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6 THE NORTHERN STAR. , ^ January q , 184...
"TRADES UNIONS." [We take the following ...
RENEWED AGITATION FOR THE ADOPTION OF TH...
TO THi; ROMAN CATHOLIC HEIRARCHY OF IREL...
TO LORD JOHN RUSSELL, Tbe " Act for tbe ...
War and Taxation,—The New York Evening E...
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6 The Northern Star. , ^ January Q , 184...
6 THE _NORTHERN STAR . , _^ January _q _, 1847 .
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"Trades Unions." [We Take The Following ...
"TRADES UNIONS . " [ We take the following extracts from an excellent article in " The Labourer , " ( reviewed in our third face ) . We earnestly recoD-yniend the entire article to onr Trades readers . ] We have ever looked upon the growth of Trades Unions a * tbe healthiest sboot tbat springs fron * ' _* democratic trunk . Whether we consider their increasing usefulness to society , or their increasing demand for knowledge and search of social improvement * rte
moving mind must attach paramount importance to the element ! of greatness in this prodigious maw . ana * rous look with corresponding interest to the app _lication of ] _combined strength . There bave been many partial trades movements In this country , but thes have one and all lacked that powerful rfemeot which _givas strength to the combined few-they have lacked concentration from the ignorant _preaamption . fir _. tly , that tl * attempt wouM bat tend to excite the wrath -md strone _resistance of Ow masters , and . secondly , that those of different _ealRwgt had no interest in common .
We attribute this backwardness of _tlja Trades to tbe want of concentration , and bave looked with no small pleasure to the nucleus of combined rt _. 0 Tement _recently established by Mr . Dowcotnbe ; a * _ad our only _sendee is that with snch & head and snch machinery as has heen wifely collected fron the working foody , that that combination'does not now number in its Tanks every individual belong _' wg to every trade throughout the empire . It would require bnt a very il _' tght calculation to convince those who subscribe their pcnmda to a seetionalmovement , that their pence wcpeIc" confer greater _and-more _lastinn benefit * , if « jbacribed to support a _national _conbination .
We have admitted our delight at the new ground assumed by the Trades , but , nevertheless , tt is meanly deficient as as element of combination . The Trades are now entitled to a representation cf their own body ; they are in possession ol mora wealth ttnrn belongs to their united oppressors ; they are in possession of more intellect than belongs to their n «> ited employers . ; they ate consequently in possession of the main ingredients adm-tted to be within the pala of representation , bat still , tiongh possessed of the material , of ample material , they _havs been lamentably deficient in it « application . We -r s * a- -e that tbe democracy of trade ha * a bard contest in the struggle with its own aristocracy . We are aware that the perfumed mechanic prefers being the least among the little at the luring Athenseum , to being _ni-on an equality in his own assembly-room with him , with whom he bas toiled at the same bench , bat not screwed in the game vice .
Tbe Trades dandyism is not only pernicious to the general body , bnt debauching to those who indulge in it . We believe that the Trades , like the minister , must commence , de eoeo . That like good workmen , they must understand the materials , and out of the most fating , manufacture the most suitable machinery ; and bating given the subject much thought , and in order to vercome the three great difficulties of disunion , dandyism , and comparative satisfaction , measured by the positive misery of others , and in order to make the Trades what they ought to be , to give tbem the influence in the Senate which they ought to bave , and that power over their employers which jiutly belongs to them , we would suggest the following means of achieving those desirable objects , namely , a thorough representation of the concentrated power sitting permanently in London ; a club-house * cpon a comfortable and commodious primvple , divested
of all luxury , and of which cone , _sava those who labour , shall be members ; a . commodious and comfortable metting-room , capable of accommodating 1500 persons seated respectably , fitted up ia _amphitheatrical form , with an derated chair for the chairman , and enclosed space for the committee , reporters and speakers , and a tribune uboji that and under the chairman ' s chair for th * - speaker ; also , in connection with this establishment , a large , convenient , and well ventilated shop , for shoe makers on one side , and tailors at the other , those trades pro ' ucing the work most easy of transmission . That there shall be a public discussion on each Monday night during the sitting of Parliament , to which all parties shall be admitted free , and in which all classes shall be entitled to take part—the discussion to be conducted nnder the rule and governance of the chairman , who , we _presume , will be
Thomas Suvctav / Dchcohbs , < his deputy presiding when he shall be unavoidably absent ; aud that upon other _nifhts In the week , the meeting house , to be called the Trades House of _Commonv , to be let for public meetings for all purposes , bnt never for exhibit * ens or tomfoolery . That the clubhonse should be let to a competent person , removable upim _tLevofe ofa competent committee , and shall afford every comfort to the members at a much lower price than they can now procure them elsewhere ; in short , that the principle of co-operation shall be carried out in iu full _lntesrrity . That tbe tradesmen working upon the premises sbalt receive the highest rate of wages they are worth , and that the profit upon their produce shall go into the general Trades Exchequer . That there shall be no bed rooms , or no appearance of an hotel about the concern : tbat it shall consist ot a spacious club room , reading room , library , kitchen , committee rooms , and the necessary apartments , all upon the ground floor .
We rray be told tbat this would require a larger preliminary expenditure than the body could meet . This we wholly Seiy , and propose the following ea 6 y and equitable plan by which the whole and more may be _accomplished , namely , after the advantages are simply and unanswerably propounded to the _grades , the subscription of a shilling a man from 500 , 000 would realise the sum of £ 25 , 000 . and which , if applied to the alteration of commodious premises in a convenient situation , rented in perpetuity , would go f * rth « r than £ 50 , 000 sunk in some out of tbe way place , with the first floor _mortgaged before the second floor could be commenced .
Erery man employed by the society _should consent to be a full member paying two shillings a week , to be applied to the purchase of land for the location of the subscribers ; or , if they please to sell , those who were willing to bay . Those appliances , if properly wcrked , wonld soon dev . lope the strength , the power , the value , and the _knowledge of the Trades . Their Honse of Commons would present an _attraction to the juvenile senator , to the manufacturer , the aristocrat , and the thopke-eper : while their coffee house would be the resort of men who would find a wholesome check upon licentiousness ; and the profits the / would make , alter the pavmeGt of _gentiouswagts , would _speedi ' y convince their fellows of their value toothers , and induce them to look for tbat system of representation which would confer it upon themselves .
In les _< than twelvemonths from this time , such a society might be the most flourishing in the kingdom ; in two years they _weuld have located some hundreds upon their own land , thus relieving the market of its surp ' ns _. and convincing all ofthe value of cooperation ; in two years it might bare its printing house , its morning paper , and raagaiine , for , let it be understood , tbat witb a proper confederation , it is not a violent assumption to presume that 200 trades in London and different parts of the empire , would be able to compel tbelandlord of tbeir house of resort to take a single _pap-T , which , _tftimaiing the combined members of tbo trades at one million , would secure a circulation of itself of five thousand daily . Such a body would soon cDramand power ; such an association would soon drive Moses and Son out of the market , and leave the masters of Northampton empty houses to let .
We cannot conclude our observations upon this head , without reminding mechanics , and tradesgenerally _, of the conspiracy of the Sewton masters against their men , and the necessity of arming the latter with the means of fighting the pitched battle ; as labour defeated in that stru _^ le . will hive received a heavy blow and great _disce-umgeraent , from which it will uot speedily recover .
DALKEITH SHOEMAKERS . The Opqratives Shoemakers here formed themselves into an association about eighteen months ago , _and'in _conseqience , have twice succeeded in getting an advance of wages . Some sneaks amongst the men hare refused to join U _< e Union , and the union men have , therefore , _refused to work with thtm . Another strike has _benn thus occasioned . AU the masters bave given ia . except two , Stewart and Lander , but as trade is brisk , it is expected that they will do as the others have done , and employ none but union men .
TO THE FRAME-WORK KNITTERS OF THE HANSFIELJ _) DISTRICT . Mv FaiEBD _* , _—If you will bt at the trouble to turn ove-r ths pages of history , yon will find that erery insii . tutiou which has been formed , erery movement which has been set on foot , having for its object the amel ' oration of the condition of the working men , has ever been beset with a great amount of difficulty and danger . Many—rery many ofthe disasters which the working classes have met with in bygone timet , are traceable to tlieir own folly aud imprudence , the miscarriages , failures , defeats , and the entire annihilation of tbeir societies , hare been occasioned in too many instances by their _haMy , rash , and premature conduct . Let Ut tfaea be more guarded , and not drive our vessel against the rocks upon which many hare so fatally split . Many of our members bave of late grown discontented , alleging as the cause that the executive has broken their promiie in respect to purchasing frames and setting them to work , while other
and better paid trades who harenot been ia the association near so long at ms , aad who made application for assistance subsequent to us , hare had their request responded to . To the first part of this complaint , I can only say that when the central committee made that promise , it was upon the supposition tbat the associated trades wsuld soon _furnish them with the means to do so , but if the trades neglect their duty , tbat is , if thty do not furnish tbem with fluids , who is to blame them or tbe executive ! Ay , but , say some , they have had funds to strike others , —why not us ? To this I may reply , that the executive were placed in office by the late conference , to promote the interest of the whole association , and to show partiality t 0 none , and I think any other trade having applied fur assistance subsequent to . us , aud the executive having calml y and dispassionately canvassed the merits of the case , and having found it to be more Urgent and pressing , an . l uot having sufficient funds at command to meet both cases , I should say that they were quite right under sach circumstances , at all evencs
"Trades Unions." [We Take The Following ...
I have not the least doubt that they will be ia a position , at a proper time and place , to justify the itips taken . Others , _thare art who object to the protest recently recommended by the executive In case of an attempted reductumof _srages or Infringements of any kind mads upon the rights of lahour . This is a subject surrounded with a great deal of difficulty , for while working a fortnight under protest , we should perhaps make one or two hundred dozens of stockings , and thus , in all probability , establish a reduction throughout the trade . Whereas , if the case waB taken up with promptitude , it would be settled In a few
hours or days at most . 8 tHl I conceive it would ba very injurious , if not altogether destructive of the association , tn give irresponsible power to each locality to strike , and then apply to the executive for support , as many trades might strike at one , and the same time , call upon tbe executive for assistance , whtn frem their previous engagements with other trades , it would be impossible to give it , thus causing _confoskm , _diss-rder _, aud anarchy on every band . Parties whe manage strikes must taw ** their-extent , the amount of funds required , and every other mfcnnation necessary to secure a _sueceesfaJwtue ,
Let < as view "this question _of-worktng under -protest as we may , there -seems to be an evil connected with it , but the proper mode of procedure in such a case is to propose a remedy for the consideration of next confer-• ence . and this can be done by giving due notice of the « rae to the _^ _secutive-, and not , as foroe -say , withhold their contribution , and wait a while , and see bow the association progresses . Oh ! you _waitew-a-whllc—you obstructors of all social reform—you who would rather submit to tho grinding exactions of the bagmen than _subscribeifd . a week to an institution so well adapted to remove ithe incubus that is pressing you to the earth ,
what-right have you to exect to derive a benefit from the toil , eneogy , and other funds of men ! Remember that tha _arrfo" state of _destitutUn into which society is sunk , was not the work ofa day , a month , or a year , neither ean it be removed in that time . The essentials _necessary to ensure success are patience , perseverance , " " fortitude , and untiring zeal . Tou who glory in singing of th « 'heroic deeds of your ancient sires , how they fought , bled , 4 tnd conquered , in the cause of humanity , justice , and liberty , copy their glorious example , be energetic , act nobly , and posterity will regard you as their benefactors and deliverers .
I come now to consider rery briefly ths benefits this association proposes to confer upon its numbers . It is acta mere strike association ; as tbe working classes are the producers of all tbe wealth , it is the object of this association to put them in possession of It , and by erecting factories and workshop ) , opening mines , and purchasing land , by which means the working man will be made to enjoy tbe fruits of his industry , and not as now have to pass through tbe bands of this prontmonger , and that speculator , of tbis gambler , and that a gent , of this capitalist , and tbat bagmen , until there is not a tenth of tha original earnings left for the ill-used _workmta . Let uvfjoice my friends , that this no visionary , chimerical , or Utopian scheme , but a reality , one which the Executive
are actively engaged in reducing to practice as far as their means will allow , as witneis the London shoe makers , the Cradley nail makers , the framework _knittett of _Duffit-ld , and the framework knitters of Nottingham . Let us not indulge in any petty jealous feeling , because our case is not attended to ' so toon as we anticipated , but let us rather rejoice that the good work is commenced , and strengthen the hands of the Executive by furnishing tbe means , ant I have not the least doubt that our casewillbe attended to at the earliest possible moment . Let us also disabuse our minds of the idea , that the Executive are actuated by motives of partiality towards any trade , for I am quite sure that the noble-minded , indefatigable , Buncombe is a sufficient guarantee for you against any » nch improprieties .
Up then I say and shake off your present impardonable apathy and indifference , rally round our own Duncombe and the Executive , and they will speedily become a terror to tyrants , and respected by those who do well , I am , friends , Tour respectfully , Whlum Felkih , Secretary .
THE "CONSPIRACY"CASE . TO TBI ! EDITOR OF TBI KOXTBEKX STAK . Sir , —SeeiBg a statement concerning myself in ths columns of your valuable paper , I am compelled to trouble you in order tbat tha statement may be corrected . It it mentioned in your excellent journal that I said in the course ef my remarks at a meeting held in the Temptrance-hall , _"Watartloo-road _, London , on Tuesday Dee . , that when Mr . Selsby was taken , his locks were broken , and his valuable papers taken , without any legal authority . Allow me , sir , to repeat what I did in reality say at tbe meeting . I said that when Mr . Selsby was made acquainted with the businessof the police , be asked for permission to see hit family , but owing to iheir being
so little time to spare , as they wanted to go by the last train to Warrington , it was refused him ; he then begged of them to allow him to write a note to his wife for his overcoat , and while be was writing the note , tbe officers took down from behind the door a notice paper , and afterwards searched the letter box , and the letter found in the box not having upon it any marks that would lead them' to suppose that it had to do with the matter in question , was deposited again inthe box , or handed over to Mr . Selsby witbout being opened , this being done with _, out any legal authority , the officer only having a warrant of arrest , and not a warrant of search . False stated tbat Mr . Selsby was taken with keys upon him , and the
parties put in authority in the room of Mr . Selsby had to get the locks picked , and those tbat could not be picked had to be broken open , in order to get some papers that were then wanted , and the letter referred to was found sealed up ; this was on the Tuesday following . By _correctiag the above you will oblige , Tours respectfully , Thomas _LiNcasTEB , 12 , Slater-street , Oldham-road , Manchester . P . S . —I should have wrote sooner but owing to my en . gagements Xcouid not .
CO OPERATIVE LEAGUE . The objects aad plans of this body ( noticed in our lait ) are set forth iu the following extracts from their prospectus : — I . —Objects . The purchase ar rental of land , and the erection of suitable buildings and machine ; y thereon for the purpose of enabling members profitably to employ _themselves , either in agricultural , mechanical , or other pursuits . The property to be indivisible and inalienable property of tbe League , and to be leased to individuals or companies of subscribers , in the proportion of not more than five acres to one family ; and at an average rent not exceeding five per cent , on the original cost . Tenants to be supplied with implements , seed , manufacturing machinery , and other requisites . The cost of the Fame to bear interest at the rate of five per cent , per annum , and to be repaid to the League at the rate of ten per cent , of the principal per annnm . II . —Means .
In order to raise a sufficient fund to carry ont these objects , each member shall subscribe one pound per annum , and the capital so raised shall be devoted solely to the purchase of property . Each member shall alio contribute one penny per week to meet expenses . In order , therefore , to prove this plan practicable , and to illustrate the manner of its operation , let us ' suppose tbat a given number of persons—say , One Million , agree to contribute a Pound each per annum to a general fund , one million sterling would thus ba raised in a year ; the half of whioh might be devoted to the purchase of land and buildings , and the other half to that of seed _.
implements , manufacturing machinery , and other requisites . Thus , from 20 , 900 to 25 , 000 acres of good land would be " secured , and at least 5 , 000 families be pro videdfor ; while , in addition to the ordinary subscriptions of members , £ 50 , 000 _psrananm would be added to the income of the League , by rent of land , and interest of money ; and if we suppose these subscriptions to be continued for twenty years , and the produce of each year to be added to the interest of the preceding year , the grots value of the property so accumulated would be upwards of £ 33 . 000 . 000 . Thus we can prove beyond a doubt , that the working classes can become tbe possessors of great property if tiwy will .
It is true , that all tha members of the League could not he provided for at once ; but all would receive immediate advantage from association . Such a body of individuals could do much , even in the infancy of the undertaking , towards supporting each other , by mutual unployment , interchange of commodities , and the various kind offices wbich it will be the duty of the mem . hers of this _Lsague to render te one another . And it will be evident tbat as soon as a » y considerable quantity of land is obtained , snch a combination could entirel . support themselves , by the mutual exchange of produc tions between the agriculturist and the manufacturer ' 'n such a community production could have uo other limit ( ban that of the fertility of the soil ; and as exchanges would not depend , as at present , upon gold , the reward of tholadastrious would be certain _.
Kilmarnock Trades . —There ia not much doing in any of tha branches of the manufactures of this town . To whatever cause it is owing , the products ol the looms—Brussels and Scotch carpets , _tuousseleine delaines and shawls , are as languid in demand as yarns , bonnets , and shoes . Tho high rate ot provisions—the want of full employment—and the townees of wages , are in combination , pressing hardly on the lower classes , producing disease with an increased rnortalitv .
TIIE LIBERALITY OP THE STAR CONTRASTED WITH THE LEEDS PRESS . TO TUB EDITOR OF TUE _NOSTUEBN STAK . Sir , —In a note wliich I sent you last week , with the printed address which you kindly inserted in the Star of the 'lad instant , and for which I return you my sincere thauks in the name of the carpet _weavers of Great Britain . I there gave it as my cpinion , and I believe that I only gave the _prevailing opinion of the working classes of this country , when I stated tbat the liberality of the Northern Star in representing the interests of the working classes wat without a parallel in the British press . Sir , subsequent events have confirmed me in the above opinion , as the following will plainly show : As secretary for the Leeds carpet weavers , I received two copies of the printed address referred to , from Scotland , on Monday , December ' 18 , one of which I sent off the same day to you . I then went with the remaining copy to the " Leeds Mercury" office —( not without mi ;( livings '—and
"Trades Unions." [We Take The Following ...
respectfully requested the « - _j ' tor to Insert It In the Mer eui-y for that _wee"k ; but I _m « told that it could only appear as an _advertisement tor which I would bar * to pay . I then hitd myself off to , ths _TiW'Offics , where I thought I thtuid be more lib '/ rally treated ; but blessed ar * thoy who exptct nothing from sham liberals , for they shall not be disappoin . red . I received a similar answer . I _thsn thought I -would try the Tory office-of the _htteUi genoer , their _answer was a shade more liberal than the other two ; but hero also I was doomed to disappointment , as thej thought _tbattboteto whom the address was made were too remote to be of any interest in this
mighbor-rhood . Since then , without any refusal , equl . vocation , or demand , you hava kindly inserted It inthe Star . The above facts , I think , speak trumpet-tonju . d to the working roeu _. wha is , and who is not , their real friends iu time of need . I oall then , In conclusion , to the toiling millions , but to the carpet weavers especially , to mark well their real Mends , and support them as such ; tho only direct way to do this ( to far as wears oncerned wiih 'he press ) Is to withdraw our support from that portion of the prets which does not represent the interests ofthe working _clastst , and to _suppsrt tha only _papar— the Star— wbich moft faithfully echo's the voice _ofan insulted people .
If you can give the above a place in this wtek _' s paper , you will still further oblige , Yours , respectfully , Leeds , Jan . 4 , 18 * 7 . 3 . K _iiua .
WARRINGTON "CONSPIRATORS" AND THEIR VICTIMS . A mechanic forwards us a long letter addressed to the Trades , ths conclusion of wbich Is as follows : — " Where mutt we look for protection t 1 say to yonr union , and to Mr . Duncombe and Mr . Roberts . Union enabled you to defend the Dorchester labourers and the Glasgow cotton-spinners ; and union will enable you to success _, fully defend your brethren _againft the Newton tyrants . Mr . Duncombe will use his great influence in parliament for your protection , and if Mr . Roberts is but properly supported he will bring off our _bretbrsn victorious . Upon the extent of support you afford depends the issue of tbe struggle . "
THB OPERATIVE BLOCK-PRINTERS OF SCOT . LAND . " A Subscriber" belongiug to this trade appeals to his fellow-operatives to bestir thamielves for their own emancipation . The great evil affecting the trade is the vast number of unemployed hands ; tbe supply of labour far exceeds the demand . This enables the employers to dictate wages , being always able to command workmen from tha surplus haads . Nor is this all , owirg to the great number of workmen , tho employed hands have work for only about one-half of tbe year . " A Subscriber" suggests the following remedy —
" I would suggest to you a means , which at least to me , appears capable of amending this _st-ste of things , — vie . tha locating so many annually upon the land , on the co-operative system , as laid down by Mr . O'Connor . As you are numerous , a very small contribution , weekly , would enable you to dispose of , say fifty , a hundred , or as many as you think proper , yearly , until you had removed the surplus labour , if you did not _^ choose to go any further . " The writer concludes by an earnest appeal to the trade to take his suggestion into immediate and serious consideration .
MINERS PUBLIC DINNER . William Hulton , Esq . and sons , near Bolton , having given their colliers the handsome sura of Five Guineas by rray ofa New Year ' s Gift , it was resolved by the men to appropriate the same to a _public dinner . Accordingly , on Monday , the Oh instant , about 100 of the hardy sons of the mine sat down to a good substantial dinner at the house of Mr . John Marsh , Queen Ann Inn , Dean Church , near Bolton . After ample justice had been done to the good things provided , Mr . W . Daniells , Editor of the Miner ' s Advocate , was called to the chair , and Mr . W . Scott to the vice chair , when the song , toast , and sentiment went merrily round , and all seemed to enjoy themselves to their heart's content . The workmen in this case appear to be quite contented with their employer , and the _employer perfectly satisfied with the conduct of the men—both striving to promote the welfare of each other . This is as it ought to be .
We must not emit to mention that the worthy landlord , Mr . Marsh , generously gave the colliers a barrel of ale , and the meat left at dinner he caused to be served up for supper , free of cost . The following toasts and sentiments were enthusiastically drank during the evening by the chairman : "The People—the source of all legitimate power . " "William Hutton , Esq . and sons , God bless them ; may they and their families enjoy a happy and prosperous New Year . "
" Success to the Coal Trade . " " The Miners Association ; may the noble objects for which it was formed be speedily accomplished . " " W . P . Roberts , Esq ., the honest and talented Miners Attorney General . By the _Vice Chairman : — " The Miners Advocate , may its future career be a prosperous one , and may the miners generally give it their hearty support . " " Mr . William Daniells , the Editor of the Miners Advocate , and the honest and independent portion of che Public Press . "
" The general officers ef the Miners Association , and the past and ' -resent officers ofthe Dean Church district . " By the Chairman —' ¦ The Lecturers ofthe Assooi ition , and the health of Mr . M . Scott . " " The miners—their wives and sweethearts . " " The worthy host and hostess , may they lire long and die happy . " " Mr . Oliver and the rest of the just and trustworthy agents of Squire Uulton ' s Colliery . " Several addresses were delivered by Messrs . Daniells and Scott . The greatest harmony was kept up to a late hour , when the company separated .
Renewed Agitation For The Adoption Of Th...
RENEWED AGITATION FOR THE ADOPTION OF THE TEN 1 IOURS' BILL IN FACTORIES . SECOND GREAT MEETING AT _EDINBURGH . Or Monday evening a second public meeting of the inhabitants of Edinburgh was held in the Music Hall for the purpose of hearing addresses from Mr . Oastler and Mr . Ferrand , M . P _., on the Tea Hours' Bill , and of considering the propriety of petitioning Parliam « nt In favour of that measure . The hall was well filled by an audience _composed of both sexes . , Sir James Forrest occupied the chair ; and on the platform beside him we observed , amongst others , the Rev _., Drs . . Candish , H . Grey , James Buchanan , Clason , and Duncan ; the Rev . Mr . M'Crfe , Dr . Smyttou , Mr . Wbyttock , Mr . W . K . Johnston , and Mr . Boyd .
Mr . Oastlir then , at great length entered into a history of the factory system , similar to what he gave at the previous meeting ; showing tbe cruelty and oppression exercised towards tbe factory apprentices prior to the _introduction of the bill limiting the labour of children nnder thirteen years of age to six hours a-day . He proved , from the evidence adduced before the Parliamentary committee , tbat he had not over-stated their excessive toil , when he had set it down at fourteen and fifteen hours par day—the fact being , tbat in tome instances it extended to seventeen and even nineteen hours a day . He referred to the little time afforded to the
children by the present hours af labour for intellectual , maral , and religious improvement ; and stated that , although these hours ' were only twelve by statute , yet from various circumstances they were nearer fourteen . He also noticed the effects of this excessive labour upon females ; and after relating sevtral interesting anecdotes bearing upon his own career , and exhibiting the attachment which was displayed towards him by those whose cause he had espoused , he concluded , amidst much applause , by recommending the Ten Hours' Bill , for which Saddler , _Fislden , himself , and others , had so long _struggled , to their serious consideration and regard .
Mr . Febband , M . P ., who was loudly cheered , commenced his address by observing , that the advocates of the Ten Hours' Bill had united the working men of the manufacturing districts in England ; they were as one maa in favour of it . There was not a man , woman , or child in ths factory districts , having to earn their bread by factory labour , who was not united in an indissoluble bond to demand , until they obtained , the Ten Hours Bill . ( Cheers . ) They were _backed in this movement by a majority ofthe ) manufacturers of the West Riding of Yorkshire , who were themselves impressed with the awful responsibility which rested on their heads while they continued the present blood-stained system ; nnd hit friend Mr . Oastler and himself had been sent across the border by tbe largest cotton-spinner and manufacturer in
the ] whole world . They had hoisted in Scotland the banner of freedom to the factory slave , and wherever it bad yet been exhibited it had beea hailed with gladness and with joy , with every demonstration of sympathy and _dsvotion . ( Cheers . ) And wby , he asked , were the working men of England so determined to have protection for their labour by a Ten Hours' Factory Bill 1 Because they were at tbat moment the most distressed race of men and women in the whole eivilixed world . G » where they would , search thc records of every country , and tell him a land _whese population was so degraded , so trampled upon , as thc factory workers of England . Look at what they have suffered for half a century . Ever peaceable , ever loyal , ever asking the Parliament and Government of the country for protection , thsy had _hitherto sued in vain . They had sent them to Scotland
to proclaim their _wroHgs , wbich were so well known in England , ; and would it be said tbat the enlightened people of Edinburgh , that great city , said to contain ti . e mind of Great Britain , appealed to in vain , would send thera back careless and unconcerned about the fate ot their suffering fellow-countrymen ! He knew he tame upon a successful mission , and that he should return to tell tlie poor factory workers that the people of Scotland did indeed feel sympathy for them , and were prepared to demand of Parliament that the worktng population of the manufacturing districts should no longer be kept the degraded race tbey were , but that they should enjoy those benefits of protection for their labour which the rich enjoyed for their property . ( Cheers ) Mr . Ferrand continued to speak at some length , aud recited many melanchol y cases of destitution in Yorkshire and Lam caihire , the principal seats ofthe cotton manufacture . Mr . _Cumuino , seconded by Mr . M'Fablane _, both working men , [ moved a resolution to tlie effect tbat a
Renewed Agitation For The Adoption Of Th...
reduction of the hours of labour in factories was abto l « tely neoessary for the health of those emp loyed in them-The motion having been unanimously agreed to , a . parson rose in the body of the hill , and made some observations at to tht cruelty of _tubjeeting females to factory labour at all . He alto took the liberty of ttatlng that the landed arittooracy were at much to blame as the manufacturers In regard to the way in whioh they treated thote in their employment . The Rev . Dr . HEKET Gbbt wid—The faots that have been brought before us this evening havo been , Indeed , mott interesting and affecting ; and you have responded to them by the expressions of your tympathy . It bas been impossible to listen to the narration without deep sorrow and distress of mind , and without perhaps a
feeling ef indignation . The _circumstanoes to which the poor , the labouring poor or operatives , have been reduced are altogether peculiar . England is considered as tho richest couutry In tha world , jet nowhere , I believe in the world , is to much abject poverty to be found . Lately , in travelling upon the Continent , I _ao doubt taw much poverty ; butl never witnessed such degraded poverty at may be found even in tho city ; and frem the _acoounte just given us by Mr . Ferrand , the state of things appears to be still worse In the manufacturing districts of England . And again , Englaud is considered as the most intelligent country In the world ; and yet , nowhere do we find humanity reduoed to suoh a wretched aad miserable state of ignorance ; and this is to be attributed to the impossibility of affording education to those poor
children who , at tbe tender age of seven , are introduced to factory work . ( Applause . ) England , I believe , will also present to us many , ofthe noblest specimens of Christian character , yet nowhere do we find vice so rampant , and exhibiting suoh revolting features . Surely , therefore , there must be something wrong in the constitution of things , or at least in the arrangements of tociety . I cannot _butexprest a sympathy with thote who regret the immense _difference found not In rank , not In _honourt , but In property , tho immense disparity in respect to property that we discover In different classes of the community ; that while a few are loaded with wealth , the great mass are sunk in the deepest destitution , I am happy to find thnt in this meeting the obligations of relifrion have been so distinctly acknowledged ; and on look
log to the institutions of the Great . Ruler ofthe worldon talking at the arrangements prescribed by Infinite Wisdom for tho government of that nation , which in former ages It pleated God specially to distinguish with His favour , I have observed that provisions were made to prevent tbe excessive accumulation of property , and again for preventing the test of destitution . ( Cheers . ) I will just refer to tbat remarkable arrangement by which , at the commencement of every 50 th , the year of jubilee , he who had been compelled by the pressure of clroumstances to sell his inheritance was again put in possession of it . This law at once prevented a great accumulation at least of landed property , and provided relief for the destitution of the distressed . ( Cheers . ) An agrarian law was continually aimed at by the people of Rome . I
speak not now in praise of tuch an arrangement Tbe thing is impossible . Property must , of necessity , be dis _pensed in very different allettments ; still we must regret , not the comfort and happiness of the rich , but the degradation and misery of the poor . ( Cheers . ) I have listened with the deepest interest to our friends who bare addressed us , and especially to ths affecting speech with which this meeting was opened by Mr . Oastler . No parts of it were more refreshing to me than those which threw some little light on his own personal character and conduct . I had , like others , been led to think on some occasions that he was an agitator , and perhaps something worse . ( Laughter and applause . ) How delighted I am to find him a witness for the truth , and almost a martyr for the truth ! ( Cheers . ) The resolution whieh I have to propose to this meeting _detlares that children of thirteen years of age and upwards are kept fourteen hours a day , meal time included , which it a great hardship ;
and that the hours of labour might be shortened by the use of additional machinery , which bas arrived at great perfection , without any material injury to the employer . ( Applause . ) Children of thirteen years of age I What man « f humanity would permit a child of his own to be worked for fourteen hours out of the twenty-four t It it altogether unreasonable . We ought to sympathise with those poor creatures who are subjected to fourteen hours ' continuous occupation at tbat early period of life . ( Applause . ) And we must do the same as _regards the females . Is it not melancholy to think , In this civilised age and country , we are brought to this state , thatthe women and children are often the persons who , by their labour , by their unseasonable , toilsome , and oppressive labour , support their fathers and their husbands ; and this , in many cases , not from the will of the men themselves , but from the unnatural arrangements ofthe factor * system f ( Applause . ) Mr . M'Cbie _secone _" ed the resolution .
Dr . CAMDitsn then rose amidst the most enthusiastic _rtpplause . He said—I will not , at this hour , trespass on the patience ofthe meeting at any length . I appear here very gladly , at tbe request of several working men of Edinburgh , to receive the statements and communications ofthe gentlemen who have com * from a distance to address ut , and who , while I offer no expression of opinion on other subjects , I have no hesitation ia welcoming as true philanthropists on this question . ( Applause . ) I appear to express my entire concurrence in the object of this meeting , viz ., for shortening the excessive hours of labour , especially in the case of women and children . ( Applause . ) The resolution which I have to propose is ' ¦ That an abridgment ot the hours of labour , especially in tbe case of women and children , is necessary to afford
time for the religious , the moral , and the intellectual culture of the labourer , which , under the present system , is lamentably neglected . " Now , I am v _» ry well _arrare that during late years some improvement has taken place in this department of society . I am well aware that some restrictions have been placed on the employment of children in particular ; and I regard this as a stop in the right direction , the legislative enactment requiring that children ofa certain age employed at work should be , during a certain period ofthe week , atschool . Irejoice in this , as a step in the right direction ; but it is a very , very small step indeed , ( Applause . ) I bave a personal knowledge of some ofthe manufacturing districts inthe west , and of the working of that system , and I know how very little real education can bt imparted to children hastily dismissed from work , without time for
preparation at home . I can see no remedy for the great eril of children being employed so as to prevent their being educated , if it be not made a matter of absolute requirement that every person employed shall have learned to read and write ; but upon this point I am not required , according to the terms of my resolution , to enlarge . I am sure it must be evident to all , that an abridgment of the hours of labour is absolutely indispensable to the spiritual , moral , and intellectual culture ef the community . After some other remarks to the tame effect , Dr . Candlish read a letter signed " A Dress _, maker's Assistant , " and called attention to the wearisome toil and scanty earnings of this industrious class , whose hard lot was truly d pic ted in theimmortal " Song of the Shirt . " ( Applause . ) Mr . WnTTOCK seconded the resolution .
It was then proposed and agreed to that a petition should be drawn , up , iu accordance with the resolutions , and after beiug signed by the Chairman , should be transmitted for presentation to both Houses of Parliament . On the motion of Mr . Oastler , seconded by Mr , Ferrand , a vote of thanks was then given to the Chairman , aad the meeting broke up .
RICHARD OASTLER , ESQ , TO THE _EOITOB OF THE KOBTHEBN STAB . London , January 6 , 1847 . Sin , —Permit me to trouble you with a few words in reply to Mr . J . Macpherson _' s letter in your last . I did not " put myself in communication with parties in the _jtowus of Sootland . " I left all the arrangements with Mr . Pitkethley _, and followed his directions throughout . The road between Dundee and Aberdeen being impassable for several days , prevented Mr . Pitkethleys _' s letter reaching Aberdeen in sufficient time to give notice for the meeting . I was not aware that Mr . Pitkethley ' _s letter had been delayed , —but , when I inquirea for a conveyance from Dundee to Aberdeen , I was told there was none , cither by land or water , but that the mail bags were conveyed on horseback from Montrose to Aberdeen .
Finding myself locked np in Dundee , [ I wrote a letter to the chairman ofthe Dundeo meeting , explaining the circumstances which hindered my arrival at that town , and shertly stating my views on the Ten Hours' Bill . . Still I was anxious to reach Aberdeen , if possible , and being informed by the Dundee Short Time Committee that the Aberdeen meeting weuld be held , I resolved to wait till the last moment , hoping that the road might be open , and that I should have the pleasure to address . the inhabitants of Aberdeen on
Monday evening . I waited three days in Dundee , and on Sunday night at twelve o ' clock , left that town in the mnil for Aberdeen , where I arrived at eight o ' clock in tbe morning . I retired to rest , being very weary , and was very sorry to find that the snow had delayed Mr . Pitkethley ' s letter , and no meeting could bo held . I was , however , delighted to meet Mr . James Macpherson and others , and 1 hope I paved the way for a future meeting ; at all events , for petitions in favour ot the Ten _Heurs' Bill to Parliament during its next session .
I was pressed to remain in Aberdeen a few days , that proper notice might bo given and a meeting held . My engagement in Edinburgh prevented ms having that pleasure . ' Through Mr . James Macpherson ' s kindness I was enabled to reach the packet the moment beforo she started , else , I might havo been too late for the Edinburgh meeting . I did not receive Mr . James Macpherson ' s letter , addressed to me at Dundee , until I arrivod at Edinburgh . I cannot conclude this lotter without returning my grateful thanks to all those kind friends in Scotland , who supported me in the glorious cause which it is my delight to advocate . To all ranks I am thankful , —but most to tho faithful operatives , I never can forget their kind attentions . May I urge our friends in Scotland to finish the good work by obtaining numerous petitions .
1 remain , Sir , Your s respectfully , ; Hicham ) Oastler . l ' . \—My thanks are tendered to you for the kind notices with wbich you I ' _tvou-ed us . —It 0 .
To Thi; Roman Catholic Heirarchy Of Irel...
TO THi ; ROMAN CATHOLIC HEIRARCHY OF IRELAND . Riant Rev . akd Riv . Sias , Aggressive _partlet having _ttited upon the _possestlont of their neigbbours . lt followed that those whom they robbed of their inherit ance were cast upon the world as beggars , to become slaves or vagrants . They were rendered poor by violence , agahm which thty eould not successfully contend , and were therefore compelled to submit to the conditions imposed upon tbem by tbeir new masters . What was gained by the sword was preserved by the Bword , and tha lath and ths knout wero introduced as auxiliaries in tbe war of _aggression . It it an old but true saying , that all the large fishes eat the little ones , but it is a mercy tbat Providence has so contrived
it tbat many of those large fish have small gullets , and that a spirit of resistance exists in the animal economy of the small ones , or there would not he a sprat left in tbe ocean . As it is with Sshei , so it is with men ; one large fish requires many small ones to fill his stomach , and swallows them accordingly ; fish sat fish , man eats man , and thanks Ood for a bellyfull , and prays for a happy digestion . Whenever we turn our eyes throughout our unhnppy country , we mav tee the truth of this analogy , she is preyed upon by the _autropophazi of class legislation in all its _hideousness and deformity . First—thuls the Ruler , who dispenses the laws which grind her te the dust , and claiming meri * . for mercy , where justice is denied . Then wehave his minions in red coats and in
green , ready to whet their weapons on the emaciated bodies of starving fellow _creaturet . Here we have the gown and wig cannibals cutting and slicing and ttew . ing the savory pottage ; and there we hare the gown and mitre epicures purloining erery bit of fat left inthe nation . To-day we have the landlords working and starving their famished victims ; and to-morrow we may see Iheir agents hunting and driring them to destruction , and premature and miserable deaths ; and as if ber bones were not alreadypicked clean enough , next comes in all its hideousness the " Youmaale" of the Caribs , as a middle man and a rack renter ; his repast is sqeezed out of ber vitals and her tears , and hearts' blood furnish his ssnguinary beverage and to _renderdestrnction still more complete , we have the carrion crow and vulture , birds of unholy and ominous aspect , the last and the worst of _astrophagl , in the shape
of political traffickers , devouring with napaclous energy , the few remaining remnants of Ireland ' s mangled corpse ! Ns wonder , reverend sirs , that starvation is in the landthat death is in the highways—that Erin receives her children to her bosom cothnless !! But , blessed are the martyred dead—the living claim our consideration , and to tbeir interests let us devote ourselves . Let us by unanimity , perseverance , and honesty , exert ourselves to remove the evils of ths present , and provide blessings for the future ; let us lay down our prejudices , aud like true _philanthrophists _, enlist ourselves in the cause of suffering humanity ; let us labour like men and christians to place our fellow creatures in such a position , that hunger will henceforth have no power to KILL—or might or monopoly to lock up the land which God declared should bring forth abundantly to supply their want .
In my last _letter , I stated that the land for the people , and ' politica ! power to secure its possession and advantages , would be found the only true remedy for Irish grievances , I believe there is not one Irishmen in every ten thousand , who would attempt to deny the first part of this proposition ; and it is quite certain did they properly understand the latter , and were in possession of it , the first would be immediately achieved . Much time and energy have been lost iu instilling into the minds of the people doctrines which could only lead to their further debase _, ment , and it is melancholy to reflect that you , reverend
tin , whom 1 believe to be sincere in your _motiret , should have so long been the _dupet ofthe political artifice of designing aud self-interested individuals . Heretofore , it was fashionable to lay all tbe charge of Ireland's misery to the influence ofthe Tories ; at another time it was laid to the account of tbe Whigs ; bat this seemt to have been a pretence only , if we are to judge from results -, but now the juggler would endeavour to cheat honest men oat of their senses , by laying the blame at the door of Divine Providence , merely because a failure has happened in the Potato Crop !
Do the impious and unhallowed lips which dare to libel the munificence of Heaven , ever feel tbe parching tbirst which consumes tbe starving victims of man's injustice ; or does his stomach ever feel the gnawing , and tbe hankering , or the delirium , or the madness of hunger t Does the libeller ever see his children stretched on the bare ground starved , dying , and dead— " food for vermin !" —or feel the awful certainty that his own dissolution it at hand ! Oh No ! He sits at _"Belthaxzar ' s feast , ' where wine and oil , milk and honey are in abundance ; he is dressed in " purple and fine linen , " and bis feet rest upon carpet * , and the wails of widows , and the cries of orphans are drowned in the dulcet tone of vocal and instrumental music ; he sits at the " Rich Man ' s Table where Lazarus is denied tbe crumbs wbich the dogs pick
up ! _, ' Ah ! Rev . Sirs , the message has gone forth from Heaven , and already the " _Handwriting" is " on the wall . " Divine Providence will not be libelled with impunity , for HE does not visit one with hunger , and another with plenty ; but it is man who monopolises the rigbt to lock up and dispense at his pleasure the products of tbe earth for whieh he never laboured , and thereby frustrated the intentions of Providence who has sent sufficient ( even for the present , ) to supply the wants of all his creatures . Providence has not taken the corn , and the cuttle , and the pigs . Providence built , no walls , or ereeted no chevaux ie frise to exclude bis children frem the land which was to supply them with food ; he built no castles or bastions to frown over the fair face of nature ; the banners of the Almighty waved aloft amidst
the clouds , —his fortress was the snow-capped summit of the sternal bills , and the valleys at his feet were stretched out in native beauty , teeming with life in all its various forms , that man , the " Lord of all , " should take , and eat , and livel Providence made no landlords , but man made a lord of himself , and compels his equals to bow down before the " calf" which he set up as the object of their adoration , and this kind of idolatry has become so prevalent that we have calves of all kinds and classes , from the great calf who made a lord of himself down to the wretched " slink " who pockets the price of a dirty sum . mons served upon some unfortunate wight whose means will not permit hira to pay tribute to the particular idol he is bound to worship . The great lord (!) gourmandises turtle and wine on the continent or elsewhere ; the lordling calf of a middle man apes the manners of his master , and grinds bis tenants to proeure luxuries to gratify his vanity and satiate his vulture appetite : the little
lord ofa landlord , who rents under the middle-man , although be works hard it obliged to be satisfied witb buttermilk and salt herrings when he can get them , but the poor wretch who may be employed to labour for either of them dines in a ditch upon " lumpers , " and would deem it a luxury to have the appendage of salt and water to dip his worst class of potatoe in , but if this , bad as it is , fail him , if Providence denies this last resource , as at the present , he is left to starve ! And why < Because the turtle must still be eat on the continent . Landlord Calf Dan , ated Landlord Calf Noodle must have their hunters and tbeir beagles ( for beagles must eat though christians should starve !); they must be gentlemen and M _. P . ' _s If possible , to enhance their dignity ; and all the corn , and tbe pigs , and every available article must find their way to the "big house" to enable its owner to sustain his respectability , and to enable him , if he is a _political pedlar , to attend the auction mart where patronage is bartered for liberty .
The education of the people has heretofore been such as so give sanction to the principle which now operates so injuriously against their interests ; but it is now time that such gross errors should be expunged from yonr national seminary . The quirks and tbe quibbles , and tbe theorisms of interested pedagogues , must now give way before the principles of truth , and " Measures , not men , " must be the cry of "Every man who loves his country and would see her happy . " You , Reverend Sirs , are placed in a position in which you may render vast and important service ; you possess the confidence of your flock , and they are ever willing to obey your commands : they give you credit for sincerity ; and if you will candidly inform them that you hare heretofore acted in error in lendiug yourself to the Repeal agitation , they will believe you , and follow your advice , in all your future progress for national regeneration . *
O'Connell possesses their confidence by your _suffrage j so the sooner you dispel the delusion , tbe sooner will you gain for _yourselres honour , and for your country , happiness . Bnt what should be thc basis of this education , you may ask f " It is moral , virtuous , and religious !" It is consistent with the principles of Christianity , and , therefore , you cannot reasonably object to it . Nor will all tho clamour in the world stifle its spirit of truth , even though the denouncer of " Godless colleges" should lend himself to the task of doing so . 1 like , Reverend Sirs , the doctrine of the Saviour , which renders to " Oesar the things which ARE _Casar ' s ; " butl would like to ask the _Cawar of Derrynane , what things ho possesses which ara truly his ? 1 would like to ask all the idle _Cffisrers who claim things as theirs , and use other people ' s substance , why they do not produce things of their own , instead of _growling for the " lion ' s share" of everything , which _belengs to _iudustrious people only .
I would certainly submit to the "powers that be " but , notwithstanding , I hold it to be a bad doctrine to teach a man that ho should submit patiently , and die silently , under the influenoe of injury or injustice ; and I submit that it will not be inconsistent with the sacred charaotcr of your office , if , instead of teaching your Hocks to be meek beasts of burthen— " hewers of _woed aad drawers of water f you teach them to look npon themselves as men formod lu the image of the Creator and possessed of a natural right to live and be happy on the earth ; that all men are equal in the eye of God , and that rank and worldly distinctions are onl y emanations of the pride and corruption of human nature ; if you teach them that the laws
which gorern him should be made by all , and for the good of all ; and that when they are not so they are unjust , and must become mischievous : toll him that labour has its rights , and that the people ought to be the legitimate source of power j tell him that the laud which garc him birth , nnd which will receive back his ashes , and which was intended to furnish his subsistence , 19 his natural inheritance , but that it has been wrested from him by the ruthless hand of power ; if you tell him that it is criminal to be a slave when freeelom 16 attainable ; if you tell him this , you will hare given him his first , best lessoa ; and if you will only now fearlessly and houe'stly incu ' eat j those hearen-born prin-
To Thi; Roman Catholic Heirarchy Of Irel...
_ctpltstoyoar countrymen , there will be no dans » , the remit of _youv labours . s **? I am , Right Reverend and Reverend Sin , Tour mott obedient Servant , W , H . _Curro * _.
To Lord John Russell, Tbe " Act For Tbe ...
TO LORD JOHN RUSSELL , Tbe " Act for tbe more effectual _Rsllef of the destitute Poor In Ireland , " received the Royal assent on _Juu 1 1838 . The arowed object of this aet it distinctl y _stated and the necessary _tteps were taken to ensure its 8 uMe _^ ' The 180 _workhouies erected were eit ' _mattd to cost b _« , ' tween £ 1 , 100 , 000 and £ 1 , 200 000 ; the money being W by Government , free of interest , for ten years , and t _« be repaid by annual instalments within twenty year , The Poor Law Commissioner receives a salary ef £ 2 ( KM ) ' eleven assistant commissioners each receive £ 700 * tali ' ries ofthe clerk of each Union , the matter and mstron J each workhouse , respectively £ 50 , £ 10 , and £ 25 or £ . "j annually .
Tha workhouses are described to be the most nobis _, looking _mantiont externally , built In the domestic Qotbie style , and estimated to contain 93 , 880 paupers ; but f » oases of emergency , this acommodation may be increi ' _1-4 from ten to twenty per cent ., and the houses are built oa plant with a view to tbeir enlargement . The dress U a kind of priton uniform . There is no arrangement ai to diet beyond tho usual one , the object being to gire suck diet tothe inmate as shall be _worte than the diet cod , monly obttlned by tho labourer In the immediate neighbourhood . 1 now ask your Lordship when yon expect that the do .
vernment will be repaid tho immense turn granted _« n loan ! Your scheme was a gigantic and _cottl y expert . ment , and wat introduced with all the usual ceremony " no means being spared to render it _tuccestful . Wu . ' seriously in earnest when you passed the law under dii . cuwion ! If to , what is Its evidence as to your ability to » * vern Ireland f Arethe poor more effectuall y relieved thaa thsy _wtre In 1833 ! Let the present state of Ireland at * _, awer . Men , women , and children dying of _starration . the workhouses filled to repletion , and a whole people ia a state of mendicity . The' Irish Poor Law was _pssne' u the political economists and _Whigt . Tou are a Whig and— " By their fruits ye shall know them . ''
I do not assert that the present _impoverithtd stats of Ireland is entirely attributable to Whig government , Tou no doubt affirm that the failure of tbe potatoe crop was an unexpected calamity , of which you could have no _fore-knowledge . I grant the justice of your statement ; but what does it prove !—the hollownets and utter inutU llty for good of the principles by which you and yonr friends , the Malthusian economists , attempt to gorern 1 nation . We have abundant crops of wheat , rye , oati , barley , and every other necemry for food ; but there It a failure of a single root—one of the meanest of its clati —and the _effsct is to shake the entire system . Law has lucceeded law—reports printed—speeches made— politi .
cal economy discussed—true principles enforced—tbe affairs of a nation managed by the exercise of " grrat facts" —when lo ! a creeping , crawling root , not ranch better than chickweed for sparrows , fails , and behold tbe result . '—a nation bankrupt , and a people starring I and that , too , in a country , the soil and climate of which ena . bles it to produce grain of erery kind , equal , if not inperior , to the most productive soils of England . Some idea of the productive powers of Ireland may be formed from the following statement by Sir William Jacktoa Hooker , which you will find by referring to the section " Botany , " in M'Culloch ' s statiatical account of the British Empire . Sir William says : —
" We find many plants incapable of bearing the cold oi more northern latitudes . Hence tbe strawberry tree adorning the woods of Killarney and Bantry , with its rich evergreen foliage , and its copious redberries , comet to tuch perfection that a trunk hat been measured nine and a ha ! f feet in girth . " Ireland is , par excellence , the land of the daisy and cowslip—the region of fruits and flowers . Her wont soils are superior to the sharp gravels and hungry moulds of many partt of Scotland , while the it declared by competent judges , to contain lands equal to the carte
of Gowrie , on the banks ot the Tay , which are _umrsr . sally allowed to be the _bett wheat lands north of the Tweed ; while Roscommon , Galway , Limerick , Mayo , and other counties , are equal to any parts of England for pasturage ; and to singularly combine fertility with firm . nets , that bullocks of 100 or 105 stone weight , may be teen rapidly fattenintr upon them in places where , fa even the wettest season , the sward would not receive the print of a horse ' s foot . It it stated in Mr . Tighe ' s remarks on the tolls of Ireland , that , " In Longford there is a farm named _Garnard-kill _, which produced eight crops of potatoes without manure . "
I now ask why is it th tt any people living under to many advantages starves ! Why is It that potatoes hut become the principal food of such a people ! Is it that they are indigenous to the soil ! No ! it is because oppression and misrule have destroyed the ta « te- of the people for a higher order of food . Potatoes are grown because they fill the stomach—not that they fatten the flesh ; they are easily cooked , requiring only to be washed and boiled , and so little has civilization done for Ireland that domestic culinary operations are only required one step above the most savage state of barbarism , The savage eats the raw root , and he has no ta 9 te beyond his first desires ; he kills game , it is his own , and is savoury to his appetite . The Irish peasant is robbed of the flesh , and receives in its stead the boon of knowing bow to boil his roots .
The failure of tha potato crop has opened the eyes ot many to the rotten system of government under which we now live , and affords much food for thought . _Vfe naturally atk what would havo been the fate of the Irish people If _pototoes had nerer been planted on her shorn ? would they hare been poorer than they now are ! Such would have been impossible : on the contrary the peasant would hare desired and possessed food of a superior kind ; and as landlords , middlemen , merchants , etc . have taken all they possibly could from the labourer . I infer that the working classes would have had better food , and the other sections of course less profit from labour . Again , the failure of the accursed root shows that the rich cannot injure the poor with Impunity ' . thete seems to be a level in the affairs of men , and Ireland has reached it . The rich are poor because ' they have no ie . _curtty that they will continne to possess their wealth . They have continued te take from the people until nature ean afford no more , and tho people are miserable _becsuse they hare been robbed of all .
The meeting of Parliament it at hand , aud your Lordship must grapple with the difficulties you have helped to create . FiHe speeches , about" great principles ; " "oft words and fair promises will be but of little value—ths people want t . iod—all look to the government , all wait for your promises and their fulfilments ; all say , " By their fruits ye shall know them . " A _Leaifbom the annals of A Shoemaker ' s _Gabut ,
War And Taxation,—The New York Evening E...
War and Taxation , —The New York Evening Express says : —The operations of thc last war are still fresh in the recollection of a large portion of the intelligent men of this country . At tne _commencemen t of that war , it was asserted by those who made it , that it would be of Bhort duration , and that only a moderate Bum would be wanted . But before it had progressed two years , government fouud it neees _> sary to lay a heavy tax on _overy article coiiBu _* mti from abroad , to lay an _exciso on every gallon of whiskey made in this country , —and to impose an odious stamp tax . No man could draw a note , or execute a bond to be legal , without purchasinc ot the government a stamp . Every acre of land , every watch , and every other species of personal _estate , was taxed to an enormous extent . Tax gathorers .
in one shape or another , were almost as numerous as the locusts of Egypt . Loans multiplied until they amounted to about 180 , 000 , 000 of dollars . Every bank in the country , except those in New England , suspended specie payments , and the government forced out to the people these Treasury notes , until they depreciated like continental money , to bo worth only about ? 0 cents on the dollar . Governmen t t > < per cents sold for about 60 per cent , on the dollar . Hundreds of capitalists , who commenced buying C > vernment securities at par , were ruined by the tall- Such was the practical effect of the war we have si- luded to . The government now owe 2 S , 000 , OW _» _, and this war hasjust commenced , judging by present 11 appearances . It is now proposed to increase th « ' debt to about 5 i ) , 000 , 000 ; and no one can foresee j what the amount will ultimately be . "
_High-u . vd FuNKnALs . — There is at present » » general movement throughoutthe towns and village 3 : _s of the north to do away with the entertainment it usually afforded on thc occasion of funerals , so bur * r _* donsome to the humbler class of the people , and id which often degenerate into excess . In the rcmoi * te oountry parishes it will be more difficult to eradicate te this custom , in consequence of the distance which ; h many parties travel in order to be present at these se solemnities . A striking menento of the old High- Island funerals may still be seen a few miles from m _Coroaeh , near the western terminus ol the _Cale-tedonian Canal . On the southern bank of tlio canal ai is an ancient burying groundand besides it a
_curi-n-, _ous green mound of earth in the shape of a horse- se shoe , which was constructed in that singular share p some centuries ago , in order to accomodate thc * _t- _v tendants at funerals . After the interment the p _^ _-M pie were seated on the grass in the curve , while too hi opening gave access to the servants to bring iu tne _ n < wine and spirits consumed on such occasions . " . _''' . ' still tho custom to hold thefe orgies occasionally | 11 this sequestered spot , and many a fervid da Willi address and full quaich have been poured out _to-tW _" memory of thc various parties committed to tmn " _narrow-house" in the adjourning resting P lac v ' The bagpipe , too , sometimes added tho wild notes c _*» i c a" lament , " which hcigthened tlie effect ot _tnotu '
_straniie _sceno . An'Owner . —A New York papor , announcinjini thc wrecking of a vessel near tho Narrows , says ' . — _' .-The only passengers were T . B . Nathan , _whoowne-w three-fourths of the cargo and tho captain ' s wife ¦ A Friknd op rj-ACE .-Duritig the revolution . * -- ' * :.- ' : war , ' Friend , ' said an American Quaker _> nase . ' ' l ' fight . -1 counsel no bloodshed : but if it is thy _f tit sign to hit tho little man in the bluo jacket , _po- « _-w » thine engine three inches lower . ' Mbdicinb . —Dc Sevignc calls tho science of mcd _jied j cine ' pompous non * ciise ; specious babbling ; -vr * _w instead of reasons ; and promises iostrad of result ** , ts
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 9, 1847, page 6, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/ns3_09011847/page/6/