON. Second Shries. "We co...
(1) Written ou the occasion of the abdic...
Cormdate, a Poem, in Six Cantos; and oth...
The Reasoner. Parts XXXI., XXXII. London...
Ihe Family Herald. Parts LXVI., LXVII., ...
A History of Gloucester, and a Descripti...
The Noethbbn Copktiss 0#z Hdndeeb and Sl...
THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC ON ...
Thb • Turn' new Printing MACHiNE---The T...
Dickens received £3,o " oo ' foTh^ Nr ch...
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January 6, 1849. " The Northern Star. 3
January 6 , 1849 . " THE NORTHERN STAR . 3
Beauties Of Byron. Second Shries. "We Co...
BEAUTIES OF BYRON . Second Shries . "We commence our second series ef selections from the writings of Btron , by reprinting the following extracts from the beautiful
• ODE TO NAPOLEON BUONAPAETE . ' ( l ) ( Recommended to the serious coaslderatioa of heroworshippers , glerj-moatifs , and wanM-be Imitators of the 'feutwd Cssn , ' particularly Monsieur , the Prince President of the French It-public . ) 'Tis done—but yesterday a Sicg ! Aud arm'd with Slags to itrivs—And now thou art a nameless thing : So abject—yet alive t Is this the man of thousand thrones , Who strew'd our earth with hostile bones , And can he thus survive t Since he , mlscall'd the Horning Star . Nor man cor Send bath fallen so far ,
Hl . roinSed man ! why scourgt thy kind Who bow'd so low the knee ? By gazing on thyself grown bliad , Thou taught ' st the rest to tee ! With might unquestioned , —power to save , «« . Thine only gift ha'h been the grave , To those that worshipp'd thee ; Nor till thy fall eould mortals guess Ambition ' s Isss than littleness ! Thanhs for that lesson—it will teach To after warriors more , Thau high Philosophy can preach , Aad vainly preach'd before . That spell upon the minds of men Breaks never to unite again , That led them to adore Those Psgod things of sabre-sway , With fronts cf brass , and feet of elay . fS )
The triumph , and the vanity , The rapture of the strife Tha earthquake voios of Victory , To thee tbe srtath of life ; The sword , the sceptre , aad that sway Which man setm'd madt hut to obey , Wherewith reaawa was rife—All quell **! Dirk Spirit ! what must be The madness of thy memory ! The Deselator desolate ! The Victoroverthrown ! Th * Arbiter of others' fate A Suppliant for hU own ! Is it some yet Imperial hepe , That with such change can calmly cope ? Or dread of death alone ? To die a prince—or live a slave—Thy choice Is most igaobly brave !
He whs of old would rend the oak , Dream'd tot of the rebound ; Chala'd by the trunk he vainly broke—Aloae—how lookM ke round f Thau , in the sternness efth ; strength , An equal deed hat done at length . And darker fate hast found : He fell , the forest prowler ' s prey ; Eat thou must eat thy heart away I The BomaD , ( S ) when his burning heart Was slaked with Wood oi Borne , Threw dowa tbe dagger—dared depart , In savage grandeur , home—He dared depart in otter scorn Of mea that such a yoke had borne , - Yet left him such a doom ! Sis oily glory was that hour Of selfwapheld abandoned power .
The Spaniard when the lust of away Hal lost its quick'ning spell , Cast crowns for rosaries away , An empire for a cell ; A strict accountant of his beads A subtle disputant ou creeds , His dotage trifled well : ( 4 ) Yet better had he xeither known A bigot's shrine , nor despot ' s throne . But thou—from thy jfluctant hand The thunderbolt is wrung—Too late thou lesv ' si the high command To which thy weakness clung ; AH Evil Spirit as thou art , It is enough to grieve the heart To see thine own unstrung ; To think that God ' s fair world hath been The footstool of a thing so mean ;
And Earth hath spilt her bleod for him , Who thus can hoard his own ! And Bonorohs bow'd the trembling limb , And thank'd him for a throne ; Fair Freedom I we may hold thee dear , When thus thy aafghtiest foes their fear Iu humblest guise hare shown . Oh ! ne ' er may tyrant leave behind A brighter name te lure mankind ! ( 5 ) Thine evil deeds are writ in gore , Nor written thus iu vain—Thy triumphs tell of fame no more , Or deepen every stain : If thou badst died as honour dies Same new Napoleoa might arise , To shame the world again—But who would soir the solar height , To set la such a starless night f
Weigh'd in the balance hero dust . Is vile as vulgar clay ; Thy scales , Mortality f are just To all that pats awsy » Bnt yet methought the living great Some higher spark sheuld animate , To dszzle and dismay : Nor deem'd Contempt conld thus make mirth Of these , the Conquerors of the earth .
There was a day—there was aa hour , While earth was Gaul ' s—fisul thine—When that immeasurable power Ungated to resign Had be : H an act of purer fame , Than gathers round Marengo ' s name , And gilded thy decline . Through the long twilight of all time . Despite some passing elouds of crime . But thou forsooth mast he a king , Aai don the parole vest . — As if that foolish robe could wring Remembrance from thy breast . Where is that faded garment ! where The gewgaws thou wert fond to wear , Tbe star—the string—the crest ? Tain froward chili ef empire ! say , Are all thy playthings snatch'd away f
Where may the wearied eye repose , When gazing on the great ; Where neither guilty glory glows . Nor despicable state t Tee—one—the first—the last— . the beet—The Ctucinuatus of the West , Whom eavy dare net hate , Bequeath the name * f Washington , To make tnan V . usk ( hire teas tut Out !
(1) Written Ou The Occasion Of The Abdic...
( 1 ) Written ou the occasion of the abdication of the Emperor Napoleoa at Fontainebleau , in April , 1814 . ( 2 ) Bison was premature in proclaiming the termination ef popular folly ; witneis the recent eleetien of the nephew of my uncle * to the presidency of the Frenah Bepublic—Ed . N . S . ( S ) SXttA . ( 4 ) Charles the Fifth , ( 5 ) The name of the bastard C « sar * ii yet a lure for too many fools . —Ep . y . S .
& ebfeto £ *
Cormdate, A Poem, In Six Cantos; And Oth...
Cormdate , a Poem , in Six Cantos ; and other Poems . By William Count . London : Simpkin and Marshall . This is the production of a working man , one of the toilers at the last and awl—a trade so fertile in examples of genius . The anther is young , and this volume is his first essay : perfection in the structure of his verse , therefore , cannot be expected . His rhymes are chiefly estimable for the love of liberty that they breathe , and the proof they give that the spirit of freedom ia united mth taste in an increasing number among the children of labour . We extract threa stanzas from one of his lesser poems , as a specimen of hit powers : —
THE PAT / PER , See ! wneisthis I enfeebled , slow , A staff suppor ts his frame ; His sUverj locks fly to aud fro , — ApsuperishU name . With features wan , and palsied gait , What cares doss he endure ; See he eaters yonder gate , — Taps at the parish door . As through the streets the pauper goes , A » hem * d he meets your face ; Jor well the abjeet pauper knows , Poverty is disgrace . The coat he wears , all fly the touch , As pregnant wi th disease ; Alas ! this hnsoan nature ' s such , But glittering show can please ,
A buro en to his race is he , Aad te himself his life ; His fcmdest wish thst he might be But buried by his wife . But even that will be denied , Hia useful says are o'er , If he tut lives , that is enough , — He must expect-no more .
Cormdate, A Poem, In Six Cantos; And Oth...
Tht History of Ireland . By Thomas Wright , M . A ., F . S . A ., & c . Part V . London : J . and F . Tallis , 100 , St John Street . The fifth part of this ably-written work brings the history of Ireland down to the commencement ef the reign of Henry V . The leading features of tha sad story are still the same—oppression on the part of the strong , division on the part of the weak . The details of slaughter , rapine , treachery , and every possible crime are painfully overwhelming . The feuds of jthe Angle-Irish barons added to the horrors of the times , and tha Geraldines , the Da Burghs , the De Lacsys , and the other lords of the
Pale , appear to have acted with a degree of villany towards each other not at all inferior to the atrocity of their common conduct towards the ori g inal Irish . Plunder , tflasiacra , assassination , and violence of e Very kind , appear to have been the unceasing pursuits of these precious specimens of ' the age of chivalry . ' These worthies were in the habit of even setting the English government at defiance , and usually with impunity . Not always so , however , for in 1331 the Lord William de Bermingham , * was publicly hanged at Dublin . ' It is to be regretted that one monopolised what was so well deserved by allthe callows .
It affords us pleasure to testify to the impartial character of this history—so far as the work has yet progressed . We must not omit to add our testimony to the ability which the historian exhibits in every page of his striking narrative .
The Reasoner. Parts Xxxi., Xxxii. London...
The Reasoner . Parts XXXI ., XXXII . London : J . Watson , 3 , Queen ' s Head Passage , Paternoster Row . These Parts of the Reasoner contains a number of valuable articles—historical , political , polemical , and critical worthy the perusal and reflection of those who desire to read that they may think , and thinking be the better armed for acting in that great Straggle whirt at present divides society into opposing forces—the struggle of progression against conservatism ; A thinking people ^ could never be enslaved—an enslaved people learning to think would soon terminate their bondage .
* 'tit mia * atone , Worth steel and stone , That keeps men free fer ever !' The numbers forming the 32 nd Part are more than ordinarily interesting . « The Character of Robespierre , ' as drawn by Cabet , tempts quotation , but want of space forbids .
Ihe Family Herald. Parts Lxvi., Lxvii., ...
Ihe Family Herald . Parts LXVI ., LXVII ., LXVIII . London : G . Biggs , 421 , Strand . Our oft-expressed approval of the general contents of this publication we may conscientiousl y repeat , but we should be sorry to stand god-father to some of he queer notions set forth by the editorial oracle . For Mistance , in the 'Answers to Correspondents' in No . 288 , we see the London police lauded as efficient , brave , well deserving their pay , and all the good that is said of them . ' (?) All London is aware that the force in question is as renowned for its brutality , as for its bravery . Of course political spiks well deserve their pay ! Amongst the miscellaneous and selected matter of the numbers before us , we find the following , extracted itom the Dublin University Magazine :- '
AN ODE OP HAFJZ . I can ' t but think yen much in the wrong , prophet , When you cursed ihe swine and the wine grape ' s ju ' ce ; Trust me , th's is thsfhort and the long of it : — Everthlngpleasanthas its use . This is as true as Is the Koran—I will maintain it against a host ; The sage of Mecsa , with all his lore , ran Here bis w a ¦ head agslnst a post . Great , undoubtedly , was Mohammed —• Great in all hw divine affairs , Bnt the man whobsnlshed good wine and ham , said More , believe me , than his prayers . Both suit most tastes—I ton : J ijrily take oa Hyself to say which is most to uin i - , But I almost think , to save my bicoa , I'd 'go the whole bee . and * lv » tip ti 5 Wine !
A History Of Gloucester, And A Descripti...
A History of Gloucester , and a Descriptive Account of the same City and its Suburbs . Gloucester : F . Bond . Eastgate Street . Visitors to the ancient and famous city of Gloucester -will find this little book a useful companien . A brief sketch of the rise , progress , and vicissitudes of the city from the Roman invasion to the present time , precedes a description of the streets , public buildings , the cathedral , and other structures devoted to religious service , the port , railways . & c , & c . The work is embellished with two well-executed engravings , one giving a general view of the city , and the other a view of the magnificent cathedral
The Noethbbn Copktiss 0#Z Hdndeeb And Sl...
The Noethbbn Copktiss 0 # z Hdndeeb and SlSTT Tbars sinck . —A large' part of the country beyond Trent was , dawn to the eighteenth century , in a state of barbarism . Physical and moral causes had occurred to prevent civilisation from spreading ta that region . The air was inclement ; the soil was generally such as required skilful and iadustrioas cultivation ; and there sould ba little skill or industry in a tract which was often the theatre of war , and which , even when there was nominal peace , was constantly desolated by bands ef Scottish marauders . Before the union of the two British crewne , and long after that union , there was as great a difference between Middlesex and Northumberland as there now is between Massachusetts and the settlements of those squatters who , far to the west of the
Mississippi , administer a rude justice with the nfla and the dagger . In the reign of Chariea the Second , the traces left by ages of slaughter and pillage were still distintly perceptible , many miles south of the Tweed , in the face of the country , and in the lawless manners of the people . There was still a large class of moss-troopers , whose calling was to plunder dwellings and to drive away whole herds ef cattle . It was found necessary , soon after the restoration ^ to enact laws of great severity for the prevention of these outrages . The magistrates of Northumberland and Cumberland were authorised to raise bands of armed men , for the defence of property and order ; and provision was made for meeting the expense of those levies by taxation . The parishes were required to keep
bloodhounds for the purpose of hutting the freebooters . Many old men , who were living in the middle of the eighteenth century , could well remember the time when those ferocious dogs ware coatmon . Yet , even with such auxiliaries , it was often found impossible to track the robbers to their retreats among the hills and morasses ; fer tbe geography of that wild country was very imperfectly known . Even after the acoassion of George III ., the path over the fells from Borrowdale to Raven , glas was still a secret carefully kept by the dalesmen , some of whom had probably in their youth escaped from the pursuit of justice by that road . The seats of the gentry and the larger farm-houses were fortified . Oxen were penned at night beneath the overhanging baWements of the residence , which was
known by the name of the peel . The inmates elept with arms at their sides . Huge stones and boiling water were in readiness to crush and scald the plunderer who might venture to assail the little garrison . No traveller ventured into that country without making his will . The judges on circuit , with the whole body of barristers , attorneys , clerks , and serving men , rode on hereeback from Newcastle to Carlisle , armed , and escorted by a strong guard under the command of the sheriffs . It was necessary to carry provisions , for the country was a wilderness which afforded no supplies . The spot where the cavalcade halted to dine , under an immense oak , is sot yet forgotten . The irregular vigour with which
criminal justice was administered shocked observers whose life had been passed in more tranquil districts . Juries , animated by hatred , and by a sense of common danger , convicted housebreakers and cattle stealers with the promptitude of a court-martial in a mutiny ; and the conviets were hurried by scores to the gallows . Within the memory of some who are still living , the sportsman who wandered in pursuit Of game to the sources of the Tyne , found the heaths round Keeldar Castle peopled by a race scarcely lees savage than the Indians of California ; and heard , with surprise , the half-naked women chanting a wild measure , while the men , with brandished forks , danced a war-dance . —Macaitlay ' s History of England .
A MoBAiur BiriKK . —Campbell west to Paisley races got prodigiously interested in the first race , and betted on the success of one horse to the amount ef £ 50 with Professor Wilson . At the end of tbe race he thought he had lost the bet , and said to Wilsen , * I owe you £ SQ , bnt really , when I reflect that yon are a Piofeieor of Moral Philosophy , and that betting is a sert of gambling only fit for blacklegs , I cannot bring my conscience to pay the bat . ' ' Oh , ' said Wilson , ' I very much approve of your principles , and mean to act upon them . In point of fact . Yellow Cap , on whom you betted , has won the race ; asd , but for conscience , I ought to pay you the £ 50 , but you will excuse me . '—Seattle ' s life of Campbell .
Conbebvatisu Rsvolutimjart . !—There is nothing bo revolutionary , because there is nothing so unnatural and so convulsive to society , as tbe strain to keep things fixed when all the world is by the very law of its creation in eternal progress ; and the cause of all the evils n » y be traced to that natural but most deadly error oi human indolence and corruption , that our business is to preserve , and not to improve . It is the rnin of all aliie , —individuals , schools , and nations . —JPr Arnold .
The President Of The French Republic On ...
THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC ON THE 'EXTINCTION OF PAUPERISM . '
Sometime in the year 1847 , we reviewed a small publication issued by Mr Cleave , 1 , Shoe Lane , Fleet Street , entitled * Extinction of Pauperism , by Prince Louis Napoleon Buonaparte . ' Although never failing to remember the injunction : ' put not your trust in princess , ' we nevertheless felt ourselves constrained to express general approbation of the work is question . It was when a prisoner at Ham , that Louis Napoleon wrote down his thoughts on the condition of the people—their sufferings—and the remedy for those sufferings , ' Sweet are the uses of adversity 1 * When a prisoner , Louis Napoleon
felt with and for the people . But does the lame feeling move him now that he is President of the Republic ? We shall ere long see . For ourselves we confess we have no faith in the intentions of the President . His choice of ministers and other officials , tells a tale not to be misunderstood by men possessing common tense . Moreover , has he aot Thiers for his principal adviser behind the scenes ? So rumour asserts , and neither himself nor his friends have contradicted the report . With such an archknave at his elbow it will be impossible for him to act well , if ever so well-inclined . But after all we may And ourselves mistaken . Time will tell .
In the meantime , it will be well to recall the published views of Louis Napoleon on the Labour Question . With this view we reprint the following extracts from the work above named , at the same time recommending our readers to purchase the work itself .
the EXiwnra srsrau cokdhmnbd . The wealth of & country dipiBdsiipon the prog , parity of agriculture and industry , the development of commerce at h rate aad abroad , and a just and equitable distribution of the revenue . There is not one of thees differeal elements ot prosperity which is not undermined in Framce by an organic defect . All independeat minds atknowledge it . They differ only in regard ta the remedies to be applied . Labour , the source of all wealth , has neither system , organisation , nor aim . It is like a machine
working without a regulators , and totally wnooacerned about its moving power . Crushing between its wheels alike men and matter , it depopulates the country , crowds the population into narrow spaees withsut air , enfeebles both mind and body , and finally , casts into the street , when it no longer requires them , those wen \ rho , to gain something , have sacrificed strength , youth , and existence . Like a veritable Saturn , manufacturing industry devours its children , and lives but upon their destruction .
Home commerce suffers , because industry produces too much in omparison with the slender requital it gives to the producers ; whilst agriculture does not produce sufficient . The nation is thus composed of producers who cannot sell , aad of famished consumers who cannot buy . This loss of balanse oautes the government here , as in England , to go to China in search of some thousands of consumers ; whilst there are millions of French , or English , vha are stripped ef everything , and who , if they could purchase sufficient food asd clothing , would create & commercial moveme * t much more considerable than that caused by tha moat advantageous treaties .
THE BEMEDT . What ehomld be done ? Here it is . Oar law of equality relative to the division of property ruins agriculture . _ This inconvenience must be remedied by association , which , by employing every idle arm shall re-create grtat estates , and increase cultivation ' without causing any disadvantage to our political principles . Manufacturing industry continually draws the population into towns , and enervates them * We must recall those into fields , who are toonumerous in towns , and invigorate their minds and bodies in the ceuntry . To accomplish a project bo worthy of the democratio and philanthropic spirit of tha age , so necessary for tha general well-being , aad so useful to the repose of society , three things are necessary : —1 st A law . 2 nd , Tha advancement of funds from the budget . St A , Organisation .
Thb Law . —There are in France , according to offi . cial agricultural statistics , 9 , 190 , 000 acres of uncultivated lands belonging to government , to boroughs , or individuals . These heaths , commons , or pasture lands , yield a v « y small rent of eight francs an acre . They are like sunk capital benefitting no one . Let the Chambers decree that all these uncultivated lands shall belong in right to the working association , on condition that th = y annually pay to the actual proprietors the same amount whioh they receive now . Let thent consign the idle acres to the idle arms , and these two unproductive capitals will spring into life , the one operating upon the other . Then the means will have been discovered of mitigating misery by enriehingthe country .
The OaoAKisAiwif . —The unorganised maflB are nothing ; united , they are everything ; without organisation they can neither speak themselws , nor make others understand them ; they cannot even receive or act nson a commoa impulse . On the one hand , the voice of twenty milliens of men , scattered over a vast territory , ia lost in echo ; on the other , there is no language sufficiently strong and persuasive to spring from a central point , and bear to twenty millions of consciences , without recognised mediatort , the severe doctrines of power . The reign of castes is over . We can only govern now by the masses . It is , therefore , necessary to
organise them , that they may reduce their wishes to form ; and to discipline them , so that they may be directed towards , and enlightened upon , their real interests . To govern , means no longer to rule the people by violence and physical force ; but the art of conducting them towards a more glorious future , by appealing to their reasons and feelings . But since the masses need instruction , and the government requires to be restrained , and even enlightened , as to the interest of the greatest number , it is absolutely necessary that there should be in sociely two equally powerful movements : the action of power apon the mass , and the re . aotion of the mass
upon power . _ These separate influences cannot act without collision , except through mediators , who at once possess the coifidence of those whom they represent , and the conudsnea of those who rule . These mediators would possess the confidence of the first ,. the moment they were freely elected by them ; and they would deserve the confidence of the second , the moment they filled an important place in society ; foroao may say in general , that man is that which the functions he performs obliges him to be . Guided by these considerations , we wish to see created between the workmen and their employers , au intermediate class , enjoying rights legally recocnissd , aad elected by the whole mass of workmen .
To avoid the reproach of exaggeration , we will suppose that two-thirds of these nine millions of asres can be given up to the associations , and that the remainder may be either un-arable or occupied by houses , rivers , canals , & 3 . There will remain 6 , 127 , 000 acres to be cleared . This work would be rendered possible by the creation of agricultural colonies , which , when scattered all over France , would form the basis of a single and vast organisation , of which all the poor workmen might be members although not individual proprietors . [ Bat , in time , as will afterwards be seen , collective proprietors . ] Thb Funds . —The necessary advance of money for the creation of these colonies ought to be furnished by the state . According to our estimate . 300 millions of francs or £ 12 , 000 000 , payable in four years , would be required ;
After the lapse of that time these colonies , by affording the means of existence to a great mass of workmen , would ba a direct benefit . At the end of ten years , the government might levy a land tax of eight millions of francs , or £ 320 , 000 , without counting the natural increase of indirect taxes , whioh always augment in proportion to the consumption , whioh expands with the general comfort of the people . This advance of 800 millions of francs would not then be a sacrifice , but a magnificent investment of money ; and could the State , on contemplating the grandeur of the objeot , refuse it , whilst annually expending forty-six millions of francs in preventing or
punishing attacks made upon property ; whilst sacrificing every year 300 millions of franca in teaching the trade ef soldiering ; and whilst proposing an expenditure of 120 millions oi francs in the construction of new prisons 1 In short , the nation which without perishing gave 2 , 000 millions to the invaders of France , which without murmuring paid 1 , 000 mil lions to emigrants , whioh without alarm expended 300 millions on the fortifications of Paris ; will that nation , I aek , hesitate to advance S 00 millions in four years to abolish pauperism , to relieve the community of the enormous burdens imposed by misery , and ta augment the territorial wealth by more than 1 , 000 millions ?
This intermediate class would form the corps of managers or overseers . We should like all the working men to assemble in their respective communes every year , and proceed to the election of their reprsentatives or overseers , in the proportion of one to every ten workmen . Good conduct would be the sole qualification . ' Every manufacturer , or farmer , or any tradesman whatever , shoald be compelled by law to have a ¦ manager whenever he employed more than ten workmen ; and to pay him double the amouat of a common workman .
These managers wonld perform amongst the working classes the same duty that noncommissioned officers do in the army ; they Would compose the first step in the social hierarchy , stimulating the laudable ambition of all , by showing them a recom » pense easy ts be ob . ' ained , Elevated is tueit own estimation , by the dutfei
The President Of The French Republic On ...
they had to perform , they would be compelled to set an example of good conduct . According to this plan , every ten of the workmen would contain within themselves the germ of perfection . The question of giving an impulse to the mass , of enlightening them , of appealing to them , and of causing them to act , is found to rest simply in the relation which one bears to ten . Suppose there are twenty . five millions of men , who exist by labour alone , there would be two millions and a half of managers or intermediate agents , to whom they could appeal with greater confidence , because they participate at once in the interests of those who obey , as well as of those who command .
Those managers would be divided into two classes . The first would belong to private industry ; tha second would be employed in the agricultural eatabliehEients . And , we repeat , this different mission would be tbe result of the right of direct election by all the working classes .
AGRICOITDRAIi C 3 L 0 NIES . Let us suppose that the three preceding measures have been adopted . The twenty-five millions of actual workmen have their representatives , and the fourth part of the agrieultural area of France ia their property , supposing they did , as they most assuredly would in the end , purchase the actual proprietorship . In each department of France , and in the first iastance , wherever the uncultivated lands were , agricultural colonies would be established , offering food , education , religious instruction , and work , to all who required them ; and God knows the number is great in France . * * * The managers ofthese colonies would be in pro * portion of one to ten , as in private business .
Above the managers there would be directors , whose duties would be to teach agriculture . These directors would be elected by the workmen and managers combined . Before they were eligible they would require to produce proof of a practical knowledge of agriculture . Finally , above the directors , managers , and werkers , there would be a governor for each colony . lie would be nominated by the united directors and managers ,. " The administration would bo composed of the governor , one-third of ths directors , and twe-thirds of the managers . # * * A severe discipline would reign over these colonies . Life would there be salutary but rough , for their object is not to hatch idlers , but bo ennoble men by healthy and remunerative labour , as well as by moral education .
The workmen and their families weald be treated in the simplest manner possible . Lodging , food , and clothing would be regulated by the army tariff ; for military organisation is the only one which is based at once on the comfort of all its members and the strictest economy . These establishments , however , would not be military , they would only borrow from the army its admirable order , and that would be all . The army is simply an organisation . The working class would form an association . These two bodies differ in principle and object Until the colony yielded profit , all the workmen would be lodged iu barracks constructed like military
ones . These healthy constructions , built on a small scale , would contain ten men and their overseers , or one family . As soon as the receipts surpass the expenses , the barracks would be replaced by more healthy buildings , erected according to a matured plan . Accessory bnildings would then be added to afford the members of the oology and their children both civil and religious instruction . Finally , vast hospitals would be built for the infi > m , and for those whose age made labour impossible ; Every year the accounts would be published , laid before the general assembly of workmen , and submitted to the general council of the department for their approval , who would likewise have the right to discharge the manager or directors who had exhibited any incapacity .
Every year the governors of the colonies would have to proceed te Paris , and there , under the presidence of the Miiister of the Interior , ducuss the best means of employing their funds , for the general benefit of the association .
RECEIPTS AVI ) SXPENSBS . According to our supposition , the working man ' s association would have to claim two-thirds of uncultivated lands , or 6 , 127 000 acres . To ascertain how much these acres would yield , if subjected to proper cultivation , without any being lefc fallow , we have made the following calculation : — The number of acres of cultivated lands in all France , is 19 814 . 741 The natural and artificial prairies 5 , 774 , 745
Total 25 . 089 , 486 The rough value of the produce of these lands is : — For tbe arable soil 3 . 479 . 583 , 005 For the prairies , 066363 , 412 Total , 4 , 14394 & 4 irfr . The average produce per acre , for seed or prairie lands , would rise to 165 francs per acre . On the other hand , there are in France 51 , 568 , 845 domestic animals of every kind , which give a rough produce of 767 . 251 , 851 francs , without comprising the value of meat consumed . Taking one with the other , each head of eattle produces 15 f ., aud as those animals are fed on twenty-six millions of acres , it will make two for each acre . We may say that the average produce of each acre is 105 francs , 165 from the
land and 30 from the animals . Our 6 , 127 000 aores put into cultivation or pasture , would yuld from the tough produca of the soil 1 , 010 , 055 . 000 francs , and from the produce of animals 183 , 810 , 000 , making a total of 1 , 194 , 765 , 000 ftuncii Deduct from that sum the amount these lands now produce—vis ., 54 , 709 , 364 francs , and the territorial wealth would be augmented by 1 , 140 , 855 , 636 francs , Let us now estimate the expense . To assist our calculations , let ns suppose that the lands to be cleared are ' equally spread over each political division ot France . We would have then * to divide the number of acres by 86 , whioh would leave for each department 71241 aores . Fixing twenty years as the time after whioh all these lands should be cultivated , there would be for each department 3 . 502 acres to clear aanually .
The number of hands requirad for this werk could be regulated thus : one workman would on an average clear three acres annually , as he can do two of woodland or four of turf . But , as we must calculate sickness , and likewise , that after the second year the workmen would be obligsd to attend to the cultivation of the sail , and assist ths agricultural families , vrho would be annually augmenting , we will suppose that only two acres are annually cleared . It would be neosasary , then , to employ 1 , 781 workmen to accomplish the work in twenty years , and as there would be cleared annually 8 , 562 acres , the colony would receive every year 120 families to assist in the cultivation of those cleared lands .
A large landed proprietor informs us , that under the old system of agriculture , of wheat , corn and fallow alternating , it was necessary to employ on a farm of 150 aores , eight domestics , six thrashers , and twenty harvest men . Under the new system , where the pastures are replaced by green crops requiring weeding , one hand more would be required each year . , We have calculated two beasts per acre in branoe . The colony would then annually purchase double the number of cattle te the acres which they had cleared during tha preceding year : Thus during the interval of twenty years , the colony weuld have its receipts and expenses pregressive ' y increasing . . ,, „ ,
The receipts , without counting the firat government advances , would be composed of the periodical augmentation of 3 , 562 acres , and their annual increases in value ; for admitting that each acre yields 195 francs , the lands would not produce that amount , except at the end of three years , and after four years of cultivation . That is tc say , each acre after being cleared would yield the first year 65 francs , the second 130 , and each succeeding year 195 francs . As for the expenses independent of the first outlay , the expenditure would ba continually renewed , suoh as for the payment of 1781 workmen asd 120 families , the rent due to boroughs or individuals , seed , outhouses , management , and 7 , 124 beasts to purchase . Besides there would be each year a regular increase in expanses caused fay the maiutenaaoe cf 120 new families , and the erection of barracks to lodge .
Each workman would receive the pay of a soldier , and each family that of three workmen . Clothing would be cheaper for the workman than for the soldier ; but we will calculate it at the market price . Each man would annually cost , including everything , 318 francs . The managers would receive the pay of son . commissioned officers ; the directors that of officers , * and the governor that of a colonel .
BMPLOTMEHT AMD ADVASOB CF WAGBS . All the poor , all who were out of work , would find in them means of employing mind and body for the benefit of the entire community . The poor of one department could remove to the colony of the n » xt ; or cultivated lands might be purchased , which , although unprofitable to individuals , might be advantageous to an association . It is clear that the workman who was always sure to find a living in the agricultural colonies would not accept of private employment unless the latter presented greater betefita than the former , * hence a remunerative scale of wages would always be maintained .
Let us not be accused of dreaming of an impossibility . We have only to recall te mind the example of the famous English East India Company . What is it but an association like that which we
The President Of The French Republic On ...
propose , whose results , although astonishing , are not so favourable to humanity as that which we call for with all onr heart and son !;
irevrsw AND COXCLUSION . In the summary view we have given of the benefits , we have kept within the truth ; for the cultivatioB of a fourth part of the uncultivated lauds would not only increase by a quarter the rough revenue of France , but this increase of wealth would give to all branches of national industry an immense stimulus , whioh is more easy to understand than explain ia all its details . Not only would these eolonies prevent , in twonty years , mere than a million of human beings from
languishing in misery , not only would tbey support a hest of workmen in connexion with agrienlture , but the annual exshange of 800 millions of fraaos worth of land products for others would increase consumption and improve the hose market . This demand would present ai outlet for all the fruits of industry more considerable than the most advantageous commercial treaties would effest , because the 800 millions of francs value , surpass by 156 millions the value of all our ex ? ortations whioh only amount to 644 millions ot iranci .
To make this reasoning more apparent and to show the vast importance of the home market , let us suppose these agricultural colonies were not within our territorial boundary , bufteparated from ; the continent by an arm of the sea , and aline of custom-house ofneera , and that they were nevertheless compelled to have no commercial dealings except with France . It is clear that if their agricultural produce realised profite of 800 millions of francs , that sum would be exchanged for various continental produce . It maybe presumed that these colonies , from the nature of the aoil , will prsduce grain and cattle , rather than wine . But by augmenting tha quantity of wheat , and of flash meat , they would lower the price of oommofi necessaries and increase consumption by putting them within reaeh of the working classes .
To sum up . The system which we propose is the result of all the ideas which have emanated from the most able political economists of the last half ceatnry . In M . Gouin ' s Statistical and Official Agricultural Repert , page xxviii , the Minister declares that the greatest progress to be obtained is by reclaiming the waste lands which do not yield more than eight francs per acre . Our project realises that idea . . Our prejeet confers upon the unemployed all that is calculated to improve the condition of man , comfort , education , order , and the chance which is afforded everyone of elevating himself by his awn merit aad industry .
Our organisation tends to nothing leas than the making , in the course of a few years , the poorer classes the richest association in all France . According to our system wages would be fixed , as all human things ought to be regulated , not by force , but acearding to theijust equilibrium established between the wants of those who toil and the necessities of those who provide werk . In the prssant day all flock to Paris , which as a centre absorbs all the energies of the country ; our system , without injuring the centre , would carry life to the furthest extremities , by bringing into action eighty-six new systems , working under the direction of the government .
What is wasting to realise such a project ? Ohe year ' s pay of the army , fifteen times the sum given to Amorica , m an expense equal to that employed on tbe fortifications of Paris . This advance would after twenty years , bring back to France 1000 millions , to the working classes 800 millions , and a revenue of thirty-seven millions of francs . Let tbe government put ear project into execution , modifying it according to the experience of men well versed in such complicated matters , and who may supply useful hints and east new lights upon then . Let it take to heart the greaf . national interests . Let } it establish the comfort of the masses , on an immovable basis , and it -will become immovable itself . Poverty would no longer become seditious , when it was no longer oppressive .
It is a great aud holy mission , aud worthy of man ' s highe & t anbition to strive to subdue human nature , to heal all wounds , to soothe the sufferings of huma nity , by uniting the people of the same country in one common Interest , and , by accelerating that future which civilisation will Boomer or later ushec in . In the bsginaing of the last century La Fontaine uttered this sentence , whioh is too often true , but always sad and so destructive of eotiety- order , and hierarchies . ' I tell you in plain French our enemy is our master . ' In the present day the aim of every wise government sheuld be to bring about a time , when it might be said , 'the triumph of Christianity has destroyed slavery : the triumph of the French revolution has destroyed servitude , and the triumph of democracy has destroyed pauperism . '"
Thb • Turn' New Printing Machine---The T...
Thb Turn' new Printing MACHiNE---The Times , ia a long leading article , gives a description of a printisg machine , whieh has been for the past two months in use in that office , whereby the extraordinary number of 140 copies can be thrown off in a minute . It is a machine having eight cylinders . Hitherto , the rate at which it has been worked is about 1000 revolutions per hour , or 8000 impressions ; but it is probable that it will be ultimately worked to 12 , 000 copies an hour . The name of the gentleman who constructed this wonderful piece of mechanism is Mr Augustus Applegarth of Dartford . Rmigioh of thb SHOPOCRAcr . —Christianity is fast degenerating amsng them from a living power to a lifeless form—from a principle to a sentimentfrom an inward motive t" an outward profession . It is ainkine into a routine of devotional exercises , tha
effects of whioh terminate with themselves . It puts orthodoxy in the place ef reverence for truth—and substitutes peouniaryisubscriptions [ for . aotive personal exertion . It is an agency to be worked pretty exclusively by ministers . It builds up ' interests , ' instead of grappling with evils . It aspires to be genteel , rattier than irresistible . Its love of justice is not allowed to make a disturbance at home—if it wants play , it must go to a distance . Its charity prefers foreign objects . Taking it ' for all in all , ' it strikes one as an almost impenetrable mass of conveistionaJifm—nat positively dead , but completely overlaid—sickly , faneiful , feminine—as an existence dwindling into nominalism—as a life , fast decaying —as a power , all but void of efficiency . Of course , there are exceptions—but , in the main , we fear , such is the religionism of the middle olaases of our
times . . „ The Emperor op Russia ' s Household Guard — This cavalry corps is the Emperor ' s pride , and is the flower of his household brigade . The finest men in the army are drafled into it . and their uniform and appointments are superb . The men are as nearly as possible of the same height , and uniformity is carried eut to an absurd extent . Those whose upper lips are so disloyal as not to be productive of a sufficient growth of hair are corked and painted , that all may look alike ; and the expenditure ef cotton must be immense , for one man is taken as a standard and the rest are padded all over to bring them out to that shape and size . Such a youthful regiment I have saldom seen , and consequently the black brush is in
great requisition . At a httle distance the ettect is splendid , and even when close the making up is so admirably done that it is difficult to distinguish the really muscular from the stuffed and bolstered men efwar . The uniform ia very similar to our Life Guards , but white , with silver appointments ; and instead cf our plume in the helmet they wear the spread eagle , which makes a most beautiful and becoming military head-dress . Instead of the cuirass , on this occasion , they wore a red coverlet , with a yellew star in the front , an old usage still prasjrved on state occasions . The Emperor appears as Colonel of tbe regiment , and in which uniform he appears by far the best . He is followed by his aides-de-camp ; he inspects the troops as he passes along ; those he
has inspectet set up a mechanical shout , a sort of howl ol approval ( very different from the hearty cheer we hear from British treope . ) This howl continues , perpetually increasing in volume , till the whole are reviewed , when , passing to the centre , the Emperor naves his royal gauntlet , and a death-like s > illness prevails . The army is a sort of automaton ; every * ye is centered upon him ; he pulls the wites by a nod or look , and the tsachine performs its work . The religion which teaches them that' God and the Emperor' ate the first to ba reverenced , gives them the idea that in the capacity of their king he is more than human , and they worship bita accordingly ; the devotion ot the Russian to his Emperor is astonishing . The Russian uncovers on
the approach of the Emperor , and remains eo until he takes his departure , which may not be for hours ; it wou'd be sacrilege to cover the head in his august presence . —Atkinson ' s Pictures of iU North . Criticism op Art . — A small crowd gathered be . fore a window recentl y to admire the figure of a cat that was there , as if for public inspection . Nearly every one was delighted with its likeness to life . ' But still , * said Augustus , ' there are faults in it : it ia far from perfeet ; observe the defect in the fore shortening of that paw , now ; and the expression oi that eye , too , is bad ; besides , the mouth is too far
down under the chin , while the whiskers look as they were coming out cf her ears . It is too short , too But . as if to obviate this defect , the fi g ure stretched itself and rolled over in the tun . ' It is a cat I vow said a bystander . ' Ii's alive !* shouted an urchin , clapping his hands . 'Why , it ' s only a oat arter » N » ' e * ela , mea Mrs Partington , as she surveyed it through her specs ; but Augustus moved on disappointed that nature had fallen so short of his ideas of perfection ia the manufacture of cats . But Augustus was quite aa competent a critic aa many others whosa judgmo & t of painting leads the town .-NA 0 « ' York Observer ,
Louij Napomob ' s Livery . —His servants' livery is precisely the same as | that of the Emperor—a green coat with geld buttons , black silk stockings and plush shorts . O wing to the great affluence of visiters two daysef the week have been fixed upon as reception days .
t famtfr * .
Dickens Received £3,O " Oo ' Foth^ Nr Ch...
Dickens received £ 3 , o " oo foTh ^ Nr cholaa Nicklcby . Earthqi ; ake 8 .-Two shocks of earthquake were f « lt on the 5 ih of November la ; t at Kingston , in Thwkino .-No one learns to think by gettin- ' y « es for thinking , but by getting materials for thought ! The Duke of Athol is busy with legal measures to prevent the righfcof way through his forest . The Aylesbury butchers are selling meat at 3 Jd and prime joints at i \\ , per lb , Fbhhch Poulthv . — Large quantities of turkeys and other poultry wore last week imported from Franco for the metropolitan market .
Among the list of penalties for the regulation of Quean Elietbeth ' s household was the followia" >—' That ueue toy with the maidens eo pain of four * pence . ' N « w Method op Making Borrj : R . « -. The New York Mirror states that a discovery has been made of a method ol producing butter instantly by firciug air through cream . BfisfBPicui , BeQuser . —A retired phyaiciae in Dublin has bsqueathRd one third of all his property expected to realise £ 60 , 000 , to the cancer ward o * . the Middlesex Hospital . ' A Lccky Fkllow . —A few days ago , a man naraed Williaia Jenkins found £ 300 , in bank no ' es , ia Castle Street , Liverpool , carefully wrapped up in a parcel . The New Roman government permit the theatre * to be opened during Advent , which is quite contrary to the rule * of ihe Catholic Church .
Vbbt PflOPBR . —A proposition has been aubmitted to the Sobleswlg and Holstein National Assembly to abilish the episcopal sees , and apply the funds to public education . Wild Dock * . —Numerous large ^ flocks of wild ducks passed over Sunderland during the night of Tuesday , disturbing the pea carol inhabitants bv Ihei * gabble . A Jbw , a Gentleman at asms . —Amongst tha gentlemen recently appointed by her Majesty t > bet corpa of gentlemen-at-arms ia Mr Philip Solomons , a Jew . A field of beans , near Linlithgow was led in on Thursday ireek last in fair condition ,- well ripened , aad considering the inclemency of the weather of late , intolerably good order . Licknsbd Mesmerism . —Tha city authorities ef Columbus , Ohio , charged one Professor Kecly forty edd dollars for a licence to lecture on mesmerism ia that city .
Emioraiiok . —No less than 65 , 123 persons ( of whom 62 , 750 left for the United States ) embarked from Livwpeel during the half year ending 30 . h June , 1848 , la 405 ships , Horbiblb AeoiDBNT . —Lately , a man employed ia chemical works at Neath , Glamorganshire , fell up to his wal » t in a still of vitrol ; but some hope are entertained that he will recover from his injuricB . A Paris caricature represents Louis Philippe re . oeiving a kick from Lamattise , who is receiving one from Cavaignac , who is in turn kicked by Louis Napoleon ; then comes a scroll— ' To ba continued . ' Economy . —Tho Builder mentions a Belgian ' s very economical notion . He proposes to attach bakehouses tethe stations ea the railways where the coke furnaces are placed , and to bake bread with the lost heat .
Gkhkral Tom Thumb . — . Tha American papers state the illustrious manikin to be in excellent health , and that his size and weight have not in « creased . He appears nightly at the Broadway Theatre , New Terk . A sow , belonging to a villager of Rait , near Dundec , lately attempted to swallow a live rat , head foremost . The rat stuck it * tusks so fast in tho throat of the unlucky sow that she was choked . Thb Stanfibld Hall Mcbbers , —The woman who attended the led ^ e gates at Stanfield Hail , Mas received sueh a shock from the horrible murder of her Esasters the Messrs Jermy , that it has been necessary to remove her to a madhouse . Musk Imitated—Mu k is imitated by dre .-.-j .-Ing 81 drachms of nitric acid on one drachm of rectified oil of amber . In the course of a day a black substance is produced , which smells like muak . —Chmu cal Times .
Louis Napolson baud up . —Wheu Louio Kai ) 0 « Icon Bonaparte e » te » plated leaving the meiroix . lis for Paris after the Revolution , he was eo reduced in financial matters that he had to borrow on eeeur ty £ 2 , 000 , whioh he achieved with difficulty . i-iBBBAMON oy Prisoners . —On Mondav weak four poor farmers , from the neighbaurbood R ; uhgormack , who were imprisoned in our county g . < ol for treasonable practices , < bc > , were admitted to hail —themselves in £ 30 , and two sureties in £ 10 c ; ioh . —Waterford Chronicle .
EuianATiow troh BELEisi . —The total nun'bar who have embarked at this port , direct for tho United States of America and the Canadas , duriag the year ending 22 ad December , 1848 : —United States , 0 . 395 ; Canada , 1 , 030 ; total , 8 , 325 . Htdbpphobia . —Mr Cummjn « B , an innkeeper anA grocer at Sherburn Hill , near Durham , lately died from hydrophobia , nine weeks after he had '«> en bitten in the nose by a dog . The dog afterwards ran away , and little notice was taken of the wouud , as the animal was not supposed to be mad . Irish Rssoobes . —Mr Richard O'Goraan , j-. n ., arrived in Paris on Saturday , the 16 ih ult ,, ironx Marseilles , at which place he had arrived from Constantinople . There are also in Paris Mr O'Mah .-ny , Mr Eugene O'Reilly , Mr Rivers , and Mr Byrne .
A Tiobb Shark . —A tiger shark , measuring ten and a half feet in length , and two feet in circumference , has been caught near the shore of Limb ' s Town , America . It had ten rows of teeth ; its juws , when epened , wonld receive without difficulty a person of good size . Eclipms—There will he two eclipses of the sua and two of the moon this year . Sun a total eclipse , August 18 vh , partial eclipse of the moon on i . he 8 th March , visible , and a partial eclipse on the 28 th August , visible . Long Credit . —Some time since a person at Chelmsford , more ingenious than scrupulous , paid a tradesman for some goods by a bill at two months ; but on presenting it at the expiration of that period , the owner found it was payable two months after death instead of after date .
Fakaiicish —The infant child of two' latter-day saints' recently died ef an abscess at Northampton , through the obstinate fanaticism of its parents , who refused te obtain medical attendance for thei * infect , on the ground that human aid in oases of sickness is not only useless butsinful . Dissenikbs * Siavks . —The Utioa Chrhiiau Cos . tbibctob observes : —• ' A published calculation states that 250 , 000 slaves are held by Methodists , 226 , 000 by Baptists , and 80 , 000 by Presbyterians . Add 45 . 000 to all other denominations , and you have 000 , 000 slaves in the United States held by Dissenters . '
The King of Bavaria has offered a priae oflOO ducats ( nearly £ 50 ) for the best essay on tbe following subject : — ' By what means can the poverty of the lower orders of tha inhabitants of Germany , and more especially of Bavaria . be most advantageously and permanently relieved . ' The earays are to be given in by tbe 31 st of January . CotfMuri— Grattan ( says Sam Rogers ) wasonOB attacked in the Irish Commons by an inveterate Orangeman ; who made a miserable speech . —Grattan replied— ' I shall make no other remark on the hon . gentleman ' s personalities than—as he rose without a friend , so he has sat down without an enemy . Was eve * contempt so concentrated iu an expression ?
An Indifmhent Hosbakd . — 'Ah John , y 00 won't have me much longer ; I sha 11 never Jeare this bed alive ! ' < 1 'lease thee self , Betty , and thee'll please I , ' returned John with great equaBimity . I have been a good ' wife to you John , ' persisted tbe dying woman . « Middlin ' , Betty , middlin ' , ' responded the matter-of-faot husband . A few days Buxaa yr . ung woman died at Smtterby . Yorkshire , from inflammation of the bowels , caused by taking laudanum , a habit to which she was 80 greatly addicted , that , for some time befcre death , she is believed to have consumed more than a quart of hudaaum a-week .
Oh Yes!—A Tory was once praising an Orange bishop , of whom it was swd that he strangled a man with his own hands during the Rebellion . * What is your objection to that bishop , ' quoth the Tory . Is he not learned , pious , and so forth f ' Oh yes . said Grattan . ' Very learned and very pious ; but he IS fond of blood and prone to intoxication . ' Emigration . — In the year ending September 30 . 1847 , 239 270 passengers arrived in tho United States , of whom 123 , 838 were from Great Britain and Ireland , 73 , 444 Irom Gesmany , and 20 , 055 from Fronce , Of these passengers , 37 . 562 ware labourers , 3 , 197 servants , 4 . 301 merchmta , 20 . 150 mechanics and manufacturers , and 50 , 036 farmers . A few mornings since , a bay , five years old , the son
of a needle-stamper at Feckenbam , Worcestershire , whom his parents had left asleep in bed , awoke , and perceived on the table , a bottle , containing halt a pintof braady . He climbed en a chflfr . and tbns sue . Seeded in reaqhiac the brandy , which he ewallowed , thereby causing his death within two hours . Kino op Trump * . — A stsry is told of an Irish King at Arms , v » ho , waiting upon the Bishop of Killaloa to summon him to Parliament , and being dressed , as the ceremony required , in hia hwaldifl attire , KQ mystified the bishop ' s servant with bis appeara & ee that not knowing what to make of it , and carrying off but a confused notion of his title , he annonnced himthua / Myioxdjhei-eistheKing of Trumps . —Pennanf .
Incitement to Drunkbwjws a Punishabu Op « fence— By the 11 th and 12 th Victoria , c . 43 , ?; 5 , which has recently come into operation , every person who shall aid or abet , counsel or procure , the commission of any offence , ' punishable samaanly by the magistrates , is made liable to the flame penalties aa the principal offender . Thusthe man who is a party to the drunkenness of another may he convic ted as anaider , andsomayalso any . paraon wto incites another to swear or to commit any other ^ offence which the magistrates hare the power to punish ,
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 6, 1849, page 3, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/ns2_06011849/page/3/