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TO THE LABOURING CLASSES. • .Friends,—Al...
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„*wm j ...riff >ftr s-tf7~*&^ A *^T v^^^...
TO THE BRADFORD MEMBERS ' THE LAND COMPA...
THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OF THE NA- TIONAL ...
Mr Kjdd's Lecturb.—-Mr S. Kydrl, who at ...
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To The Labouring Classes. • .Friends,—Al...
TO THE LABOURING CLASSES . . Friends , _—Although leading articles are considered to have more weight than letters having the name ofthe writer , in consequence of the whimsical importance attached to the pronoun we , as if the editor was a _corporation , yet , as one of my great works has ¦ been to expose the prostitution , the trickery , and whimsicality of the Press , I prefer submitting my thoughts to you ia the first person singular , in order that in after time my dissertations upon the Labour Question—the question of questions—may not be attributed , whether wise or foolish , to _others .
You know what pleasure it gives me to be -able to refer to my old predictions , and to tell ¦ you tbe volume , the page , and the column in ¦ whi ch you will find them . I bave laboured _studiously , zealously , and continuously , to take this Labour Question out of the nutshell in which staticians , calling themselves political economist ? , have endeavoured to confine it . I have not limited my strictures upon the _subject to Land alone , and its capabilities , or to the application of the mere labour of the agriculturist to the cultivation of the Land , but I have shown you how every grievance ,
injustice , and hardship you bear , is consequent upon the misuse made of the Land ; and I have shown you that every paltry remedy suggested for the correction and mitigation of those several abuses , is consequent apon the misapplication of the Land . No matter whether bastiles at home , or convict ships to transport jou abroad ; do matter whether punishment for rice , which is a consequence of oppression and misrule ; or . royal bounty distributed in the shape of prizes , for the best essays upon _morality and religion ; _Tio , matter whether the political remedy be , the Charter or Repeal , Free Trade or Financial Reform ; no matter -whether the Constitution is to be severely or
_anildly construed ; no matter whether the laws are to be mercifully or tyrannically administered * no matter whether the National Debt , tithes , and taxes are a greater burden in one year than another ; no matter what casualties , calamities , ahd sudden changes -come upon you when you are not prepared to meet or resist their approach—I tell you . that it matters not the reason , nay , the thousand and one reasons , which metaphysicians and economists , would assign for those several vicissitudes , they , one and al ] , spring from the non-application , and the just and profitable application , of the industry of the country to the resources ofthe country , and the inequitable distribution of the profits .
Now , pray bear this in mind , and from the p icture which I am about to draw , you , will at once understand the value ofthe Charter , and the cause of the deadly hostility manifested _tewards it by those who understand tbat labour is applied , the national resources cultivated , and the profits distributed by the rule of selfinterest under class legislation ; and , as I have a thousand times reminded you , those who possess this mwnopoly will , of all things , take care that labour , cultivation , and profit shall
be measured by the standard of self-interest— - that is , if the present expensive system will allow the monopolists of legislation to appropriate a larger proportion of rive hundred millions a year , with a heavy debt , for the preservation of peace , the correction of vice , and the suppression of public opinion , than they could appropriate out of a thousand millions a year , with a reign of peace , with no such thing as vice , and with a free expression of opinion , _wliirfc would but lead to virtue and the
correction of evil ; in such case the monopolists would much prefer the smaller annual return , with the power of appropriating the larger proportion to their own kindly use . Now , do not lose sight of this fact , because _iom it you must come to the conclusion as to the real reason why the rights of Labour are denied by those who make profit of its dependents and destitution . In 1845 , when I had made a tour through a large portion of the most important European countries , I told yon , on my relurn in Octobe * of that year , that Prussia would be one of the first countries to declare a free Constitution , and
Prussia was , at that time , an absolute despotism . Some few weeks ago , I gave you a brief outline of the Prussian Constitution , as it is to be ; -and I now sabmit for your perusal , the Address of the Chairman of the Conservative Central Committee of Berlin , the capital of Prussia . Here follsws this address . It is p rinted in large type , as it deserves , and shoald be printed in letters of gold . I hope every working man will read it to his familythat he will preserve it , and get it by heartand that it will be read aloud at the several meetings where the " Star" is read , and that it will be read distinctly . Mr Harkort , in his address to the electors of Berlin , says : —
" Whatever falsehoods the evil-disposed may have circulated , the King has effected great changes for your benefit . I will enumerate some of them . A law has been published abolishing a number of dues and taxes ; all processes and soils respecting tbe _angulation of landed _properties and peasant holders are suspended ; hunting is no longer an exclusive . privilege ; a loan fund for making advances to the . amount of 1 , 000 , 000 thalers has been formed , * 370 , 000 thalers we e distributed among the destitute inhabitants of Silesia ; another million of thalers was appropriated to the employment of labourers out of work , and still more would have been done had not . the disturbances in Berlin absorbed the funds reserved for the purpose . As soon as the
leases of the farms on the Royal domains expire it as intended , according to circumstances , to divide thtm into smaller peasant holdings , so that , at a moderate rent , industrious cultivators will be enabled to earn a subsistence . The idle quarrels and disputes of the National Assembly cost the country 300 , 000 thalers , and _thtse men , so ready to mark tbe mote in others * eyes witb tbe beam of refusing the payment of taxes in their own , -would have brought both the country and the people to ruin . But at last the King intervened , and , like a man who considers his word inviolable , gave ns tbe freest Constitution in Europe . This is not the place to dwell on all tbe Constitution contains , but some of tbe chief points I will bring under your
notice . :- $ i ' * All Prussians are equal before the laws ; the right of patronage in the Church is abolished , and you will elect your own pastors- _Children-will in future receive gratuitous instruction , and the cmo-• nunes will select the teachers / The pi inks . "'! _unvate jurisdictions and the domain police are _abohsnso -without recompense ; all the rights of properly m land are to he freely exercised . The * y- ™ iiunes --nil _T-galsitr the local affairs by tbr-ir o <\ _..--eier _.-• _Jaiivti , V '* snu _~ av ,: _* con , - - ' ' : - _! rwa * _POJIC ; . lO _' . u _urj-. iUi _, ! _•• iii . — _'v - - * _- _«•" *' ? . _' ¦ provincial arid _diehict councils , a ; ui i : -First _^ - _.. i ' Sprond Chambrrs . If vour affairs 0 : t ;'
-c-- r v . _-n < . jf h is vou : ' . /> iauli . _A 0 O _? e _Jings _^ V . -jfce _hfcaastHid _^ _-jfecLa ble electors and deputies Have nothing to do _wtth criers aloud in the market-place , or witb breakers of the law , but with _steadv men who manage their own affairs well and quietly , who possess sound common sense , and who do not demand _all . things with _injustice , and therefore obtain nothing . Take heart and courage , and _cut the following questions d rect to the candidate : 1-Are you trne to the Kin ? ? Are you satisfied ? aith fte constitution , or would yon renew tbeo . d _unhappy contest ? Can you conscientiously distinguish : between ' mine * and thine , and do you frn _,. w th- commandment , « Thou shalt not covet or
• desire other men ' s goods ?* Are you a _« refuser , er do you render unto C * m ¦ the hmgs that are _Char ' s ? Look at the tumults at Berlin . The burning tbe artillery foundry cost the country 2 000 , 000 thalers ; theKingpaid to redeem pledges of small value 400 , 000 thalers ; the savings-banks received an advance of 200 , 000 thalers ; the establishment of the _constabulary cost 200 , 000 thalers ; 1 , 700 , 000 thalers were distributed among unemi oyed workmen ; tbe calling out the Landwehr and putting the army on » war footing , to protect lifeaid property and uphold the authority of the laws cost 000 , 000 thalers-m all a mm of nx tridns classes , while worthless vagabonds trod the __ TnS % _f ,. For this amount 6 , 500 peasant _heldiDBB might faro _repurchased and apportioned
To The Labouring Classes. • .Friends,—Al...
to hardworking occupiers . The Democrats make no such calculations as this , but they point out to you the destruction ot all order , human and divine , and the establishment of an equality like that which exists among a band of thieves . My friends , make use of your reason for a moment ; in the last National Assembly there were returned 121 advocates and judges , 53 clergymen , 25 teachers , 61 councillors , ( rathe ) and officials , in all 260 , while there were only 57 landed proprietors in the whole Assembly ; for every cultivator of the land there were five who lived at bis expense , and vou wonder still that
you are poorer tban you were before the revolution . Jnst reverse this state of things ; elect five landowners or farmers to one lawyer , and even then there will be more than enough of these hair-splitters to blow tbe alarm of lire at every act of the Government ; but you will never find them stand in to work the engines . They are fit for nothing but candidates for livings , for presidentships , and other posts that may gain them a living ; he who muet take care of himself has no time to take care ol you . A good choice at the election is the main thing ; therefore chalk all praters and _speechifiers nut of the list "
Let the reader understand that Prussia boasts of being the purest Protestant State in Europe—that the feudal system , up to the _present time , has existed there in its fullest vigour —and let bim glean the fact , from the above address , that these feudal barbarisms are not only to be totally destroyed , but that the royal domains are to be divided into PEASANT HOLDINGS . Let him further observe , how local power is to be locally distributed and exercised , and that the local mind is to flow into the great reservoir of representation ; but , above all , and before all , let the revilers ofthe
Land Plan see Prussia ' s future condition in the outline contained in the most spiced morsel with which the electioneering trap is baited . The candidate tells us , that 6 , 500 , 000 thalers , uselessly expended upon excitement and unproductive labour , would have located 6 , 500 hard-working occupiers upon their PEASANT HOLDINGS . What will the reader say when he finds Prussia—despotic Prussia—not , only adopting our Chartist creed , but also expounding its value by the proposed realisation of our social object—the location of the poor upon the land of their birth ? Will not my dupes suppose that this Mr Harkort has been takinga leaf from our book , and is about to base his
social and political claim to support upon our Charter and our Land Plan ? A thaler is a fraction less than three shillings , and 6 , 500 , 000 thalers is nine hundred and seventy five thousand pounds j and if you divide 6 , 500—the number to be located—into that , you will find that it leaves one hundred and fifty pounds assigned to the location of each— -while , with bonus , I estimate the average cost of two , three , and four-acre men at 200 ? . ; so that , if you take the cheapness of _Prussian labour and materials into consideration , you will find that Mr Harkort , the Conservative Candidate , assumes as large a standard of expenditure as I _rln _.
Now , then , is this infant of ours longer to be confined within the narrow limits of Hertfordshire , ' Gloucestershire , Worcestershire , and Oxfordshire , or is it not rather likely to extend its influence , and spread its growth over the whole face of earth—ay , even to the plains of Poland and the fields of Russia ? for . depend upon it , that , before the year 1850 comes upon us all the revolutions of the year 1848 will be but as child ' s play compared with the scenes that will take place in Russia , where the confiding Autocrat is now pompously marshalling his universal King-preserving army . Thank God . I have been the first to exhibit
this little bantling , and , thank God that , ere long , all will be obliged to follow in its track , as it is the precursor , not to European , hut to universal peace , prosperity , contentment , and virtue . Then again , think of the Prussian Constitution allowing the flock to elect its own shepherd , and administering education gratuitously to every child in the State ! Give me that Constitution with a king—ay , any king—at its head , a
thousand times—ay , a million times before the bag of French moonshine , with a special constable at its head . But after the account given by Mr Harkort of the elements of which the recent Assembly was composed , can you wonder at the disasters that followed : In describing the position of these candidates for livings , for presidentships , and other pasts , the writer _graphically describes their patriotism in the following words - .- ? " HE WHO MUST TAKE
CARE OF HIMSELF HAS NO TIME TU
TAKE CARE OF YOU . " Now , was ever a more true , a more graphic , or a more powerful description given of their position , and of your position . What did these parsons and this nest of LEGAL LOCUSTS care for the condition of the poor man ? Does it not remind you of the exuberant enthusiasm of the Free Trade Methodi . it parsons , when they showed you the big loaf at the top of the pole ? and will it not convince you of the truth of " what I have often asserted—that the greatest pests , the greatest tools , and the greatest mercenaries in the" House of Commons , were those of the legal profession ?
So much at present for the Prussian view , or rather adoption , of the Charter and Land Plan * and as I have often told you , that the folly of to-day is the wisdom of to-morrow , I shall now call your attention to the condition of Ireland , and the simple remedy that I proposed in Parliament in the year 1833 , and have since impressed upon the public mind for the correction of every Irish abuse .
\ My friends , you must understand , and yoH must think , too , and reflect—that iiG urns paper , whatever politics t _P _* 0 _^^ * ° ft ; _iv ' _' - _fate , has ever _p-ahlisheti one single _comvnentof mine _'ip-m ths _Labour Q _.-it » stJ > t " , while one ami hU vill _-veediiy _ginsp ar the _ridiculous ro -r , : t" :. _' . 0 . _ind l . 'to : -i : in ~ _f .. V"Vs yf X . Y ., G . _T-J ., /¦ . _S _. S ...- •• ' * « iV , i-t-3 . liv . _XVah tr .: ; . ' - -he' , \ pb ' _^ c _;» r _> l \ _, rr > " ish toi ; _-e _scubhllng f . cr /; s ol fools .
_Travelers ride or erm * . _tnrough a country , and they draw their notions af Us capabilities from the landscape or marine view , and they _imbib-J iheir national notions from the champagne , the claret , and whiskty punch of their Host ; while their religious crotchets are supplied by the spiritual staff officer of the conquering army . They do not converse with the farmer—sit in the hovel of the peasant—or gather-their knowledge from the labourer in tbe field ; whereas , 1 have gleaned my knowledge of Labour and of society from all classes —from the tinselled peer to the ragged beggar . Tou may rest assured that the " Times'' Com * missioner , who slept with the calf at Cahirsiveen , did not demean himself by scraping an acquaintance with the peasant class . His
object was either to justify Ministerial neglect , or to establish Ministerial , or , indeed , human incapacity to deal with the great Irish difficulty j and his reward wis : to he what it has been—a lucrative BitaS _^^ ir _^ _yltit so much of a preface , I now invite y _^ _T- closest attention to the following disclosures made h y Mr Chas . Coltlmrst , not as to the possibilities or probabilities , but as to the facUity of regenerating Ireland ; and then I sball proudly call your attention , not to a single volume , asingle page , or a sing le column of tbe old book of _prophei * ies--- _#£ i _& ch-reviled ' Star "—but I shall call y 0 ur attentionita ; nearly every number of thai paper in which the state of Ireland has beefl' _^ _isenssed— to the "Labourer "—to my workoa" Small Farms '—tstny "Letters t ©
To The Labouring Classes. • .Friends,—Al...
the Irish Landlords , and to my motions and speeches in the House of Commons . My dear friends , read every word flf the following admirable letter , not predicting what may be , but faithfully narrating what has been ; and mind , it treats of Ireland ; and that Irish poverty and destitution is , not only the English minister ' s great difficulty , but is likewise the English toilers' great enemy . Here follows the correspondence : — Tn the year 1816 , tha late Sir Niobg . _Colthnrst . of _Ardrum , got _poMesilon » f hu K « rry estate , ( tbe _letse to Mr Yielding having expired , ) I , as agent , got direction * _, from Sir _Nxholai not to make any _pnrmanent letting till the matter ws » well considered . In consequence I oroceeded to Kerry , arid found tbe entire state in a most
-mtcbed _condition . \ let tbe ont ate for a year , to com fox-table former- , wbo were _bdsIoui to beeome tenants permanently , and thty promised to pay about £ 800 a year . At tho end of tbe first year I fouad I could not receive more than aboat £ G 00 , bat still , Sir Nicholas desired me to ( -ire tbose tenants another year ' s ttlal , to March , 1818 , bat ths ; were still in arrear , and in f « ot ii cost me more trouble and expense tban I can tell yea ,, Ptrcelrlng clearly tbis sjstetn wonld not do , either as to _Uncord er tenant , I told Sir Nichols , ! 1 matt resign bis agency in May , unless he made up bis mind to give ; an encouraging lease , for I bad good reason to belleVi tbat if he coald be induced to give a leaf e In perpetuity a _well'tecured £ 1 , 000 a year woald be bad for the estate at least . His answer t _. j roe was , ' If yoa get mo a wellsecured rental of _dGl . GOO a year , you _srs at parfeot liber ly to use jour own dUotetion . ' "'¦
I prooeeded at once to Kerry with Mr Porter , a sur . _rejor , divided tbe estate into convenient lots ,, _making road * , tfco ., tc , upon a map . pnt up an advertisement that Sic Nicholas would tet those lota in perpetuity , and theconseqaenoe was , tkat In a fortnight I let the entire estate for £ 1 , 850 Irish _currency , binding eaoh tenant to lay out a certain sum in permanent improvements , aod tbe _c-nseqaence bas beea , that from the year 1818 to tbis yf ar , 1818 , this rents ! has been paid by letters Of credit ; a bailiff bas nevtr distrained a tenant , an agent n » _s never bad occasion to visit the _property , esctpt to admire the vast lmprovemint tbat bas taken plice , and that without one _sbUling loss to the proprietor , Sir _Nicholas , by his merely having given a lease in _perpa-• _ulty , aad the great result as regards the community at large ii , ' that a sum of at least £ 40 , 000 bas been laid out , affording vast employment , and of coarse lessoning tbe poor-rates . Now I came to the great advantage to tbe proprietor ' . —
Upon an ordinary leas p , gay of thirty-one years , be would not hava got certainly mora than £ 800 Irhh ' curroncj a year ; upon a ' p _^ rpetuliy he _receive at lttBt £ 500 a year more , and if any man will _tska the trouble to calculate this additional sum of £ 500 for thirty-one years , be will find the case stands thus : — Suppose you calculate the £ 560 a year Sir Niohola _* and Sir _Goorge Colthnrst have got from March , 1818 , to March , 1848 ( thirty year *) , the gross sain would be £ 15 , 000 , bat if yoa aid Interest and compound Interest , if inves'edat 5 percent ., the gross sum made by this
ptrpetulty lease ov _« r and above a thirty one _yesra 1-ase would be over £ 30 , 000—io Uet , a aam that woald nearly pure-hate the tte simple nf tbe estate ; and tbe most glaring fact of all is , that a law sgint i * unnecessary , a land agent unnecessary , ami a bailiff unnecessary , for in trnth an old woman would _man * ge tha * « state by merely writing for the rent ; and ) f Sir _George CoHhurat _could be Induced to sell tbis estate , I _ventore to say It would Belt like a debenture , for there is security tn tha land for £ 100 . 000 at hast ia buildings and improvements .
I cow give _traothir intt & _nca of the results arising from a perpetuity lease in the middle of a wild mountain district , on Sir George _Colthurst ' s _estate at _Ballyvourney ; I got a lease in _perpstulty of a large tract of watte laad ; I wss inda « ed to lay out £ 4 , 000 ; and I made a comfortable _pro-ision for my family , snd bare established a plan of improvement , without a shilling loss to tbe proprietor , tbat is likely to be of considerable advantage to the looality ; bat as this has appeared before the publio I shall shy bo more npon it , I shall now give you another instance of tbe _^ b _' _sneSc of perpetuity leases in the parish I _resiae in , fMagourne / , near dachford ) : —
This parish U principally let in _perpetuity to _proprietors _, not in fee , bnt who constantly reside , and I muVt say there cannot be a more _prlpable illustration of the _beneat of leases of this ktod than ia this locality . I may aay you can pitch a atone irom one demesne to another—witb most comfortable , respectable residences , with nice plantations , pleasure grounds , & c „ end you have at all times a respectable class of gentlemen , ready to meet any pressing emergency , whether it be to relieve distress or to support tbe laws of tbe land , and the result is , by co-operatisn and energy there is not an ablt > -bodied labourer unemployed in the parish , and the poor-rote „ _sly 2 _J 1 . ia the pound .
Having given yoa three oases—one in Kerry , one in _Ballyvourney , and another in tbe parish of Magourney , of the beneficial results arising from leases of this de . _crlptlsn , I am delighted that a mst of ) otu _esperlenee and intelligence has given his opinion upon this important matter , for it ls a vital qaestion at this present mo meat , and r cannot tell you what pleasure it affords me to concur fully la your opinion oa the subjeot— -that a _nuojber of small proprietors ln _perpetuity , resident , are much better than one great proprietor absent ; aod if the lord in fee will calmly consider the caBea I haw stated above , and tbe passing events of the day , I am sure that he will come to the conclusion that _vthat I have pat forward deserves consideration at le _ist , foi IW clearly of _opin ' ou _thatif a landlord gets more than ths real value for hie estate , letting in perpetuity , he ougoi to acoept it ( for Instance , the Kerry Estate ) , or _maka up his mind to reside upon his property , and give auoh just cjmDeaBatioD for laitlm * and valuable improvements lo
respectable tenants as thty deserve ; for I greatl y fear tbat no act of Parliament , however cautiously worded ; can _settld the question of landlord and tenant satisfactorily , as it is beset with _difficulties , but if landlords and tenants agree in doing wbat is jast and fair towards each other , it would be a much wiser course than to hare to deal with an aot bl . Parliament that may cau _?^ endless litigation . This is my bumble opinion ; but if tbe oase is not met in an amicable way the law ought to provide a remedy ; and I am persuaded that if soraofair arrangement be made between landlord and tenant , we (• hall sea the lids of emigration ia some _degree stopped ( for it ls lamentable to observe io much capital leavUg the country ) , and the money that ls sow lying ln savingsbanks and old stook ' _nga would _thoa be laid out in thu land ( tbe most certaia of all investments ) provided the tenant is allowed fair compensation for permanen t lm provementi , whioh would be as advantage ultimately to < t _\ n _ItHuMnrA .
Wishing yoa _sucoess in yoar manly struggle as regard ! the Poor-law , and many happy returns of the s _, a ° on , I remain , my dear sir , your friend and ftll -w labourer , Ch »* les _Couthdrbt , Now , labourers , that letter is thi , production , not of a mere casual oi > a < rr _? r—not of an itinerating bagman , uut of one who tells you _ihf-1 for thirty years bt hw beta _engaged ; not merely in the _collection of r _ _i ; s , but in the _reciamatio' / , i :: ; H 7 _iAv _;>;' , ! , and i _apro _Yemeni" of land . I _iiir-. ' ei ' _iii _pleasure to _k-. vw Mr Charles _Coltsiirra-. _* ncl I _venture io a * ...:-re chut he has ueftr jS _? U terror in -ibe woiv ; _ikya of agrarian ( _iiaturb- _' tiice . He h- ? . _t \ : _» n of _intensive know-,.. _i ... _, c .. ¦ : r ' . :.. „ j i ! .. _ i __ -t . ! _iled * ? of poweifuA eniusand active habits
, _g , . He _'tot-i not base his notions upon mere theory . He draws his conclusions from what has been accomplished in three of the heretofore most impoverished districts of Ireland , and just picture to yourselves the fact of an estate being bad security for £ 600 a year thirty years ago , and now being good security for £ 1 , 350 a year , and , as Mr Charles Colthurst says , would sell like a debenture in the market , £ 100 , 000 being expended in buildings and improvements . Then , think of the presence of an _agent only being necessary to gratify bis own taste and curiosity in the examination of those improvements ; then , think of rents being paid in letters of credit sent to the land _, lord—no _law-shark .-rnobailiff—no
TRUSTYbut , as he tells you , an old woman would collect tbe rents ; tben , think of twopence-halfpenny in tbe pound being the charge for the poor rates in another parish , while the half-witted old landlords are pestering ua with the " area of taxation , " and complaining that , in many _, instances , tbis cbarge swallows up the whole rent ; then , think of the money being taken out of tbe savings-banks , and the old stockings , and expended upon profitable reproductive labour ; think of the landlord in those thirty years having received £ 30 , 000 , over and above the highest rent tbat could be obtained for the land thirty years ago , while , if let now , I venture to assert that it would fetch over £ 3 , 000 a year , besides paying for improvements . Mr _Colthterst might have added , that there has been n _« importation of muskets to , or transportation of bodies from , that estate j he might
To The Labouring Classes. • .Friends,—Al...
have added , tbat if priest or _demagogue ' _'Veni , _thereto disturb the peasant ' s _allegiance to bis _protection , or fealty to his landlord , that they wouittbeireated as maniacs . Then , observe tbat Mr _CJouifJiairst _' s letter is written in answer to one from a * Mr Hamilton , who is anxious to acquire ioforniation upon the subject , and in speakinj _* pjbf the allotment system " and leases in perpetuity , Mr Hamilton concludes his letter , thus — ¦ ' * -nr — ' - _**^—^——————— — _, — . 1— -.- _^ - _.
Many which are now barely able to pay £ iS , or less , if let ia perpetuity , would probably fetch £ 20 , and ia ten years be worth £ 59 ; of course , care being taken to prevent excessive subdivisions . It would bring to light much latent cash , energy , and fertility . Yours faithfully , John Hamilton . Let me _' ask you if language can express , or thought could invent , words more strongly illustrative of the lessons I _^ have taught you . Mr Colthurst further says , "That landlords themselves and not the law must correct those several Irish abuses ,, but if the landlords fall that then the law must step in . "
In the year 1833 , 1 placed a motion upon the Journals ofthe House Gf Commons , to the effect _^ hat all landlords should . be compelled to give leases in perpetuity , andthat where lands were _helil upon lease for years that the value should be * as 8 essed by an impartial jury , in the same manner as property to be purchased by the Crown or corporations is now valued ; and 1 proposed Agricultural and Labour Premiums an a substitute for Poor Laws .
My friends , I am only too happy when 1 find my views supported by such men as Mr Colthurst ,. and . as his success has been based upon practice , and , therefore , constitutes him good-autbority , ficquiescence in my views—with which he was wholly unacquainted- —does not strip him of a particle of the credit he deserves ; nor will you consider me vain or egotistical if I remind you of my several strictures upon this subject .
In the House of Commons I proposed the _system of . leasing land in perpetuity , as a means of enriching , tranquilising and satisfying Ireland . I have shown you , that the same difference exists between land held upon capricious lease and badly cultivated , and land held in perpetuity and well cultivated , that exists between slave labour and task work , or free labour ; and I have shown you , that tbe hired slave represents the hired horse , while the fcask labourer , paid by tbe job , represents the petted horse of tbe owner ; that if you ride a hired horse , aBd if he drops a shoe nearly the end of his journey , . you will bold him tight and keep the spurs in him till you . return him to
his master , having finished with him when the journey is endedji whereas , if your own horse drops a shoe you will dismount " , lead him on the soft side of the road , and , however dark or disagreeable it may be , you will knock up the first blacksmith whose shop you pass , to get on a shoe , as the horse is your own . Last session of Parliament I outraged the Irish landlords prodigiously , by telling them that they themselves , and not the Government , must reclaim their country ; and 1 told them that a short Act of Parliament , in . ten lines , would make Ireland a paradise , and that they would require no Poor Laws—and that that was perpetuity of tenure .
In 1834 , in the discussion upon tbe Repeal of the Union , when Mr Spring Rice—now Lord Monteagle—attempted to measure the increasing prosperity of Ireland by the increasing deposits in the Savings Banks , I replied , "That may be '' a * source of gratification to the Government , but it was the strongest proof of poverty and want of confidence in the landlords ; because if farmers had leases in perpetuity the dead weight in the Savings Banks would be applied to the more profitable employment of reproductive labour ; " and I have
told you a thousand times over , that Irish tenants with gold buried in crocks cultivate tbeir holdings according to _. the existence standard , andnot according to their will or their ability—that is , if a tenant rents twenty acres at-i / .- an . acre , he will so manage it as to keep theroof over his head if he can , and a potato in his mouth , because , if by the expenditure of his labour and his capital he makes it worth 2 _§ 9 _j an acre , that moment his industry and capital become a tax upon him , as he has the option of raising his rent to 25 s . an acre , or seeing it let over bis head to a stranger .
Again , tracing the benefits ot the perpetuity system , in all its bearings , I . told you that under that system the landlord woald require no griping attorney—no bailiff , nor TRUSTY , ... who _isthe landlord ' s spy and reports every _bag-. _of _^ corn , every pig , every sack of potatoes , and every firkin of butter sold , and no matter what the necessities of tbe tenant or his family may be , the serf is obliged to render all to the shark * . ¦• - % I have told'j'otf , that land in . its present state is to land in its hi ghest state , what raw flax is to the most splendid lace . or . cambric ; and I hate told you , that to bring land to that state the labourer must be the first partaker
of the fruits of his own industry , Then see what Mr Hamilton says : he tells you that an allotment which will now barely pay 15 / . a year , or less , would , if let in perpetuity , fetch 20 / ., and in ten years would be worth 501 . a year . Now , what do you think of that ? There is a rise at once of twentyfive per cent- to the landlord , and at five per cent , there is 600 / . realised by the labourer , above the maintenance of his famil y , in ten years- _**« that is—if he pays 20 / . a year and makes it worth 501 , in ten years he has an interest of 30 / , _a-yanr , ' which , at five per "ent „ is _vvorfh (> _> Ql ., ' & iu \ Uius . _besides _livi . _^? , and iietit" > ' . th'm n _labourer , ho . haa _Lpo _' , * - _^ _liiilad to
_S'iv . e < _J 0 / . a year . WiU ihi * hf _, _' . . « _r . _'M--iy : AX \ Qi to ray-dupes ? "Will this stagger *; ie _brandrdrinking , cigar-smoking _nincompoopB _. who have so continuously iw . d bir . terl ;• nibbled at the capabilities of tile Land ? And will tbey now attack Mr Colthurst and Mr Hamilton ? No , - certainly not ; because their operations are confined within a narrow sphere , and mine promise to spread _themselres over the national surface .
Will this development be an answer to overpopulation , and will you forget that I have told you many a time and oft , that if the Irish people had perpetuity of tenure , that all the shi p * in the carrying trade would be too few to bring back the expatriated Irish to the land of their birth ? But every day is giving me my revenge , and the greatest that I seek is the conversion of my malignant opponents .
Even the "Times , that has been so loud and enthusiastic upon the question of emigration now begins to wince . Tbis pilot , as long as the ship sails in smooth water , is contented and * happy , but the moment a breaker or a ripple appears ' a-head , when too late , he tries to 'BOUT SHIP . Do not you remember how this leading journal used to classif y emigrants for us , telling us that men of genius would go , that men of 5 , 000 / . capital , of 3 , 000 / ., of 2 , 000 / ., 1 , 000 / ., 500 / ., and then came to tens ,
and then to units , who were to live in comfort upon the profitable speculations of the tens , the hundreds , and the thousands ; and how every comfort was to be provided for them ; and that industry , energy , genius , and laudable speculation would be sure to find a resting place in the land of milk and honey r And , perhaps , you will remember hew I described the suffering and anguish of those system-transported convicts , who braved the dangers ofthe deep in the hope of preserving a miserable existence for another hour of
To The Labouring Classes. • .Friends,—Al...
_rms . ery ; and hoiv I exposed the bad accommodation , the reckless disregard of life and comfort , and the troubles , the calamities , and disappointments that were sure to meet them upon their landing . How I answered the charge of idleness , preferred against my countrymen , by stating just what Mr _Colthiir . st and Mr Hamilton now state , tbat in Ireland there is a premium for idleness and a tax upon industry ; that those who are condemned to unwilling idleness there seek the lion ' s share of toil all over the world , where the hardest and most ignominious drudgery will furnish tho most miserable pittance ? ; Well , the Lord hath delivered the " Times " into our hands . As it is with young ladies so it is with the Old
Lady" Out of the fashion , out of the world—" and tbe Old Lady , who seems to be furnished with the political fashion-book for winter , spring , autumn , and summer , has taken off her pilot jacket and donned the smock-frock _. The Times'' is now most lachrymose at the very thought of losing ber sons of Labour . She now discovers that it will be hard to supply tbeir place , and sbe inveighs bitterly , not against the system _tvhich compels them to
emigrate , but against the facilities that are afforded for exportation . " Oh , " says the Old Lady , with her handkerchief in one hand , and her goose-quill in the other , " who shall we get to perform our HEAVY WORK if tbe LAZY IRISH leave us ? " But the " Times , " ever bursting with loyalty , would now select the convicts' home upon that feeling . She says , " In selecting between the United States and Canada ' LOYALTY WILL PREFER
CANADA AND THE OTHER BRITISH COLONIES . '" There is a test of a convict ' s loyalty . The expatriated serf , who was compelled to handle the special ' s staff in return for that protection which left him the option of America or the British Colonies . But let me give you the " Times ' '' own words . Here they are , from the fashion-book of Wednesday last : — AU tint tbe British Government e . an do with emigration to that quarter is to see that the emigrant is no * forced from his native soil , is not trepanned by fraudulen t
agents , or is not exposed to disease , starvation , or shipwreck by dishonest shipowners , and is not landed absolutely helpless at the Canadian port- Once landed , he will take care of himself , and will even cross the frontier , and _sn-ell the _anti-Britinh party in the States , if such is his humour . We wish , indeed , that something could be done with the "election of emigrants . Ntcemty and chance now deride . The impulse which drives out a quarter ofa million will not discriminate . We bave passed tlie opportunity of a really national emigration , and uow find the movement beyond onr control .
New , you find , that our friend talks of selecting emigrants . Mayhap , he has taken a leaf from the Whig book , and would cull them from the Chartist ranks—but I incline to think , that the growth of the Land Question and the resuscitation of Chartism , will be strong inducements to remain at home . Mr friends , now I pray of yoa to have Mr Harkort ' s address , and Mr Charles Colthurst ' s letter , read at every Chartist meeting , and , above all things , bear in mind , that whatever description of agitation may be raised for the purpose of strengthening the bands nnd
increasing the power of the capitalists , that they must and will come to the Land and the Charter , and for the reasons that I have im pressed npon you a thousand times , hecause the cultivation of the land will give better _profit'from the source of labour than all the artificial appliances at tbe command of the world . Mind , my motto has been , and is , tl To make the rich richer and the poor rich , " by the better cultivation of our national resources ; and , I am sorry to say , that even you are not sufficiently instructed in the Labour Question .
Let me trace Labour for you from the dungfork to the monarch ' s crown . Tbe labourer who is rewarded by tbe profit _.-of his own industry is a better Customer with the shoemaker , the tailor , the hatter , the- butcher , the baker , ' and the blacksmith . Those several trades are better customers with the printer _,, the haberdasher , the publican , ( I am sorry tO' say ) , the wine merchant , the watchmaker , the bookseller , the carpenter , the painter and glazier and those trades are better customers , as all are , with tbe wine merchant , the grocer , the silk mercer , the more aristocratic watchmakers , publishers , and manufacturers ; and they are better customers with brokers , merchants , bankers , horse
dealers , coachmakers , and in the servant mart ; and all are better payers of ' taxes ,, and more loyal subjects te the monarch ' s crown , because the Crown is everything , as you can only commit treason , against j the Crown . And strip yourself of the folly that a _ mechanic or an operative cannot be converted'into an agricultural labourer ; but even if you are of that opinion , let more machinery be . applied to tbe cultivation of large farms , and allow even ths surplus agricultural population to be located upon the Land , instead of in the bastile ; and then you would very speedily discover that every artificial trade , from the shipper to the weaver , would be benefitted by the increased ability of the agricultural labourer to produce and consume .
Let me call your attention to this fact , that if a tenant pays 5 s aa acre for a thousand acres of land more than it is worth , he loses 250 _J . a year , which at four per cent , is the interest upon 6 , 250 / . of his capital ; whereas it is a matter of comparative insignificance to the small holder if he pays 5 s . an acre more for four acres of land than it is worth in the wholesale market ; and whst ! contend for _; _- . . th ., t a landlord who now lets a _f's- _'r- * _;< * tue rent oi ' it , an acre , . Y > iihi if be _subdivided _thiitii _' _sto farms of m \ ' ? ' _; :.: ' : ¦ ., ; . v , ; built _^ _.. i'W upon _chflm _, < . _ni-n hi < i HI : ¦ . v _? av :, ' . fo H > if :,. , cr _infrfswii his
venta ! by seventy p « cwh , per annum , . '« . >« _£ me iii 3 p _^ ' tl ; if ? oui for y ¦'»¦ _' - ; _i" 5 Is wholesale state he gets 5 / . a year or V . an acre -, and with a house that would cost 100 / . I estimate the rent of that house and five acres lowly at 12 / . 10 * . a year . He could raise the 1002 . for the house at four per cent . ; so that saddling him with that , and the loss ot the hi ., the wholesale rent , he would be exchanging 91 . a year for 121 . 10 s ., and he need have neither lawyer , steward , nor bailiff , and not a man during life would be a defaulter on rent day ; and , believe me , that this must and will be the solution of Free Trade ; for observe , that a
tax upon an article may amount to a complete prohibition of that article , and the tax that under Free Trade now remains upon the land of England , will very shortly amount to a prohibition of the former use of a large portion of that Land ; while its neglect , its non-use , or imperfect cultivation , consequent upon the in * disposition to expend capital aud employ la * bour , will enormously increase the burdens upon Land reduced in value , and will
inevitably depress the manufacturing market , and the shopkeeping market , tbe trade market , the labour market ; and then Mr Barwise will learn that watches are purchased by labour , Mr Colburn will learn that the newest novels are purchased by labour ; Swan and Edgar will learn that the newest fashions are purchased by labour ; and Bellamy will learn that wine is purchased by labour ; and the Queen will learn that loyalty can only be purchased by protection to labour .
You must bear in mind , that the struggles all over the world—whether wise or insanearise out of the difficulties ofthe L _' . bour Question ; and that Ireland—England ' s greatest difficulty—could be turned , as if by magic , into
To The Labouring Classes. • .Friends,—Al...
a paradise , by its proper solution ; incomparable ass , Master John O'Con , _endeavouring to rally the old _paying the teeth of the ghm » g fact , that _^ than thirty years of agitation , notL £ attempt has been made to solve tl b Question in Ireland ; and yet this \ huxter has the ignorance , the follyX * audacity to revile the men who weV _^ _n into danger , in the hope of retrieving _\ r _\ ra mind from the old show-box moonshin ? _, still further to base laudation of tbe I Priesthood apon contempt and 6 Corn for victims of his Father . Your faithful Friend , Feakcus O'Conmo
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VOL . XII . Kg 585 . ' LONDON , SATURDATr J 4 _NgAKlT 6 , 1849 . - _^ j : _^^ _'ZJ _%% _^«™« —~— - ~~———— — - - — - ,. - _i-ii Tt 1 ¦ 1 _mii - - - mm
To The Bradford Members ' The Land Compa...
TO THE BRADFORD MEMBERS ' THE LAND COMPANY . M y Friends , I fully agree with a great portion of your resolution published in last week ' s " Slur , " but I can in no wise agree with the following sentence : — " Mr O'Connor has no right to draw his money from the Company for I * purpose , any more than we have . " Now you mean my share of money paid as a mf ber , I _i-iiite agree with you , and that is only money in which your position and m is identical ; but if you mean the money t I have advanced out of my own pocket , let ¦ put a case to you . You fail in the _performan of your duty , Lhave contracted debts for yo from confidence declared by you , and from ass ranees over and over again repeated bv vot
your , payments fall off , your debts are sent bii me , * I receive 1 , 500 / . or 2 , 000 / . of my own mone just at the time that those tradesmen ' s b' " come in—I pay them out of my own mor . In a few weeks my paper maker ' s bill cot in , and thus , according to your argumen . should have no ri }> ht to repay myself win had advanced , and should allow my own bill to be dishonoured . Is that what you call jus tice ? And so far from repaying myself an portion of the 3 , 4001 . that the accountants de ' clared was due to me , I have considerabl ) added to that sum since ; however , I don ' t think the matter requires further comment as I feel assured it must have been hurriedly and thoughtlessly penned . And , notwithstand > ing all opposition , from friend or foe , from members or Press . I am determined that the
LAND PLAN SHALL GO ON . Faithfully yours , _FrcAttfiTJS O'C ONNOlt .
The Executive Council Of The Na- Tional ...
THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OF THE NA- TIONAL CHARTER ASSOCIATION . The Executive Committee met at the Rooms , 144 , High Holborn , on Friday evening , December 28 ih—Present , Messrs Kydd , Stall * ood , M'Grath , Clark , and Dixon—a letter of apology was read from Julian Harney , on the ground of severe indisposition—Mr M'Grath was called to the chair . Correspondence was read from _Newcastle-upon-TynCi Carlisle , and South London—the agent * _narafjd at each of the foregoing places were confirmed . On the motion of Messrs Clark and Kydd , it was unanimously resolved : — ' That the subjects for discussion at the first public meeting to be held at the _Instiiution , John Street , shall be ' The Organisation of Chartism and the recent trials of Chartists . " Mr Kydd gave a spirit-stirring account of his recent mission in Yorkshire , and the progress of Chartism in that district .
South _Lonoin Ham , — Application was mac by Mr Michael Pattison for some members ofthe Executive to attend tbat Hall on the evenings of Wednesday , the 10 th , 17 th , and 24 th ot January . On the motion of Messrs Stallwood and Kydd , it was resolved : — ' That the application be acceded lo . ' ' That Messrs M'Grath and Dixon , attend on the 10 th ; that the subject be ' The _Political and Social _Conrlition ofthe People of England . ' ' ' That Messrs Kydd and Clark attend on the 17 th ; that the subject be ' The Condition and Government of Ireland ' '
The Parliamentary Dkmonstration . —The following deputies attended to aid the _Executire in getting up the demonstration , — M' John Milne Westminster ; Mr James " Leslie . Ernest Jones Locality ; Mr Mark Lee , Finsbury ; Mr Jame Bailey , and Mr John Ferdinando . Brunswick Ha ! Locality ; Mr J . II . Knowles . Commercial Hal ! Philpot Street ; Mr John Miller , _Cripplegat ' Mr . Clark . delivered-in ra report , relatirc to ir q ' airies made for a'suitable place in whic to hold the demonstration . ' Mr M ;; r * Jf suggested that the ' _U ' ,:- _!)¦¦ : ¦' " i _'* Arr : ' , \ Street , was a fit and ..-.. ; . _-:.-,-, > : -. ic ' ; •'¦ ing . On - the motion : >\ if . v . r . « . - ¦>; .. ' 'vo _: Dixon , Mr Lee was depu . ' . ' ' _; . ' * ' ¦¦ _•* _i' •• •• _, > ¦ ' in thf > pvprlk r > f his failir , - _;•; ¦ ' ¦ ¦ ' _-. ' ¦ :. _Vs" (!! lt . * J '
was instructed to tak _? . u . " _tnsi ¦ . " _'•; 'Mi , ' -jui . _u Street , for the occasion , ihe council then adjourned until Friday evening , January the 5 th .
Mr Kjdd's Lecturb.—-Mr S. Kydrl, Who At ...
Mr _Kjdd _' _s Lecturb . — -Mr S . Kydrl , who at tha recent nomination of candidates for fhe representation of the WeBt Riding appeared on ibe huntings at Wakefield a 9 the exponent of Chartist d 1 . ctris . e 9 , attended at Sheffield , on Tuesday _evenhu , Des . 26 th , and delivered a lecture on ' _Labour— : Position and Prospeota . ' A numerous and orderly assembly of the working classes apt eared in the Town Hall to listen to him . The early part of the lecture cons' 8 ted of a sketch uf the relation which the labouring c _' _asses hava always borne to the other _classic of society . He argued that ths greatness of our own cMintry -was attributable entirely cr _> _eirW i-. oto labour a _« the creating agent , and that its tn urp advancement or _deolenBion defended mainly upon tho influence of this agent . Hence the question of labour was tbe treat question for the _erccnt day , and that on whieh _doendod th 9 stability and the
happiness of _society . T . he _Bufferings of the _workm _? _elates we ' re ewiDK to the _centralisation of capital , and _consequently the remedy was a more cqaitabla distribution of wealtt—s . ma _arrangement that would give every man a stake in tho _country All men were naturally conservative ; the only difference was that the _working _clashes had _nothing to cons _iYe . Tte favourite remedy proposed and _eneourazed by the 1 _fjperty owning classes vras ( -migration , oa tbe _suppotion that the country is over-popul . _Ved . In tbis _pjm'Wiea ba had no faith . He believed that the soil of England was capable to maintain her people , for tbe resources of tbe laad knew no limit : they only need ed to ba _developed , Tbe cost of conv * vine _onMabvjv _. _' _, '' ' ' ' 18 'bii _oou'ii _* . _' . ; ' io ; ui * trai \; . ira- _. ¦ . "" . "Thn _-affin _cMne _.-i ' . _rou'd pay ' :. y r .: i > ' _ry-i _' ivnr _.- . v ! ' , ( . i _iwe-¦ _;' . _'fi » 5 ' mv ° ( _iUi : _ii _^/' vl ; ic : fe : _! 'aiS :, _Kiif'y : ¦ -.- _!» _^ liuc _" > _iJi _-. _i-A / . v .. _- _;' .. ' . _' , ¦ -, hi _*¦» ' , ' . ' ti ? tho /" ¦ . _«* ' : ¦ ¦>' ¦¦ : ' ¦ ' _*? ' ¦ < rai "
gr ;« i _? n that _overy orj } gu > r : $ tc " _* .. * /¦ ' :. _-: ; i ; u ; ••¦ _''imh becoivs s- ! ir , e _,-.-. l ri * inuir >« :- _<• ' _.-:-i * i !< . ' _'* . ciUfeJ _cc- _' . _'i * . _P-r ¥ ; _no £ : _* ; b'st v " ,,: ; io i . *• . < * . h : ¦ « _bsitof ' 0 . v _,.- _? _: •' ' _tV . ? ! i'l _r- \ _locfci ' _saj- the _vilfl'ti . _'•;¦ . . ' i ; e _lptov . _i'C' ¦ . ¦ ' ¦ ' _* ¦¦ ' . '• acres ef _hitherto waste land at heme , where ho weuld be sure to be a consumer of our m inu aoture « , and a producer _t-f food likewise ? Mr _Kj dd re _f erred with much satisfaction to the judioirua apd _pnise _* worthy application of unproductive pauper _labour to the cul ivation of waste lands at _H-illow Meadows , ne » r this town , under tho auspices of tbe _Shtffield Board of Guardians , and argued font tho policy of Government ought to be to carry ont the principle wherever applicable . They had a ! l the requisite machinery in the Door-law system . The RovernmeDt wai quite powerful enough lor such an _uadertukins ! : and it would contribute in a very great _degree to render the country solvent and Becure , and to make
the people contented and happy . ( _Cheera . ) He next adverted to the severe evil * resulting from the competitive principle , and recommended tbo adoption in thia country of tbe p _' an adopted a few years a obyM . Leolero . & celt btated house painter in P _« i 3 , who admits all his workmen to a _participation Of profits proportionate to their value aB workmen . Mr Kydd concluded his lecture by _advinnss tbe working classes ln the _diflVent tr *< _lea to ' , rj _*» bise themselves on the co-operative principle , like the Bhoetnakera of London and the hattera of Dsut , for the employment cf their cnemplored brethren , and the creation of capital by _yroducini * _ns'ihuiacturca goods on their own account . Hi 9 _hopr j for the future success of the country , he said , _restrd on the labouring olasses . Ue believed they would be t ? u » to themselves , and would stand by ths People a Charter until it became the law of roe latd . ( _. Louq _.. beeM . _* !—Sheffield Times .
f _* 0 > _TV'THB C . ' ; A ' . ' 1 i » 7 _MfV . _IIS'jl 1 < _ril'Sli- S . ' _- ' . \ . -. An extract froa * tae _Oyunty _frw nw _. r'i a « : nt shows tbat thu _r--. ' _ropaid by _^ cn * : ¦< tbo ci _«' .. »<*>• . watdiiis of t ' : \ _e . _/ _iiiour par »; i . u » in . _viuld ! _- ; ' - _^ . * ¦ . _' ? - _.-rpi-tifcj incurred by _Soes .- ' _» _P-W' _^ _TS'aVM ;' , ?* r > lL _« _tece « _sarr _articleu for ia ? ' .: _** of ' _, ' v * iy cv . _nl _vJ . srtab ' _aj . io April 1818 . mount- *' * ' . \ o JK 1 _. . _H 5 U . < . 3 i , P * . «! i \ icRtp * a , £ _Ute X ; Hp . fjiV . i _^ y _, _£ 1 & 7 9 _j . Id-A " : _« _Ki >»; a _' --r _^» , _—I'Ttii * _w *! ? n *> u _ahoulii _kvra b _>& : < _fcst'iad— * Gust ' - _>? n _ow _$ K . > t > _broon > £ ttc _* fu , _&;» _fiiyaliit _rolling-pini . ' Sd mccU U : _* d _ : cuj _ejwKdiwiiidibop-keopiaeifiBoraawH- _'ED . X . 4
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 6, 1849, page 1, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/ns3_06011849/page/1/