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' ' x - N\ ^, v^.\ \\V he NORTHERN STAR....
Bbatk Cohdoct of a Boy.—Extract of a letter
fromTortoIa, Virgin Islands: — ' We have...
Criminal Statistics of Birmingham. — -The
statistics of crime in the town during t...
NATIONAL ORGANISATION OF TRADES. TO THE ...
ExBiuquAKs.—The shock of the earthquake ...
TO THE PEOPLE OF ENGLAND. Lxiter X. Fbuo...
A Lcckt Pubchabk.—At the recent sale of ...
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' ' X - N\ ^, V^.\ \\V He Northern Star....
_' ' x - _N \ _^ , _^ . \ _\\ V _he NORTHERN STAR . , _ January 6 , _^ _- _^ __^_^^_—______^^___— _ — _ _—~^^— _ ——— _ —— ___________—___^—_ i . _>> V . - -- mi - ™ - ————— ——— -- «—— . _« -agiJ- _^»» _j _»« _M- _*» _-- »»» -- »**** -- * - ***** ' ************* ° ****** - ************ : — . —————
TWESTT-FIFXH _BDlTlON .
« ied bj Twenty-six Anatomical Engravings on Steel . Physical Disqualifications , _Generatine Incapacity , and Impediments te Marriage . 9 w and improved edition , enlarged to 198 pages , price - oi by post , direct from the Establishment , 3 s . 64 . 1
UHDER ROYAL PATRONAGE . PERFECT FREEDOM FROM COUGH , In Ten Minutes after nse , and a rapid Cure of Asthma and Consumption , and all Disorders ofthe Breath aod Lungs , is insured by
Bbatk Cohdoct Of A Boy.—Extract Of A Letter
_Bbatk _Cohdoct of a Boy . —Extract of a letter
Fromtortoia, Virgin Islands: — ' We Have...
_fromTortoIa , Virgin Islands : — ' We have had a very gallant action performed here by a child , nine years of age , the son of onr President , E . II . _Dramsnond Hay , Esq . The child , with a younger brother , Lad gone down to bathe , and when there , he saw a maa inthe water who had sank once , bnt the little fellow was not , at first , aware he could not Bwim , but when he perceived the man in danger , and ab out to sink a second time , he bravely _ruBhed into file water , and swam at once to bis assistance ; the nan immediately caught at him , and they wonld have been both involved in the same destruction had
not the ohild had presence of mud to dive , and thus escape from bis grasp ; then approaching him more cautiously , ha dexterously seizad Mm by the arm tnd dragged him ashore _.. The persons present speak with admiration of tb j _prompt and cool Manner with ' yfhich the little follow acted , ana affirm that bnt for bis _intrepidity ; he man matt inevitably hart been _drowned , _sj-the acoident , previously , bad bten unob served from the shore . ' ~ Mrs _Walibi of Roscommon , whose life v _« attempted by tn assassin a short time since , on Wednesday _Iat-redelivered ofa ohild , and whose body _C'atained _tktee dug * , —Anglo Cdt ( Irishpaper . )
FAMED THROUGHOUT THE _& LOBE , hollowaFs pills . A CASE OP DROPSY . Extract of a Letter from Mr William _Gardner , of Hanging _Haaghton , Northamptonshire , dated September Uth , 1847 . To Professor Holloway . Sib , —I before informed yeu that my wife hadbeen tapped throe times for the dropsy , but by the blessin g of God upon yonr pills , and her perseveranee in taking them , the water bas now been kept off eighteen months by their neans , which is a great mercy , ( Signed ) WitLUM _Gaidkes _.
Criminal Statistics Of Birmingham. — -The
Criminal Statistics of _Birmingham . — -The
Statistics Of Crime In The Town During T...
statistics of crime in the town during the year 1847 made their appearance about a fortnight since . The retnrns are classed under six different heads , and from an analysis we find that the first , embracing murder , rape , _stabbing , assaults , and other offences of that character , _Bhows that there were taken into custody 485 ; of these , 405 were assault cases , 188 of them being upon the police in the execution of their duty ; and there were discharged by the magistrates 185 ; summarily disposed of , or held to bail , 234 ; actually tried and convicted , 16 only . The offences under the second head embrace such crimes as burglary , house-breaking , robbery , & c .: there
were taken into custody , 53 ; discharged by the magistrates , 11 ; committed for trial , 40 ; convicted , 24 . The third section embraces horse-stealing , embezzlement , fraud , larcenies , & c , snd there were taken into custody . 1 , 596 ; discharged , 882 ; committed for trial , 510 ; convicted , 415 ; out of which number 202 were for simple larcenies only . In the fourth section there were 114 taken into custody for malicious offences against properly , of whom 52 were discharged , and 62 summarily disposed of , or held to bail . Under the fifth head there are forgeries , uttering of counterfeit coin . & c . ; 57 were taken into custody , 51 were discharged by the magistrates , 6 committed for trial , and 3 only convicted .
The sixth section embraces drunkenness and other minor offences : there were taken into custody , 1 , 762 ; discharged by the magistrates , 1 , 513 ; 241 were summarily disposed bf : there not being a single committal for trial out of this nearly 1 , 800 persons charged with about a score different kinds of offences . The recapitulation under these heads shows that there were taken into custody in the year for various offences , 4 , 027 ; discharged by the magistrates , 2 , 694 ; summarily disposed of , 753 ; committed for trial , 580 ; convicted , 458 ; acquitted , 77 ; bills not found , & c ., 45 . Of these 4 , 027 persons taken into custody , those returns further show , with respect to their ages , that there were
of—12 years and under , males 158 , females 18 ; 16 years and above 12 , males 492 , females 62 ; 21 years and above 16 , males 726 , females 227 . Oi these 4 , 027 offenders , there could neither read nor write , 1 , 832 ; read or read and write imperfectly , 1 , 965 ; read and write well , 197 : superior education , 33 . On a general review of these statistics ! it is found that of the whole number of offenders , less than one-fifth are females , but that of the crimes of an aggravated character , these bear a proportion of more than one-third . The most promising gleam of satisfaction gathered from these returns is presented in the comparative one of the list seven years , in which it is shown that , whilst
there were taken into custody in 1840 , 5 , 986 persons , there were in 1847 only 4 , 027 ; and that in the former year there were 512 sentenced and convicted , in the latter 458 . The concluding table , which presents perhaps the most lemarkable result of tbe whole , embraces a list of abont 200 trades which have furnished these 4 , 027 offenders ; from this it appears , that under eight of these heads are to be found -sore than one-half of the whole amount of crime in the calendar of the town for the year . There were taken into custody—188 brass-founders , 177 button-makers , 74 carpenters , 76 casters , " 133 gun-makers , 1 , 284 labourers , 77 shoemakers and hinders , 87 no trade—total 2 , 096 .
Extraordinary Telegraphic Feat . —President Polk ' s cumbrous Message , containing upwards of 50 , 000 words (!) , was flashed all the way from Baltimore to St Louis in twenty-four hours , ahd this , too , with tbe minutest punctuation mark in tbe document . Copies were also dropped , on the way , at York , _Harrisburgh , Carlisle , Chambersburgb , Bedford , and Pittsburgh , in Pennsylvania ; _Massillon , Cleveland , Zanesville , Columbus , Dayton , and Cincinnati , in Ohio ; Madison and Evansville , in Indiana ; Lousville , in Kentucky ; and Saline in Illinois . The gentlemen who accomplished this wonderful mental , mechanical , and electrical feat are Messrs O'Rielly , of tbe Atlantic and Lake Telegraph Company , and H . J . Rogers of the American Telegraph Company , who wished to prove beyond all cavil that the lightning line can be made available fer
the transmission of large documents as well as for short messages , and we think they have pretty well satisfied the public of their ability to do it . Messrs Reddish and Hougb , of Philadelphia , connected with the O'Rielly line , were detained for the most important part of the duty to be performed , that of writing the entire document in Baltimore . Their arduous task was begun on Tuesday , shortly after the Message came to hand , and at a few minutes before two o ' clock on "Wednesday afternoon finished their almost Herculean undertaking—at which hour the signature of James K . Polk , and the Washing _, ton date , were written as plainly and legibly as the caption had been twenty-four hours previously . The two operators were at work , relieving each other occasionally , during the entire time , with the exception of a couple of hours , when they were interrupted by a storm at the western end of the line .
Emigration . —A youth from Nottingham was found iu the streets of Plymouth- a few days ago , asking the road to Australia .
Statistics Of Crime In The Town During T...
THE RATIONAL MODE OF PERMANENTLY AND PEACEABLY ADJUSTING THE PRESENT DISORDERED STATE OF EUROPE . Third Section . Law 16 . — ' ¦ That this invaluable practical knowledge can be acquired solely through an extensive search after truth , by an accurate , patient , and unprejudiced inquiry into facts as developed by nature . "
REASONS FOR THIS LAW . In consequence of the false fundamental principle on which the human character has been alone formed , and thereby made to be irrational , truth bas been more dreaded by the authorities of all nations than all the evils which have yet afflicted mankind . Even now , it is more dreaded by the old authorities ofthe world than the most powerful armies that can be brought to oppose them . The system ofthe world having been based on falsehood , and supported merely by -falsehood and brute force ,
both ef which , from necessity , are hourly increasing , cannot stand the test of plain , simple , straightforward truth . From this test the old system of society now shrinks like a coward , or vainly attempts , while supported by numbers , to destroy the advocates of truth , by the sword of the ignorant , misled by their earlytaught prejudices . This proceeding bas as yet succeeded , and in consequence , all have grievously suffered in one way or another , but all , more or less , in every rank of life , in every age . and in all countries .
But tbe knowledge of facts bas been ever progressive * tbese are always opposedjto falsehood , and now they are arrayed in such numbers in support of truth , that it is impossible falsehood can much longer maintain its power as heretofore over tbe mental faculties of the human race . Falsehood is the origin of Evil among men—Truth the foundation of GooC And both may be thus known : — Falsehood is ever inconsistent , and opposed to facts . Truth is always consistent with itself , and in accordance with every known fact * and that which will not stand this test cannot be true .
There is no consistency in making man responsible for his original qualities and powers ; for the circumstances in which he may be placed , or for his feelings , convictions , and conduct ; for these necessaril y emanate from the faculties created for him at birth , and the circumstances which act upon those faculties from his birth . Every fact declares that he is the being created or manufactured in mind and body by these circumstances , and therefore , that be cannot justly or advantageously be educated or governed as an existence which forms itself , its feelings , convictions , or conduct the latter always proceeding from one
or other , or both of the former . The great truth , from ignorance of which society , throughjall its ramifications , now so severely suffers , is , that the evils in all classes over the world are not created by the individuals who suffer frora tbem , or who make others suffer , but are tbe necessary effects of tbe false system in which all are entangled ; and from which none can escape , except by tbe abandonment of tbe whole system in principle and practice , and by the adoption of an entirely new system based on another principle—a principle in accordance with all known facts , and which is uniformly consistent with itself and those facts .
It is only by an accurate , patient , and unprejudiced inquiry into facts , fully investigated and pursued to their legitimate consistent results , regardless of the previous ignorance of our irrational ancestors , who have always hitherto been governed by their imagination , based on false conceptions , that truths useful to mankind can be discovered and applied beneficiall y to practice . In consequence of the characters of all being formed on the most erroneous and absurd
notions respecting human nature , and society itself being constructed on the same false notions , no men have yet been so p laced , as to investigate facts in the manner and spirit now recommended . Thus far , it has been made to appear to be the private interest , and for the safety of all , to lend their aid to support old notions , however false and injurious ; and if they chanced to discover some of the most important truths , on which depend the permanent happiness of the human race , they have not been in a position publicly to declare tbem
or if they attempted to make them public , they have fallen martyrs to tbeir conscientious feelings . Who , on account of their pri . Yate interests , or fear of an ignorant and pre . judiced public erroneously instructed from their cradle , can now venture openly to advocate the divine truths , which are given in this universal government , constitution and code of Jaws ; although the permanent well-doing and happiness of all of the human race are deeply involved in their promulgation and adoption ?
Falsehood , and accumulated and accumulating errors , necessarily emanating from that falsehood , have made moral cowards of all men and women , none of whom now dare to speak the truth as they are obliged to know it by an irresistible feeling of conviction on their own minds . The most obvious , natural , and certain convictions which internally exist through life , in all who have the faculty to observe arrii reflect , lie dormant in each unexpressed , and through the whole period of their existence , until they die witb them when they cease to exist .
It is this moral cowardice in the search after truth , and fear of declaring it when found , that must be overcome , before there can beany chance for man to be made a consistent , rational , and happy being . The present political and social disorder throughout the civilised world , is the fortunate breaking up of this false , unjust , cruel , and most absurd system , by which , until now , the characters of all have been formed , and by which all nations and people have been so wretchedl y governed . It is now alone that truth , consistent with itself and in accordance with all facts , can prevent universal anarchy , and otherwise , interminable contests , and give peace and order to the world .
Law 17 . — " That man can never attain to a state o f superior and permanent happiness , until he shall be surrounded by those external circumstances onl y which will train him , from birth ; to feel pure charity and sincere affection toward the whole of his species , to speak the truth only on all occasions , and to regard with a merciful disposition all that has life . "
REASONS FOR THIS LAW . Experience , through the entire history of man , proves that he has been the creature of circumstances created before his birth , and in which he has been placed by society from his birth , and a patient search after truth , by investigating facts without previous prejudices , makes it e » ident that man must ever be the being of the bad , mixed , or good circumstances with which he shall be surrounded from the commencement of his existence in the womb , and after his birth through life .
This is the most important truth ever developed from the commencement of the irrational existence of human nature . Por this knowledge will hereafter give the full power to society to create an inferior , mixed , or superior character for all of the human race ; and it will soon appear to be the interest of all , tbat the best character only should be created for every individual _. But now a most "inferior character is created for all , through a combination of most vicious and injurious circumstances ; of circumstances blindly created and unwisely continued through past ages to the present , when all are severely suffering from tbis error so fatal to their happiness .
Now , a necessity has arisen for these varied combinations , in different classes and different countries , of vicious and injurious _circamstances , to be rationally abandoned , and superseded by those only which are virtuous and superior' and which may be now so easily ,
Statistics Of Crime In The Town During T...
economically , and beneficially introduced by existing governments , in peace , and with wise foresight to insure the safety and happiness of all . Instead of governments , as heretofore , plundering and murdering the producing classes for no rational object ; and creating inferior , injurious , and vicious circumstances by which to surround them , they will , through this
knowledge , discover the injustice and cruelty with tbe total want of wisdom in all such insane proceedings , and with rational foresight commence new arrangements , with which to execute the essential business of life , that is , to produce and distribute wealth , form character , and govern in a manner very superior to the grossly ignorant and vicious mode by which these proceedings are now carried on in all countries over the world . And to this
statement , sad and melancholy as it is , there is not one exception . All nations , hitherto , have bad tbeir affairs conducted on the most false and injurious principles , and hence the deplorable condition in mind and bod y , in which the multitude in all countries now are . Under the existing wretched system , all are trained in the language of falsehood , and in a conduct of deception , without charity for the feelings , thoughts , or conduct of those trained and educated to differ from them . While , under a system based on true principles , derived direct from nature , a new combination of good and superior circumstances would arise , simple and easy of construction—circumstances that would ensure a language of universal
truth , without motive to express a falsehood in look , word , or action ; and create feelings which would pervade the whole being with pure charity and sincere affection for those taught the most to differ from us , and also create a disposition to be kind and merciful to all that has life ; a character that would , in fact , go far towards creating harmony throughout terrestrial creation . Law 18 . — " That such superior knowledge v ' feelings can never be given to man under tbose institutions of society which have been founded on the _" mistaken notion tbat each man forms his own feelings and convictions by his will , and , therefore , has merit or demerit , deserves praise or blame , reward or punishment , for them . "
REASONS FOR THIS LAW . The existing institutions of society , in consequence of being based on falsehood , can never produce a superior character , or so govern man as to produce general permanent prosperity , or to do justice to human nacure either individually or in the aggregate . It is vain , therefore , to imagine , that these old institutions , based on falsehood and folly , can be longer forced upon the growing experience of the age , or maintained when the foundation on which they have been constructed is undermined , and their injustice and iniquity are made known to the population of the world .
It is not the interest of any one living , that these institutions should permanentl y remain , but it is the interest of all that not one of them should be prematurely or suddenly destroyed . Due reflection will make it evident society requires for the peace and safety of all its members that these institutions , as well as all the practices of society emanating from tbem , should be gradually superseded by others that would be permanently beneficial to all , and that would produce no injurious consequences by their introduction or subsequent proceedings . ( To be continued )
National Organisation Of Trades. To The ...
NATIONAL ORGANISATION OF TRADES . TO THE EDITOB OF THE KORTHBBH STAR . Sib , —I hasten at this my earliest opportunity , to tender you my meed of praise for the very favourable notice whiob you have given to the address and objects ofthe trades delegates in the Northern Stab . As one of the delegates , I took muoh interest in the elaboration of the fundamental principles embodied in their address , as I believe they go praotioally and systematically to the root of the many evils by whioh labour ia enslaved . I , therefore , purpose , with your permission , to further develope my view * npon the land , which is the first prinoiple enunciated by the delegates . I look npon the second prinoiple in their
address— -namely , Universal Suffrage—aa tbe means to the end , bnt I am awara that there is much work to be done before the suffrage oan be turned to proper acoouEt . The publio mind requires to be thoroughly enlightened upon tbe justice , utility , and benefits to be derived by the community at large , by making the land national property ; particularly in the agricultural district ? , where the evil genius of modern feudalism has entwined itself around the intellect of the rural population , and laid both mind and body prostrate at its feet . I therefore trust , that when the Association , which is now rapidly _progrening , _ahall become thoroughly established throughout the prinoipal towns , tbat it will then , with discretion and indomitable energy , consecrate itself to the enlightenment of the agricultural population—and that the schoolmaster will everywhere be sent abroad until the young mind of this country be literally besieged with instruction ; so that when the hour of
their political enfranchisement arrives , tbey will be able to thoroughly understand the measures and the men that must secure their emancipation , and the prinoiples propounded by , ! the delegates seem well adapted to that end . There may , perhaps , be a _differenceofopirionaatothe best and most speedy manner in wbich the land may be made to revert to the State ; but if the justice of the prinoiple be admitted , the manner in . which that can be best effeoted will be simply a matter for deliberation . However _, with your permission , I will here give an outline of what appears te me to be a just . and praotical mode of restoring tbe land tothe people . Either the estates of tbe landlords may be made to revert to the SUto at their decease , . with lull compensation to their heirs , or they may , as a body , sell their lands to the State , and be paid by instalments , or the present or any future government may , on the ground of compensation , decree that it shall be so . Thus , if
we suppose tho value ot an estate to be worth £ 500 , 000 . by paying the present proprietor , or his heirs , £ 20 000 per annum the whole sum would be paid in twenty-five years ; and , taking that as an average , surely it is quite sufficient to afford the sons of tbe aristocracy every facility to place themselves in an honest way oi living in the world , instead of the land passing by hereditary right into the hands ot the eldest eons of our noblemen , and the _reat being left to look out for places in the church , army , and navy , or their fortunes to depend upon marrying an alderman'a daughter or some rich heiress . The eame scale of pa j ment may be applied to the whole of the land aa the landlords die off—or it Bhould be placed under the protection of the State at onoe ; and on the former plan the whole , or , at leaBt , the principal portion ofit , would revert to the State in less than thirty years .
__? . _nnpstien may suggest itself to suoh that bave not considered this suhjeci- _^* f here is the money to come from te pay the landlords ? . I answer at once , from tbe rents derived from the land ,- as it reverts to the state . For instance , suppose the average price of land to be £ 40 per aore , an estate worth £ 500 , 000 would contain 12 , 500 acres . Allowing thai to be let at £ 2 per aore , it would yield a revenue 01 £ 25 000 per annum , which would leave a _Burplus of £ 5 , 000 fer revenue purposes , after having paid the landlord hiB Annual instalment of _£ 20 , 000 . The same prinoiple may be applied to the whole of the land at once . In the parliamentary paper * , appendix H , Irish Peor Inquiry / part I , table 2 , the cultivated lands of Great Britain are stated at 34 . 014 , 000 acres—the uncultivated at 22 , 579 300 aores . The cultivated aores of Ireland ( see 'Public Works Report'for 1835 , page 107 } are set down at 12 , 125 , 280 aores , whioh , being added to the former , makes the t _. ftal number of aores of cultivated land in the united
kingdom amount to 46139 , 280 . Allow the annual income of landlords , from all sources , derivable from the raw material of land , both from the bowels of the earth and its surface , to be £ 150 , 000 , 000 , which is far below the mark , considering that one-half of that sum is paid as rents by tenant farmers , and a much greater Bum from expired leases of household property , ground rents of unexpired leases , rents for ooal , lead , copper , iron , and other mines , slate , and Btone quarries of various descriptions ; fisheries , turneries , game , and other sources of income . So that if we set the whole of the land of the United Kingdom , both cultivated
and uncultivated , down at 70 , 000 . 000 acres , we shall find , according to that calculation , that the landlords receive , npon an average , £ 2 3 s . per aore for every aore of land they possess ; and without overcrowding this artiole with superfluous statistics , I have no hesitation in saying that my calculations are much below the mark . It is therefore clear that if the land should gradually revert to the State we should not only be able to meet all liabilities bat have a considerable Burplus , whioh would enable ub to reduce our custom and excise duties , gradually reduce the rents on land , until the whole of it became national property , when custom and excise duties might be totally abolished , and all the rent that would be required
National Organisation Of Trades. To The ...
froB land would simply be a mere rent tax to meet the general exigencies of the State , as stated in the address of the delegates . Then , and not till then , we shall have a real veritable Free-trade , instead of the monstrous misnomer called Free-trade at the _present time . If the Parliament , in the manner _hert' proposed , had dealt with tho _encumbered estate * in Ireland , instead of the manner in whioh they trill be disposed of by the provisions of the bill of last session , the moat salutary effects in a few yean would have been produced to that unhappy country ; but under the provisions of that act , the result will be the substitution of usurers and money lords , for the original territorial aristocracy . It is impossible for me to say is what manner a
Parliament , representing "the wishes of ihe whole people , would restore the land to them ; but I have no hesitation in saying , that we may as well expect to arrest the course of time by stopping the dial of St Paul ' s Cathedral , at to expeot to secure justioe to the people , or proipesity to the empire , while our present landed tenures continue to exist _. Let , therefore , a general understanding among Chartists , Socialists , and Trades' Unionists—at least upon the question of the Land—be come to , and extend tbat knowledge to the rural districts , which , politically speaking , may be said to have no existence . Let it everywhere be proclaimed by their firesides and in tbeir workshops—in the valley and on the mountain—that the universal right of the
people to the soil ia based npon s prinoiple of eternal justice , and the trne and meat philosophical mode of dealing with itis to place it under the protection of the State—the State , meaning the whole universal people , divided into any number of eleotoral districts , as set forth in the Charter—or federal states , which is the same thing ; so that , by an equal distribution of power , the possibility of government patronage is prevented—while , at the same time , tt salutary local power would be possessed by the people to compel the public functionaries they eleoted to afford every facility _andfairplay to tha people , either to cultivate the land on their own _indisidual responsibility , or any number to associate together end cultivate the
soil in their associated capacity . Do that , and the means to labour are at once * organised , ' which will do more for the settlement of tbis question of the association or ' Organisation of Labour , ' than ever can be done by a thousand years of discussion . It would destroy all contention , beoause it would establish real liberty . No man has a right to compel another to enter a community against , his will , even though he who would compel him , tabes tbe correot and mest philosophic view of what ii moat suitable for human nature . On the other band , who are they who dare to aay to a workman 'Your labour is my property . Tou must dispose ef it at my price , and continue to work for me aa my Blave , or otherwise you shall not work . I deny your right to associate with others as a community ?'
Both of these extremes are tyranny . It appears to me that the great question first to be settled is not ao much the 'Organisation of Labour , ' as theorga * n ' _aation of the means of labour . The best way , in my opinion , to organise the means to labour—if we look at the question in a national point of view—would be to make tb 6 land national property—to afford every facility either for associated or individual labourand the true settlement of the Labour Question would follow , with as muoh certainty as water finds its level , and m unerringly as the needle tends towards the pole . But while the real demooraoy is divided in itself , and disputing about abstract dogmas , or contending for the superiority of the association of Labour over individual exertion , snd vice
versa , it must be olear that instead of uniting so create a system of government under which both principles would be fairly and speedily tested ) they are playing the game of their opponents in the most effectual manner . I sincerely trust the members of tbe Trades' Organisation will direct their exertions to the oreation of this good and friendly feeling among all real reformers , to create an extensive and inlightened public opinion—in short , to secure , as far as possible , a unanimity of action and sentiment among the people , whether they be Trades'Unionists , _Cbartists , or Socialists , ' upon this question of the Land ; snd when the full recognition of that principle is established , it will be found that all disputes will cease as to the manner in whiob they shall employ themselves in its cultivation , beoause each will be at full liberty to test the prinoiple of individualism or association ; and it will then be fonnd that
practice and experience will settle what bas been the dispute of ages , and what must continue to be disputed in future generations , unless all who are agreed to the universal right of the people to the soil , adhere unanimously to that point , end leave it to time to settle the question of superiority of a cooperative , or competitive state of society . X es , it is time alone—the sole arbitrator of human affairsthat must settle this all-important question . But it is the intelligence , the energy , the concentrated aotion of the democracy of Europe that must accelerate its consummation . The trades will have to take up this question sooner or _lsler , and 1 implore _thereto commence at once ; itis the only means by whioh they can find that protection and reward for their labour , whieh they have in vain Bought to accomplish by Trades Unions , and all because they have left untouohed the primary causes by whieh labour is enslaved . Alfred A ; Walton .
Exbiuquaks.—The Shock Of The Earthquake ...
_ExBiuquAKs . —The shock of the earthquake felt on Saturday , Deo . 27 , at _Boia-le-Duc ( Netherlands ) , was equally perceptible at Os , Geffell , Nulland , Sobyndel , fleer wyk _. Dintber , Eindhoven , and above all at NUtenroode and _Worstenbouh . In the latter commune the shock was so strong that stones were abaken from chimneys , and plates and dishes fell out of cupboards . It is remarkable that this phenomenon shortly preceded the considerable change whioh has taken plaoe in the weather . The Arnemschb _Coubant informs us that thia shook was felt _Jikwise at Arnhera . In that town it lasted for four seconds , and caused objects hanging from the ceilings of the _houseB to vibrate . —Brussels Herald .
Gold Mirbb in England— While we have American returns of gold mines in California , we are well pleased to find that at home parties do not lose Bight of the precious metal . Itis well known that our metalliferous rocks and lodes yield gold and silver , although , in most instances , too minute to render them of any commercial value ! aud generally speaking being found in the gossans . It is now soma months since that attention was directed , through our columns , to the produce of gold in Merionethshire ; and although the question may be open as to whether the sovereign is obtained minus or plus the value , yet the fact has been elucidated that the mineral lodes in North Wales yield gold , a bar of
which , weighing 3 b . 7 oz , has been placed in our own bands , as tbe product ofthe Cwm-hesian Mine , near _Dolgelly . The mine is worked for lead , and the lode is represented to us as being ' interlaced' with strings of gold . Some six or seven pounds ofthe preoioua metal have been obtained , and the ore at bank will we are informed , yield at least 200 oz . of gold . We merely mention the circumstance with tho View Of directing tbo attention of our readers who may possess information on a subjeot so important as that mooted—the extraction of gold from our mineral veins . We are well aware that the matter is one of pounds , shillings , and pence , and having noticed it , we leave it to others to enter into further detail . —Mining Journal .
Imhensb Import of Foreign Grain . —During the laBt few days the arrivals of grain to this port bave been very considerable , and in consequence of the greater part having been bonded , pending the reduction ot the duty to la . per quarter , whioh is to take effeot on the lit February . 1819 , warehouse room has been difficult to obtain . The fallowing are the quantities now in bond at this port : —Wheat , 30 , 000 qrs . ; barley , 21 , 000 qrs . ; oats , 4 . 000 qrs . ; peas , 7 , 000 qrs . ; beans , 12 , 000 qrs . ; rye meal , 800 owt . On Tuesday , the 26 th ultimo , no less than sixty vessels from foreign parts _Reported their cargoes at the Custom House at this port . —Hull Packet . Thb Loss of thk Muiinb . —The _following is an extraot from a letter , containing a detailed acoount
of the loss of the Mutme . The letter iB dated Venice , December 24 th . 1848 . —* Fearful that ex aggeratcd report ! ,. may tench home , I write by the earlw * e _^ ,, / unity to inform , yoa of the wreck of the Mutine , which took place on ibe 21 st at _Palestrina _, about ten miles from Venice , in ecu of the heaviest gales of wind ( commonly called ' Boris' in this part of the world ) I ever saw . _Fortunately every one has been cared , with the exception offaa ) officers and one marine , vii „ Edward White ( aoting mate ) , drowned in a moat gallant attempt to get on shore in the dingy with a line , * H . E . Charlton , ( aoting mate , ) dead from exhaustion and intense cold ; James Burke , ( assistant-surgeon , ) whose death was caused in a similar manner ; James Dowse , (
carpenter , ) who fell ont of the bowline-knot as they were hauling him on shore , and was drowned ; and Edward James , ( private , Royal Marines , ) found frozen to death nnder the forecastle . How so many were saved appears to be almost miraculous , after being exposed nearly thirty houra to the moBt dreadful weather ; ( he oold being ao intense tbat the seas froze on everything aa they came on beard . Many are suffering severely Irom their hands and feet being frostbitten . It is impossible to speak too highly of the kindness and hospitality evinced by the inhabitants and authorities of _Palestrina , who seized officers and men as they were landed , and carried them up into the houses , actually giving up their own beds , and supplying them with warm drinks , and , in fact ,
doing everything their dearest friends conld have done for them . The ship is now lying within twenty yards of the shore , ( having beaten over three quarters of a mile of shoal water , ) with her masts and rudder gone , and back broken . It ia expeoted we shall save the greater part of the things on board , thongh there is no hope for the Bhip . The people on board were landed by means of a hawser run ou to the shore , with a _bowline-knot and _hauling-line . t _Horskbiobihb Fbbhch Rbfcbuc . —We understand that the government of France has a number of agents in this country purchasing horses suitable for troopers . One agent has bought several in this neighbourhood , and forwarded them for inspection _, with all pouibta _faa-t * h . _« -lviwich Extents *
To The People Of England. Lxiter X. Fbuo...
TO THE PEOPLE OF ENGLAND . Lxiter X . Fbuow _CounTRYMKif—I am now to examine the operation of Mr W . Rand ' s third and last remedj for the national calamities resulting from the worship of "the god 'Cheapness / that , " as he truly says , England has set up . ' _, , „ .. ,. I must imagine that the peop le of all other nations have become worshippers of the _t * ame idol , and have _insaiely abandoned the wise and _christian system of endeavouring , as far as possible , tOBuppV their wante with their own productions , _exchanging only their surplus produce for that which they most f . equireajo : other nations . I " must also suppose that each _Government has determined to abandon every tax on imports £ Hu exports , together with all excise and other duties * that interfered , in any way , between the buyer and tbe seller .
I am , in fact , to assume , that' free selling , as well as free baying , er Free Trade , fully and fairly carried out , ' is in universal operation ; it being now the avowed object of the people of every nation to make themselves rich by the sale of their productions to other people _—»•<*•> by their exports— ' common sense ' having awarded that every interference between buyer and seller is madness , and that ( be only safe and sure method of ' protecting native industry' iB everywhere subjecting it to the keenest foreign competition . While those whose duty it is are devising new and better modes of supporting national credit and paying for the expenses of their different governments , I am , if I can , to ascertain the effeots that will follow from universal competition on' a clear stage , ' where there is no favour . ' To discover , if possible , how , by suoh means , profitable and constant employment can be found for all the people . Tbe whele earth is the stage on which this tragedy will be performed . The weal or woe of the whole race of mankind is the stake in this game . '
The contemplation of tbe immense and universal changei that must , for many yean , pass over the _prospecta and conditions of every class of people and nation is perplexing and distracting . Competition is no longer curbed ! He is emancipated ; and , unrestrained , ascends his triumphal car , to propagate throughout the globe the worship of' the god' Cheapness ''!—to sacrifice life , honour , truth , at his shrine ! Under hiB banner are ranged the greedy ; thirsty , worshippers of wealth , resolved at all hazards , by _cheapening labour everywhere , to enrich _them-BSlVQB ! Emulation and strife—the destroyers of peace and
happiness—are let loose upon mankind 1 The _unirersal contest for pre-eminence is unceasingly maintained ! Wealth and power are sought fer in cheapness and exterminating toil ! In that game , depression must succeed depression , nntil the starving point is realised , and the cheapest country wins , when enfeebled by the strife—in maddened feebleness—panting and exhausted , she iB crowned * tha workshop of the world . ' But ere that goal is gained , hundreds of millions of property will have been destroyed millions of human beings will ere tben have been sacrificed in tbe worship of the demon cheapness . '
I will not assay to describe the horrors of that field of universal waste and slaughter ; nor will I pretend to name the conqueror ; I am content to ask—Who will reap the benefit of those incalculable losses and innumerable _humtn sacrifices ? Will the labourers be the gainers in that victory ? Their wages must , of necessity , be reduced to the starvation limit . Will the farmers gain by that conquest ? Their produce must be at the lowest point . Will the landlords be the reapers in that harvestt When 'Cheapness' has done her work , rents will be nominal ! The wages of the ar * _tisans , the profits of the manufaotnrera and the shopkeepers , must , under that pressure , be reduoed to the bankrupt staudard 1
Fellow-Countrymen—In that war none can gain , save a very few merchants of enormous wealth , and those persons who enjoy a fixed money income . But it is scarcely to be imagined tbat , amid such universal devastation , security can be maintained 1 What then ? Should nature rebel against the tyranny of ' Cheapness , ' those few wbo fancy that they are se cured from every risk would be overwhelmed an sacrificed in that terrible reaction , the natural rear of their extortion ! What bootB it , then , should England prove the conqueror ? Her sons wonld be enfeebled and impoverished ! She wonld become a land of Bterile bar * _renness !
She could not maintain her ascendancy , both in _agrioulture and manufacture . Where , then , _weuli be the promised increase in the produce of her fields ? Her soil would be uncultivated , because , from foreign lands , the food of man could be prooured at a ' cheaper * rate . The surface ef our oountry would be dotted and blackened with manufactories ! And you , my fellow oountrymen , would universally seek employment in mines , and pits , and furnaces , and mills , _Bubjeot to the endless changes wrought by unceasing competition—now one trade being ' all the go , ' and then another—forcing you to change your home and crafts , and migrate from district to distriot as' Cheapness' led the way 1 Tou would depend fer food on foreigners , consoled by the reflection , ' England is the workBbop ofthe world . '
Should England chance to lose the game , how then ? Her wealth would be destroyed , her fields neglected , her mills and warehouses dismantled 1 She would be reduced to second childhood—imbecile and weak—an easy prey te her successful rivals ! Soon she would be numbered one of their tributaries ! In sober seriousness I ask my fellow-countrymen _. Is it wise or safe to enter on a game where gain ia desolation , where less is subjugation ? Have I mistaken the progress and effeots of
rampant competition ? Let it be shown . Words , in my opinion , are too weak to give the full description of the deaths , disorders , _lesses , and derangements that mnst universally follow wben the greedy worshippers of Cheapness' are let loose upon mankind . Language cannot describe the fall of those mighty and multitudinous interests that will be engaged in mortal _confliofc for existence when ' free selling as nell as free buying , or Free Trade , fully and fairly carried out , ' shall have become the law of the whole earth .
In England , aa elsewhere , every branch of manufacture and agriculture , with the hundreds of millions of persons and the thousands of millions of capital engaged therein , must be subjected to perpetual fluctuation . Eaoh counting bouse would imbibe the restless , agonising spirit of the Stock Exohange 1 The breasts of employers and shopkeepers would be tortured and ranked between the perpetua Wickering ! of hope , fear , and despair ' The workpeople could never calculate their earning ? , or the certainty or nature of their employmentsthey would _necessarily become reckless and improvident—uncertainty and anxiety would drive them to distraotion 1 In fact , the minds of all would be aa _etretohed on tenter hooka * —life would become a burden—the _srave , man ' s sole repose . But , ' la those days Bhall men seek death , and Bhall not find it ; and shall desire to die , and death shall flee from them . '
Ous ; manufacturing towns—Birmingham , Bradford . Coventry , Glasgow , Hanley , Huddersfield . Leeds , Leicester , Manchester , Northampton , Nor . wich , Nottingham , Sheffield , Worcester , and other places , would change their manufactures , inhabitant _*? pnees , and wageB , at the bidding of their foreign rivals . Those , again , being , in their turn , depressed and changed by the spirit of English mastership , desperately struggling for ascendency ; eaoh , weakened by successive losses , would be driven from tha field of competition , crippled , disabled , ru ' ned' At last , the _cheapeit' being the winner , would become the workshop of an impoverished world
Do you imagine that manufaotnrera _andtradesmek will ceaBe to operate when losses overbalance profits * Then are you ignorant of the effects upon tfae human mind of unrestrained competition . Thereby man in goaded to madness ; ne forgets the tradesman ' s feelings and habits , and unconsciously beoomea m reckless gambler , willing t _» risk bis all upon 'tha turn of the market . . * Hitherto I have failed to discover the benefits _s-s . _misedas the result of Mr W . Rand ' s third and last remedy . In my next , for want of room in this . I will resume my search . ' * Meantim * . fellowconntyrmen . *« y i 0 solve this Problem . Buy at the cheapest market , ' say out free-trade wiseacres . Ireland has dont . - _**• her labour is surely as cheap as Midas himself conld wisL to buy it . 'Sell at the dearest market . ' rive o _£
v _ree-trade philosophers . Ireland haa done so En gland is her nearest market , and has been ths dearest' in the world . ' And yeu will be rioh ! ' or ? our _Free-trade prophets . Ireland is peor ! How so « Let the Free-traders tell . v ° I remain , Fellow-Countrymen , A friendof fair wages and profits all over the world , t ? n . - * ,. _« ¦ Richard Pawlm . Fulham , Middlesex .
A Lcckt Pubchabk.—At The Recent Sale Of ...
A Lcckt Pubchabk . —At the recent sale of th effects of the late Rev . Miles Barton , of Hoole among other articles , an antique cheat waa purchase by the Rev . Mr Price , of Longton , to whose real dence it was removed . On examining the interio narrowly , Mr Price was surprised by finding secrete therein , the sum of £ 240 whioh had evidently 7 t posed in security for a long series of years . Tl treasure was immediately returned to the prop ; parties .
_Caupbsu's _Chop-Housb Schehh . — _'Ionee pr jected a club ( said Campbell , the poet , to a friem on the most frugal plan that oould be devised eo _sistent with respectability . I made a round of t London _eating-houiei—not ai at amateur of eatir but as a student of prandiary statistics . I c speak of these places as confidently aa the Indi oould speak of the Bishop . ' Had he known ' worthy prelate ? ' * Oh yes , and liked him vast ' / But how did you happen to know him V ' I at ' _* " _iweee oi him—?' en ai _manae V
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 6, 1849, page 2, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/ns3_06011849/page/2/