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of 25th T ' '. .,.«, r/- *- , .... v-.^^...
TO TAILORS. By approbation of Her Most E...
I respectfully request tliat the followi...
THE NORTHERN STAK. SATURDAY, MXUARY 3, WG. ¦
THE CHANGE-ITS CAUSE. KNOWLEDGESETS EFFE...
TIIE CORN LAWS, THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, AN...
THE ARREST OF MR. O'HIGGINS. We announce...
MINISTERIAL CHANGES. We have authority t...
The Callixs out of ihe Militia.—Tlie let...
Co Waters. # Gorrefifooitoente*
Our want ot space compelled us to omit t...
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Of 25th T ' '. .,.«, R/- *- , .... V-.^^...
. .,. « _, r / - _* - , _.... _v-. _^^ xi" _>; _- _n _« - _« hl January W 1846 . f 4 -a _'Trtrftilfl ' _Tnmr _rfiMT ? , _, - _, — - ¦ _- —
FUNERAL ECONOMY !
THE CEMETERY and GENERAL FUNERAL COMPANY , _nnited with SHILLtBEElt'S PATENT P 8 _KERAL CARRIAGES , " respectfully _^ invitepuhlic attention to the economic and convenient arrangements foe _perxbnningeretydescriptioB of funerals complete , atcbarges se m » derate astodeiy competition _. and no extras , by which the comfort of bereaved families will be _materially promoted , and expenses limited . City-road , Finsbury , next _Baniill-fields Burial-ground ; 21 , Percy _^ street , _Tottenham-court-road ; and 136 , Union-street , Southwark . SMllibeer ' s Patent Funeral Carriage , with two horses , £ 1 Us . 6 _d . ; Single Horse , ills . A respectable Carriage Funeral , combining eveiy charge , £ _i 4 s . Hearses and Mourning Coaches . Catholic Fittings . Four Horse Funerals , £ 1212 s .
UNITED TRADES' ASSOCIATION FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF LABOUR IN AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURES . ( Provisionally _registered . ) Office , 30 , _Hyds-street , Bloomsbury . London . Present proposed capital , £ 100 , 000 in 20 , 000 shares of £ a eaeh .
EXTRAORDINARY ECONOMY TO TEA DRINKERS . THE DESIRE OF E \ GLAXD . —The PIQUA PLANT , now sold at 3 s . Gd . per lb ., is three times the _strength of tea , and is also equal in flavour , more delicate in taste , nfinitely more healthy , as is proved hy physicians and chemists of high standing , also by persons in great numbers with the most delicate lungs and stomachs . It is most pleasant and invigorating , and is recommended to the debilitated for its invaluable qualities , to advanced age for its strengthening properties , and to the public generally for its moderate price aud intrinsic excellence . Tas Test . —The proof of the efficacy and healthful eiFect of the plant in preference to tea or coffee : —Let a nervous or dyspeptic patient use two or three cups of strong tea upon retiring to rest , and the effect will be _lught-mare , disturbed sleep , aud other violent symptoms of indigestions , Ac .
THOMAS COOPER . THB CHaRTiSTS WORKS .
COLOSSEUM .-NOTICE .-PRICE OF ADMISSION _DURING THE HOLIDAYS !! Day Exhibition 2 s . EveuingDo , 2 s . Cd . Children under Twelve ls . Stalactite Caverns ls . extra . THE DAT EXHIBITION consists of the Museum of Sculpture , Grand Picture of London , Alhambra Conservatories , Gorgeous Gothic Aviary , Classic ltuins , Swiss Cottage and Mont Blanc , with Mountain Torrent , A _* c ic . Open from Ten till Pour o'Clock . EVENING . —The new and extraordinary Panorama _« f London ur Night , Museum of Sculpture , Conservatories , and Gorgeous Gothic Aviary , kc , brilliantly illuminated ; Swiss Cottage , Mont Blanc , aud Mountain Torrent represented by Moonlight . Open from Seven till a Quarterpast Ten o'Clock .
DAGUERREOTYPE AND CALOTYPE . THE _APPARATUS , LESS , CHEMICALS , PLATES , CASES , and every other article used in making aud mounting the above ean be had _» f J . Egerton , No . 1 , Temple-street , _Whitefriars , London . Descriptive Gatalogues gratis . LEREBOURS celebrated ACHROMATIC TRIPLET LENSES for the MICROSCOPE , sent to any part of the country at the following price : —Deep Poivcr , 60 s ., Low Power , 25 s . Every article warranted .
TO ALL WHO CANT PAY ! IMMEDIATE Pratection , and a prompt and safe final discbarge , without the _intervention of a Prison or an Attorney . A discharge to Debtors is now imperative , because Imprisonment for Debt is now penal , _notremediaL—Debtors of all grades will be benefitted by applying forthwith to John S . Benstead , 22 , Basinghall-street , near the Court of Bankruptcy , London .
DUNCOMBE AND DENMAN . EIGHT SPLENDID ENGRAVINGS _^ re given in OLD MOORE'S SHEET ALMANACK for 1 S 4 C , including Portraits of the Lord Chief Justice Demnan , and of T . S . Duncombe , Esq ., M . P . for Finsbury , Price One Penny , or sent postage free , Threepence . London , Cleave , Shoe . lane ; Heywood , Manchester ; Guest , Bir . miogham ; Love , Glasgow ; Freman , Newcastle-on . Tyne ; and aU agents for the Star throughout the country .
To Tailors. By Approbation Of Her Most E...
TO TAILORS . By approbation of Her Most Excellent Majesty Queen Victoria and His Koyal Highness Prince Albert . THE LONDON and PAKIS FASHIONS for Winter , _18 « _andlS' € . by BEAD and Co ., 12 , _Ilart-street , _Bloomsbury-square , London ; Bergcr , _flo ' yweli-street , Strand , London , and may he had of all _Jtoolcsellers wheresoever residing ; a _yery superb Print , representing the most splendid exhibition ia Europe , an Interior View of the Colosseum Rcgentfs-park , Londen . This exquisitely executed and beautifully coloured Print will be accompanied with fullsize Dress , Frocfc _. and Hiding Coat Patterns ; also , Patterns ofthe New Fashionable Polka Frock , and Locomotive
Riding Coats , and an extra fitting Fashionable Waistcoat Pattern , with erery part complete , and a full explanation ofthe manner of cutting and making them up ; also 9 extra plates , including 3 sectors , 4 for cutting fancy coats , 4 for waistooats , the other for cutting Coat Collar Patterns , in proportion , for all sizes , s _» that any person may complete the whole in the most correct manner tvithout a previous knowledge of any system ofcuttin , whatever . Price ( as usual ) the whole , 10 s ., or post free toany part of England , Ireland , Scotland , and Wales , lis . System of Cutting , 25 s ; Patent Measures , 8 s the set . Patterns , post free , Is each ; to be had of all _bsoksellers . For particulars , see "Towusend ' _a Parisian Costumes , " "Gazette of Fashion , " "London and Paris Magazine of Fashion , " the "London and Country Press , " & c .
DANCE MUSIC POR CHRISTMAS . —NEW MUSIC FOR PIANOFORTE . § fTlHE PIANISTA , No . S 3 , contains X "The Royal British _Javy , " and " Welsh" Quadrilles , now playing at the Promenade Concerts . The two sets Is ., chirged by Jullien , 7 s . No . 62 , contains the "Elfin" Waltzes and two new songs for ls . No . Gl , Music in Marble Maiden , ls . No . 60 , the Mazurka . Polka and _Qaudrille ia " The Devil to Pay , " ( Diable a quatrel no » v playiug at Drury Lane and all the theatres , ls . No . 59 , contains the _whols opera of "Sonnambnla , " 2 s . No . 57 , Ditto , " Fra Diavolo , " 2 s , or the Nos . from 57 to 62 , in splendid binding , as a Cliristmas or New Year ' s present , for 10 s , Sent carriage free to any part rf the kingdom for a Postoffice order for 12 s ., in favour of the editor , 67 , _Paternoster-Tiw .
CITY CHARTIST HALL , 1 , TURNAGAIN-LANE , _SKINNER-STREET , SNOW-HILL . THE Chartists of the _Metropolis and the Public geierally are respectfully informed that a Third Series of EIGHT LECTURES Will be delivered in the above commodious hall , to com . mence on Sunday Evening , 4 th of January , 1840 , by
I Respectfully Request Tliat The Followi...
I respectfully request tliat the following leader , and my letter relative to thc restoration of Frost , Williams , and Jones , may be read at all places where Chartists congregate ; and that we may have a response to the letter next week . . F . _O'Cosnob . ___________ i ________ MH _^>^< _iBn __« t _a __ _an __ _IHnta «_ M «_« _nK . _Ma
The Northern Stak. Saturday, Mxuary 3, Wg. ¦
THE NORTHERN STAK . _SATURDAY , MXUARY 3 , WG . ¦
The Change-Its Cause. Knowledgesets Effe...
THE CHANGE-ITS CAUSE . _KNOWLEDGESETS EFFECT . As we arc now entering upon a new year , and one whose results promise to exceed thoseof former years in the same ratio as the kuowledge of tlie morrow may turn the wisdom of to-day into mere speculative prosumption _, it is worth while to oast a retrospective glance at the past , and to venture a conjecture on thc future . _Wedonotthenhazard too mHchinprcdictiuga change of no ordinary nature . Not such a change perhaps , as the improved and active genius of the present times may warrant—not such a change as will at once convince the world of tiie cause that has produced it , but such a change as will mark ministerial and party confession of the giant horror that _knowledge presents to the tyrant dominion of
ignorance . A change that will unveil the mystery of kings , the impiety of religion , the superiority of wealth , the romanee of loyalty , the liction of legitimacy , the sanctity of error , the assumption of the press , the usurpation of an old , and the foul dominion ofa new aristocracy , the ascendancy of the idle , the inferiority of the industrious , the inequality of thc law , the
pomp of office and the glare of power , the . musket ' s strength and the bludgeoti ' a authority , the force of Toryism and the fraud of Whiggery , the prejudice of long established error and the folly of old established rule , remnants of barbarous times , are all , one and all , ahout to vanish before the majesty of right * , the genius which proclaims man's equality in the eye of the law , and stamps the idle only with a brand of inferiority .
The mind of the pre _* . ont age is civilised , while the laws that control it are barbarous . The struggle of thc day is the contention of knowledge against prejudice , obsolete and out of fashion , except as found embodied in the musty records of the wo'g out past . Those laws against wliich new rights , new _powers , new authority , and new necessities are now struggling , are the laws of kings and priests , and aro an emanation from , and typical ol , the barbarous mind of olden times . In those days when tho raaxim was not oniy tolerated , but admitted , that kitigs ruled by right divine , and priests were their vice-gcrents upon earth—the knowledge of the old world was warped to kingly and priestly purposes . There was knowledge , it is true , but that knowledge was never
allowed to pass tho limits in which it was intended its exercise should circumscribe the rights of the throne and the conventicle . The priests of old stood foremost inthe ranks of education and of knowledge , but they used them as thc assassin uses the daggerto take vengeance or achieve power—to persuade or coerce . Whero they failed to conciliate by tho shadow , which was the word , they triumphed by the substance , which was the faggot . Laws were made for them and by them . They tolerated iu kings as much power as marked their own supremacy , but there it stopped ; aad when ever monarchical power appeared to be the emhodyment of the national will , then no more reverence was paid to monarchy than to the foul monster democracy .
For many a long year fresh knowledge , now knowledge , that knowledge which could best govern new circumstances , has _hflen wrestling with tlie declining monster , and at length it has snatched the dagger irom the assassin ' s hand , and plunged it into the assassin ' s breast . Truth has slain falsehood , simplicity ha 3 overthrown mystery , the _prejudice of tlie past has faded before the convictions of the present . Now , it is this thing , knowledge , that is looking for the recognition of its power in the cmbodyment of
its laws ; and while it walks straight in that course to which the living minds of all admit its right , it is met in its progress by the styles , the turnpikes , the dead walls , the ramparts , the bulwarks , and the landmarks of ancient ignorance , dominion , and misrule . And while the minister himself says onward , the dumb watchman ( the law ) warns the intruder , and motions him backward . The mind says onward , but the law , pointing to those harriers , cries backward— " Thus far shalt thou go , but no farther . "
The change , then , must be in the law : and the difficulty that any minister will experience in effecting thi ** great object , will be the fruitless attempt to extract such concessions from present interests and prejudices , as will satisfy present requirements . Every attempt has been made and has failed . Every attempt will be made , and will fail , which goes no farther than tlie satisfying tlie strong of the moment by the sacrifice of the weak . The _laudlords may be fed upon the church , the manufacturers may
be feasted upon the landlords , tiie throne may be exalted while the cottage becomes debased , and yet this graduated scale of sacrifice will tail to give satisfaction to any , until , at length , all that is sound , all that have interests to protect , must be called into council to devise means for the achievement of thc general object . This snapping up of ministriesthis rapid succession of speculative progress—this coming in and going out—resignation and restoration , is a tacit confession of the impossibility longer to continue the dominion of class .
In no change , whether political or social , have the people of any country recognised their share , or any portion of their share , except is those countries where the land , which is the property of all , has been conferred , bythe change , upon all . France hv its revolution , gained more than England by its Reform Bill . True , the peasant was governed bythe bayonet instead of by the law , but then thc bayonet destroyed the law of primogeniture , and distributed the land amongst the people , while the reformed Constitution of England , which professed to give the vote , but led to the coercion , starvation ,
and subjugation of the people . The change that is now sought , then , is such a representation of the present mind as will equitably , not equally , _distribute the present national resources of the country , and the cause that will lead to tlie change , the unjust distribution of those resource . * under class legislation , and the spirit of that cause Is" knowledge . That change which proclaimed the substitution of the ascendancy of capital for the dominion of priestcraft ; that change which proclaims the landed feaat of the capitalist—that change which proclaims the mere transfer of power from the fat hand of thc bullock feeder to tlio LONG LANK lingers of the slave driver , however it may , for a season , secure the ascendancy of party , will not be re-
The Change-Its Cause. Knowledgesets Effe...
ceived as tuc ' yightfuYtriumph of knowledge . How often have we proclaimed the fact , that with ninetynine out of •* hundred classes represented in the State , while tho industrious classes are unrepresented , confusion , dissatisfaction , and strife , even among the represented , must be the result ; while labour being tlie source of all wealth , IF ALONE represented , could not fail to do justice to all . Capital will ever be represented in its power . Labour should hold the dominion of the law to insure the balance between the two estates .
The change which we proclaim , upon the first day of the year , to be at hand , may be made one of revolution , or of concession ; but , from one or the other , it mtat mult . And if to the former it owes its triumph , which God " forefend , " the criminal that should stand at the bar , charged with all the horrors that may follow , should bo the corrupt , the false , the venal press of the factions . They see , and they know that there is an undercurrent sapping old prejudices , while they withhold a knowledge of this essential fact from those who , deprived of it , must legislate in the dark , while , it apprised of its
growing power , they might be inclined to make timely concessions to its will . But no , the gatherings of monopolists and protectionists are faithfully chronicled , the sayings of the mere units of faction are elaborately paraded , while not a single comment is offered upon the movement of the multitude . It is this unnatural warring ofthe elements that will cause the great political earthquake , that threatens to shake society to its centre . It is the disregard of the flash from the public will , that denotes the thunder of the public voice , that will assuredly follow , that may convert wholesome change into terrible revolution .
It is the impossibility of the interested capitalist making laws for the protection _» f labour , wbich is his battle-ground , that has stood in the way of all ministers , and it is that over wliich Sir _Ronunr Feel must triumph , or before which , fee must fall ; for labour will not , cannot , must not , be conquered . Labour ' s battle once begun , Bequeathed from bleeding sire to sou , Tlio' baffled ofc is always won .
THE LAND . After consultation with my brother directors , I find that it is their opinion that the subscriptions from thoso localities heretofore transmitted to the General Secretary , and accustomed to correspond with him , had better be continued through ( hesamc channel ; indeed , there is no difference as to the monies being sent to mc , or to Mr . Wheeler . The principal thing that I aim at , is to enforce the necessity of making all orders , to whosoever sent , payable to Mr . Roberta , as a different course entails endless trouble upon me . Feabods O'Coxkoi ? .
Tiie Corn Laws, The Quarterly Review, An...
TIIE CORN LAWS , THE QUARTERLY REVIEW , AND THE TIMES . The monthly artillery is beginning to pour its heavy shot into the flimsy breastwork of the daily press . The last number of the Quarterly Rtvieiv has rather clumsily embodied our several predictions as to what the result ofa repeal of the Corn Laws must be , and the Times , in its attempt to spike the great Conservative gun , has so overloaded its own pop-gun , as literally to cause dismay and discomfiture in the
ranks of tho undisciplined volunteers of free trade , of which our daily co-temporary is the undisciplined drilUevjeaut . The bombardment of the Quarterly , and the squibs ofthe Times , are much too lengthy for publication in a weekly newspaper , and , however we may auarrel with the clumsy mode in whieh the < 2 . ictTter _; ' lias used our arguments , yet we defy any , but the wilfully stupid , to read the reply ofthe Times without coming to the conclusion that that journal has not even yet seen the length of its own nose into the question of free trade .
The Times became a convert from necessity , and would now become an advocate from despair . The Quarterly has very foolishly made the _blundering of Lord Charles Russell , Mr . Ex-Chancellor Bakisg , and Lord Brougham , the ground work of some agricultural speculation , and the consistency or raving of Lord Joun Russell matter of observation , * and the Times , passing over the weighty arguments of the
Quarterly against free trade , takes up the cudgels to belabour three of the Quarterly ' s _giants , and to _defend its own dwarf , Lord John , and this is all done in the usual fashioned phrase of editorial logic , while the subject itself is left wholly untouched , and having defended its dwarf , the Times then sets about the work of beautifying its be » . st , and presents its own giant to the affrighted farmer in the following fascinating character : —
. "A million quarters of xvheat is the present avenge importation , and no opening of ports , or any other device of man , even if we were wilting to pay £ 5 a quarter , ean increase tliat importation except in a certain known and VERY LIMITED RATIO . Exit , even ifil were probable , why should itbeso shocking a prospect 1 Now we ask the sane man of twenty-one years of ago , tlie man to wltom the Charter would give the vote , if he ever read such rubbish , even newspaper , rubbish , as the above passage * , and we ask . those who have been so loud in their advocacy of free trade , if their
principle ever received such a MORTAL "WOUND from the hand of its greatest opponent . Now mark the reasoning—that the preaent annual importation from abroad is about " one million quarters , and no opening of the ports , or any other device of man , could increase that amount beyond a very LIMITED RATIO , even if we paid £ 5 a quarter , premium . " What then , and has ib come to this , and is free trade in reality , after all its promised blessings , to end in annual scarcity , annua ! apprehension , national reliance npon foreign clemency , and IN NO EXTENSION OF TRADE at all ? Now wo throw Lord
Charles Russell , Mr . Ex-Chancellor Baiuxo , Lord BitouoiuM , anil even Lord John , overboard . Wehave nothing to do with the miscalculations of the three former , or with the misconceptions of the latter . We might very fairly base our apprehensions upon failure in tbe wheat crop , and use the reasoning of the Times to show that even then , with that single casualty staring us in the face , we had been made dependent for an extra demand beyond what was in the power of other countries to supply . Bat we shall take the more reasonable stand , and assert that , although the 2 , 000 , 000 acres of Lord Charles Russell , which he says would be thrown out of cultivation by a repeal of thc Corn Laws , and the 8 , 000 , 000 acres heroically speculated upon by SLASHING LURRY , may be
a wild and extravagant conjecture , that at least 500 , 000 acres in England , 300 , 000 in _Ireland , and 200 , 000 in Scotland , would bc thrown out of cultivation DURING THE STRUGGLE . Mind , that ' s the rub—and then let us see how tho matter would stand . Those million of acres , at an average of three-quarters to the acre , being thrown out of wheat cultivation , would leave an annual deficiency of 3 , 000 , 000 quarters , which , added to the average deficiency of one million quarters , would leave a CERTAIN DEFICIENCY of four million quarters , while the Times assures us that a premium of £ 5 a quarter could only secure a very limited addition to the average importation oi a million quarters annually .
Now , then , what becomes of free trade ? where are its benefits ? What is the triumph—the people ' s triumph , that is to be eked out of the change ? It willbe found in those alterations which a repeal ef the Corn Laws must inevitably enforce , and which have been repeated by us within the last eleven years , in every possible shape in which words can present them , and in which the Quarterly Rtview _^ nA ether publications are now beginning to see them . Our speech at Middleton , in 1839 , wherein we described what must bc the inevitable result of a repeal of the Corn Laws , appears to havo formed the _ground work for the article in the Quarterly in 1843 . We select some ol _thecoiiscquc-ices which the Quarterly NOW anticipates from the ciiange . We give them in
succeson : — But to comeback fo trade ; has amj one endeavoured to cakulale the immense , and what we a ; e sure ivould be found , incalculable sums , _thatkiee been laid out in this empire on the faith o / _llicse proteoliw duties ? Look at the plant , as it is culled , of so mans and _SKcHmpo . tw . t lines of _Oiisiiicss ,
Tiie Corn Laws, The Quarterly Review, An...
Consider the millions of capital invested in 'the dead wewH of those innumerable trades , _'»»& thtn sojj who wilt dare to attempt to overthrow these _yoodly , these magnificent works , to devastate those fruitful fields , to beggar those millions of _Imputation by the chaotic earthquake of tohat is called free trade ; of whieh in its ultimate , or even its immediate consequences , its advocates have no more idea than the baker , who overheated his oven to supply his customers , had that he was about to burn down the city , of London . We repeat it , the agriculturists arc no doubt in front of the battle , and in the first peril , but the ultimate danger is still greater for _themamtfacturing classes , who , when deprivatio > i of work , and consequent famine , really eome , will not have even the poor resources Out Iht impoverished fields supply , out will either die of hunger or disease in those gigantic black holes called manufacturing toivns .
Jf , as there can he no doubt , tht plains of the Vistula , the Dnieper , and the Mississippi could , if there were a regular demand , feed alll ' kgland at very low prices , ice cannot deny that ice shonU soon be altogether fed by foreign wheat—that is , be doomed to foreign subjection whenever those governments should think proper to exert even a passive resistance against
ns . We beg to assure the Quarterly that lands much more contiguous to home than those on the bauks of Dnieper , the Mississippi , andthe Vistula , would supply , at a comparatively insignificant cost , any . amount required for English consumption , while we admit that the cheaper land a . nd cheaper labour , in far distant UNTAXED COUNTRIES , would furnish its quota of competitive production at a much lower cost than E . _-. _glish farmers could grow it AT PRESENT RENTS , or than our nearer neighbours could supply it . But after & _U , wA only all the surplus of all the countries in the world , but what can be speculated upon—upon the mere presumption of remuneration , would find its way to the WEALTHY MARKET . The Quarterly proceeds
To which must be added the * 6 ject and ytt contented condition of the peasant , who , till these inexhaustible tracts of eoimlry—bul more important slitt , the amount of British poor rate , and county rate , and the £ 800 , 000 , 000 of debt , for which the soil of England is , as it were , mortgaged . No , ft is iwt in the nature « f thing ) that awj compensation could be made for these enormous difficulties , these , we assert , irresistible dangers . Such are the extracts from the Quarterly , and the Times sums up the predictions of its antagonist in thc following unmistakable language : —
Associating this ancient , sublime , and romantic stidmgscale , with our " existing institutions , " he asserts that a repeal will be a " new revolution . " This much used , if not much abused term , can only mean a fundamental changesuch a change , for example , as would separate church and state , or alter the basis of the monarchy . The writer is true to liis promise . * he show 3 tfcat he means this , and a good deal more . Old revolutions touch the sovereign or the clergy , or perhaps a few boroughs and corporations . This , however , will overthrow " the church and state , " " Jaiitfoumers , farmers , and labourers , " " manufacturers of all classes , " and spread lo lhe solid earth itsdf , will render thc island one vast wilderness , on which the whole population sit down and perish , not because , like JIagar , they have spent their wafer and their bread , bill because thc country is absolutely overflowing with foreign corn , and thers is more than the whole population with their utmost exertion can possibly eat _.
There , reader , that's from the Times ; a sneer from the Thunderer . It is the summary of free trade results , and we adopt it , whole and entire , as our own . It is something new to hear the organ ol the altar , the throne , and the cottage , speaking of revolution as mere fundamental change , which
SEPARATES THE CHURCH FROM TIIE STATE , and ALTERS THE BASIS OF THE MONARCI 1 Y . This is , in truth , putting a smiling countenance upon the grim outcast , and giving to the revolutionist an honoured standing in society . The Thunderer sneer-, at a people starving in tho midst of abundance ; but have we not seen operatives naked in the midst of their own production ?—the children of shoemakers barefoot ?—the families of pastry cooks without a meal ?—the blacksmith ' s horse unshod ?—the people of Ireland starving in
seasons when potatoes have been turned into manure in consequence of their abundance ? Have we not read of the agricultural labourers of Dorsetshire starving in the midst of their own produce , and always lowly in proportion as it was valueless , be _* - cause cheap ; and we now repeat , that the surplus of the world , nay , some of tlie actual requirements of our nearest neighbours , being brought iuto speculative competition in the wealthy market of England , will starve the agricultural labourer , and make the manufacturing operative a slave—a machine , in the hands of the slave-master .
During the sittings of the Chartist convention we repeated our old opinions as to the inevitable result of a repeal of the Corn Laws , when Mr . West observed , that if tlie change was to separate Church from State , sponge the debt , and shake the throne itself , that he should like to know upon wliat grounds we could oppose the measure * , to which we replied , that UNDER EXISTING CIRCUMSTANCES , the free trade wind that shook the Church and
wrecked tlio State , would not blow a single OH U RCII PLUMB or STATE PLUMB into the mouth of Mr . West or his order * , while in their poverty they should bear all the blows of wealthy faction , until proper adjustment had defined the share of the several orders from the change . This explanation was received with cheers and laughter , and to it we still adhere , confirmed in the notion that privileged property will ever be an over-match for unprotected labour , until both are EQUAL UNDER THE LAW , and EQUALLY REPRESENTED IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS .
The Arrest Of Mr. O'Higgins. We Announce...
THE ARREST OF MR . O'HIGGINS . We announced in the Star of Saturday last , the arrest of Mr . O'Hiooi _. ns , by the Dublin authorities , on a trumped-up and ridiculous charge of sedition . From what transpired ut the police-office , there k no maniier of doubt but that tlie arrest of Mr . O'Higgins , and tlie intended prosecution of that gentleman , have beon at tho instigation of Mr . _O'Cov .-nell . Tlie paper or placard upon which the charge of sedition is founded , will appear to every unprejudiced mind to bear a construction very different from that which Mr . _O'Gosseu . has put npon it .
The hatred of the _O'Cohseu staff against Mr . _O'Higoins arises out of tlie simple fact , that he knows the character of every man of them ; and as they cannot assail him , and being vulnerable themselves , they fear and hate him . His honesty and straightforwardness is a reproach to . tliem . Never tiieless , he has friends , and sincere ones , too , even _, we believe , among the members of tlie Repeal . \ sso eiation . That Mr . O'CossEi . t instigated the government to the present prosecution of hii old friend will appear plain enough by the * following extracts from his speeches : — On Monday , the 17 th November , Mr . O'Connell , in alluding to the document in question ,
said—I now call the attention ot the meeting to a document transmitted to me by post this morning-. It is headed , " Landlords and Tenants—Turning Tenants Out . " It is au exceedingly well printed paper , and purports to be printed by It . and J . Pilkington , Turnstyle , _ilolborn . In it the strongest possible argument is used , to induce the tenants to murder their landlords . ( Hear , hear . J This hideous paper has been sometime in Ireland . Some per . sons luiv « seen it distributed in tbe northern parts of this county , at llnldoyle , especially to the labourers employed on tho railway . A copy of it came into the hands of Jlr .
Arkins , who was able to trace it to the person that circulated it , that person being a _strangsr . The moment I saw it , I got Mr . Arkins to go to tbe Castle with it , to the Commissioneas of Police , and he left it there accordingly , and , accordingly , they took not a single step with respect to it from that day to this . ' ( Cries of" Shame . ") Nothing can be worse ; I will deposit tbis with Mr , Ray , and move that it be _refurred to the committee , to see if we can trace it out , as the police and the government seem to be idle upon the subject . I move " That this document be referred to the committee . " The resolution was put nnd curried .
How can any man , possessed of one particle of honourable or manly feeling , continue amember ofa committee thus converted into a " Detective police V > O'Gormas _Mauon said , and offered to prove , that O'Connell gave information against him as a Terry Alt , for the purpose of depriving him of thc representation of his native county Clare . He called loud and long for the blood ofthe O'Connors , tlie Stephens , andtheOastlers : but more especially for the blood of the innocent _cotton-spinners of Glasgow . And now he thirsts for the blood of his old friend , O'Higgins , which will bo seen clearly enough , when the sworn informations of Arkins and others come before ( Ik . publie . At the next weekly meeting he brought forward the subject agaiu .
The Arrest Of Mr. O'Higgins. We Announce...
On the 24 th _ultiino ; ( see Freeman of the 25 th ) , Mr Q'Gomell said : — That while on bis legs he wouW _calUhe attention of the association to the fact that , on that day fortnight , he elti tobe , to duty to denounce certain infamous docu . _mnt-a _baSll which _appeared . _to have beet , printed Sand J Pilkington , Great Turnstyle , Holborn , _LondL It was a document which he . Mt it to be his duty to denounce , because it incited _tenants to the aasassina-Hon of their landlords . Two other copies of . th » docu-St were thatmorning found posted on the . don , ofthe _Conciliation-httll , with this remark appended .-T above is an _exceedingly well printed document . Daniel O'Connell . See freeman ' s Journal , 11 th instant One * the documents so posted , had been , sent by him ( Mr ,
, O'Connell ) to tho police authorities , in order to ascertain whether the matter might not have been invest _. gatcd , with a view to the exposure and punishment of he authors . He had a very strong suspicion , however , that the _Kiiilty parties were some of those policemen known by L names of « Detector * . " ( Hew , hear . ) He might be wvons . but he had a very strong impression to that eftct . The fact ofthe matter was , that printers knew each other ' s type just as well as one man knew the - * f _™ - _*™ _' _* S o a . otE a „ d if proper inquiries were nstituted there couldnot be the slig htest difficulty in finding out whether the Messrs Pilldngton ' s were or were noi the printers of I _£££ _> ? He trusted it would be looked into The d the of
circumstance of its having been posteon pillars _^ Conciliation-hall only enabled him to cau in he people against _thesp ics and informers who had _thevuUany to concoct such a document , and to take such _ajrtep-for its publication . ( Hear , hear , hear . ) He hoped hat some true hearted and intelligent mnn would lay hold of ttw . miscreants , and so become real detectives , which was a great desideratum . ( Hear , hear . ) He would not read out this -vile document for tlie association for lie could not think of being in any degree instrumental in circulating it , or in making it more generally known than it was at present . Last week he had banded a copy of it to the _government reporter , and the copy which remained any one connected with the police , who chose to apply for it ,
might have . Now , then , would not any man imagine that this must bc a most atrocious document . Let the reader turn to thc report of the Devon Commission , _^ and the letters of the Times Commissioner , and see if he cannot find in these something very like the document about wliich Mr . O'Connell has made such aa outcry . Here follows the document referred to by Mr . O'Connell , and which we published some weeks since : — LANDLORDS _AN'D TENANTS . —TYRANTS TURNING TENANTS OUT . Question * . Has a landlord the right to turn a tenant out ofhis holding or farm ? Answer : He has , when the land is let on fair and reasonable terms , and tlte tenant neglects his farm , or tloe 3 not pay the rent _.
Question : Has the landlord the right to turn out the tenant without first paying him in full for all his outlay iu buildiug , reclaiming , manuring , enclosing , draining , & c , Ac . Answer : No * . the landlord has no such right . Ie would be robbing the tenant to take the land from liim without first having paid bim the full value of these im . provements , and also compensation for the cost and loss incurred by removing to another place , even to a settlement in America , _) if he chose to go there , _because , when a tenant is deprived of his land , whether by the cupidity , whim , or tyranny of his landlord , he has nothing to live on , and consequently becomes either a burthen to society , or he , his wife and children , die of want , which is too often the case ; and , therefore , the landlord is to all intents and purposes guilty of causing the death of unofftmding men , women , and children .
Question * . When a tenant increases the value of the land , by reclaiming , building , enclosing , manuring , drain _, ing , _& c , has the landlord a right to charge the tenant a higher rent on the expiration ofthe lease , in consequence of the increased value of the land by the labour bestowed upon it by the tenant 1 Answer : No , most certainly not : because the increased value of the land was caused entirely and exclusively by the labour , toil , care , skill , industry , and outlay of the tenant , and not by any act or thing done to the land by the landlord ; therefore , he who charges an increased rent robs the tenant of the reward of his labour , And it is written that such conduct cries to heaven for vengeance ! Question ; What would be said of the man who would give a rough block of mahogany to a cabinet maker to make a chest-of drawers , and when he had made them , the owner of the block charged him for making them instead of paying him ?
Aiwwet : lhe owner of the block would be called a rogue , and the cabinet maker could make him pay . Question : What is the difference between the conduct of the landlord who charges an additional rent , mostly double the amount , to a tenant for rough land which he lias reclaimed and made fair and fruitful , and the man who charged the cabinet maker for making the drawers , instead of paying him ? Answer : The conduct of the landlord is worse by far than tliat of the owner of tbe block ; because the . poor tenant cannot go to law with liis landlord ; lie must either submit to the fraud or be turned out and die . He cannot carry the land with him . It is stationary ; there it remains . The _cabinet maker can carry his trade aud his tools with him any where ; and can also keep the chest of drawers till he is paid .
Landlords , kneel down , and pray to God to fill your hearts with a sense of justice . Ask of Him to inspire you with the feeling and dtsive to " do unto _uttwts i \ s jou would be done by . " Bear in mind the fate of the Hungavian tyrants , and how Moses slew the Egyptian oppressor , and buried him in the sand . Ask yourselves , ou bended knees , how you would like t * live on rotten potatoes for tlte next tliree mouths . A La . vdi . okd who loves Jcstice .
Ministerial Changes. We Have Authority T...
MINISTERIAL CHANGES . We have authority to announce the following changes in the construction of Sir R . Peel's government * . — The Duke of Bucclettch will succeed the late Lord Wharneliffe as President of the Council . Lord _Ellenborouah will return to office as First Lord of the Admiralty . Lord Haddington has accepted the Privv Seal ia room of the Duke of Bucclcucli . —Times .
The Callixs Out Of Ihe Militia.—Tlie Let...
The _Callixs out of ihe Militia . —Tlie letters which wc lately published of the Secretary of Statefor tho Home Department and of the Secretary at U ' ar leave no doubt of the intention of the Government as to the enrolment of the militia for immediate service . It r aust be _understood that the militia will not on this occasion be raised , as incorrectly stated a short time since , by beat of drum , but _according to the old system of ballot—a process which no one above the age of twenty-one need flatter himself that he can avoid ; therefore , the sooner that the establishment of militia ehibs for providing substitutes is begun the better . It appears that of the number first
enrolled m a single district—say Sussex—one-third will be called on for duty for three years , when they will be discharged [( each man having the option of volunteering into the line ) , and will not again be required for at least six years . It is understood by those connected with the militia that Government have not determined upon enrolling that bodv _through any fear of war , but with the view of affording tne Canadas , New _Zealand , and other portions of the colonies additional military force . The attendance of those enrolled will consequently be continually required at the barracks for the above-mentioned period . The barracks , of course , ia which the army on home service are now stationed , will be occupied bv the militia troop 9 . —Standard .
Co Waters. # Gorrefifooitoente*
Co _Waters . _# _Gorrefifooitoente *
Our Want Ot Space Compelled Us To Omit T...
Our want ot space compelled us to omit the following lust week * . — Veteran _Patriots' asi > ExitE »* Widows' _axo CntLCiiEN's Funds . —I beg to _acknew- . ledge the receipt of 14 s . from Mr . John Gray , of Burn- ley ; and ' 2 s . from Mr . Robinson , Camp , rrescot . "— . Thomas Coopek , Secretary , 134 , Blackfriars-road . — - ilr . Cooper also most respectfully requests that the _s two committees will meet him at his house , 131 , Black- - friars-road , next Monday evening , January Sth , at t eight o'clock . Death , Inquest , _axd Public Funeeai . or WmcoERr r we must postpone till nest week . We had no notion n when we announced our intention of _coinmemoratinn nt this sad catastrophe of the expense and time it would d require to do justice to the memory and remains of the ie
deceased monster . Next week , however , we shall do lo justice , ample justice , to our departed friend The Land Confebesce and Chabtist Co _ . v __ . m oN — - We are overpowered with the kindly _feelings expressed ed from all parts ns to the result of the conference and ad convention , and forbear publishing the many manly re * e solutions tbat pour in from all parts , from the different -nt localities expressing a determination to pay all the ex expense . We require more , we require an immediate ate mini to enable us to scour the country , and to arouse use m _*\ w tr _^* r , en 8 X _A f 0 rtni 8 M f 0 r the _^ -orat ion Urn ot t _rost _, Williams , and Jones , Tue Land . —From Carrington and other places we have ave _meived
vary sensible letters , containing recommends- dations to the directors , which our friends may rest as- assured shall not be lost sight of . We may also observe * ve that all the objects of district location wUl be achieved _> ved by the promt machinery , as the mast sanguine cannot anot anticipate th _< rapidity with which the process of loca- . ocation will go on ; and hence the greater inclination of > u of those who draw shaves to surrender a present incon- iconvnmence for future convenicuce-that is tin . abandon- idonment ol a prize in an unsuitable district . _\_ _ttsTiDEs . —We have never heard the charge , and , there- here- fore , cannot gee the necessity of reroinmending fteg * e i parties to meet it , which is the _reaion I ' or not publish , blisliintr his letter .
James _Pahsons . — We should bo most happy to be able ; able * to accommodate hii brothers by locating them next _tocxt to > him , but we _imajhio that he will at one * see tin ? im- ; ij im- - possibility of adopting such a course . They must take it take 3 their chance , and there is no doubt that by avrauge , range _,:, nicnts with other parties ? the object may be achieved , _vtd ,
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 3, 1846, page 4, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/ns3_03011846/page/4/