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February 15, 1845. THE NORTHERN STAR. _ ...
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MANUAL OF FIELD GARDENING: OR, BELGIAN A...
GUAXO, AS COMPAREO WITH OTHER MANURES.—I...
Dumfries.—One Law fob the Ricn and AXomE...
BANKRUPTS. (From tfte Giwette o/ Friday,...
UicnMOSD Con>* Market, Feb. 8.—We had a ...
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- Xo The Cjubxist Body Gli.Vkballr. Frie...
( Concluded from our sixth page . ) so . II . Dr . M'Douall told me , two days after his retnrn from France , that he had been informed by a Government officer in Paris , tbat Feargas O'Connor had sold the Chartists at Lancaster to the Government , and that he was in the pay of the Government ; and the same story was repeated to me in many places , and by different persons in towns where Dr . M'Douall had been lecturing , as liaving been circulated b y hiia : — Christopher Doyle .
so . m . Dr . M'Donall made the same statement to me at the aiuc time . Thomas Clark .
so . IV . Extract of a letter from Mr . D : Ross , of Leeds , to a friend hi London . _< .- -r . Leeds , February 4 th , 1845 . My Dear Sir—Dr . M'Douall has undertaken to play the despot with a vengeance . Event misfortune that has befallen Chartism since 1842 , may justly le attributed to ma ; and now , by way of compensation , since his return from France , he has done little but so about like a destroying angel , spreading disscntionsand fomenting divisions . In fact , he told me , in the autumn of last year , what he would do ; and he hasfaithfully kept his word . What thc Glasgow secretary has since _chargedliim with , he f / _icn told to me , with many other things equally base , which I will prove to Ids cost when I am so fortunate as to obtain ' an opportunity of doing so . I am , respectfully yours , Davib B . OSS .
It may be well to explain here that the statements which Dr . M'Douall denies as having made were heard by Mr . Doyle and Mr . Clark some time before thc Doctor visited Manchester , and consequently before Leach and him had an opportunity of meeting . After hearing the whole ofthe evidence the Council retired to their room . During their absence _) Ir . Lowe was examined , and declared that he had never heard Dr . M'Douall state anything injurious te O'Connor ' s character . In about half an hour , the Council r eturned , when the chairman said they bad eome to an unanimous derision , which was as follows : — " That we , the Council of Carpenters' Hal ] locality of the National Charter Association , having heard lie evidence given by Mr . Leaeh , _Mr- _' Butterworth , and the statements made by Feargus O'Connor , as well as the letters from Enoch _Uoi-sfalL of Todmor den , DavidRoss , of Leeds , Christopher Doyle . Thomas
Clarke , and WiUiam Hewitt , of London- and having ako heard read the letters of Dr . if-Douall , in _wliieli he denies the pr incipal statements attributed to him by the other gentlemen ; from that evidence we are folly satisfied that Dr . M'Douall did make use of the expressioiis and utter the statements attributed to him ; and , bound __ as we are by that evidence to believe sneh expressions and ( statements to be false and _nudiciooK , wc are of opinion that Dr . M'Douall has forfeited thc confidence of the Chartist body , and is henceforth undeserving of their trust . And we , the Council , deem Mr . O'Connor fully exonerated from all thc charges that have been brought against him ; and arc of opinion that he is entitled to the continued and unreserved confidence of the Chartists of Great Britain and Ireland . " Sinned , on behalf of _theX _' ouncil , " Thomas Raskk , Chan-man . " . Manchester , Feb . 9 th , 1845 .
Resolved , — " That a report of these proceedinos , Including the- above resolution , be published in the Star of Saturday nest . " After die Council had reported , Mr . PuUcn desired to say a word . From the representations made to him by Dr . M'Douall , whom he thought the honestest man in the country , Le believed Mr . O'Connor to be the worst and most dangerous villain in the world . From these representations he was induced to abandon the Chartist movement altogether , and to become a member of M'Douall's Committee . Now , however , licliad changed Ms opinion of both , parties , and looked Upon O'Connor as an injured , honest man .
One of the Council . —llien , Mr . Pullen , are yon prepared to take out your card , and join again ? Mr . Pullen . —Yes , _artainly , I am . ( Vociferous cheering ) . Mr . Charles Taylor , treasurer to the M'Douall fund , was not in Manchester at the time of the inquiry ; but on his arrival , having heard of the evidence of Mr . Lowe , he stated that , after the investigation in _Lcac-h ' s case , and after M ' _DoualFs denial of Leach ' s as . « crtions as to the "denunciation" of O'Connor , he ( Taylor ) walked home in company with Lowe , when Lowe remarked that he never was so ranch disgusted , or thought so meanly of anvman , as
he did of Dr . M'Douall ; for he bad beard hhn over and over again state thc very same things with reference to O'Connor in several companies ; and that he ( Taylor ) , if present , could have proved that M'Douall had _frequently made the same charges with respect to O'Connor ' s selling the Chartists ; and , further , that M'Donall stated thathe had ample documentary evidence in his possession to prove thc facts ; M'Donall _furtherstatedihatthere was aTiper in the ranks , gnawing the very vitals of the movement ( meaning thereby Mi * . O'Connor ); and that he ( M'Douall ) was tbe only man that could destroy him , and that he would do so .
At the close of the proceedings Mr . O'Connor said : I have had the honour of recognizing _sne of my old Lancaster companions ; and to leave nothing unanswered , I shall now examine as respectable a working man as ever breathed , with respect to my condactat Lancaster , Mr . Crossley . Mr . O'Connor . —Mr . Crossley , will you have the kindness to state to the Council the impression you received of my conduct throughout thc trial at Lancaster ? Was there anything calculated in my crossexaminatioi ! , my speech , or any part of my conduct to create doubt or suspicion " in your mind ? or did you think that I attempted to save myself at the expense of ofher parties ? Mr . Crossley . —No _> c * ertoinly not , quite the reveise . I thought yon seemed to feel for every one as much , if not more , than yourself . Mr . O'Connor . —I shall now examine Mr . Leach . _Jh * . Leach , will you have thc kindness to answer the same questions ? * Mr . Leaeh . —Why , its all nonsense : the question
just lies here . Mr . O'Connor and Mr . Roberts pitched upon the men that should speak in defence , and had counsel for others ; and the men that were selected to speak were chosen for fear the ignorance of oiht-is ofthe lawmightlead them to saysomething that would criminate Dr . M'Donall , as we knew that if / te and O'Connor got off wc should -ail get off . Mr . O'Connor . —Gentlemen , I have now sifted aU ; there never was a more glorious triumph than the LaDcaster triumph , which one reprobate would mar by trying to make a grievance out of nothing . As totheintervicwallHded to , with the Attorney-General , you will take my word and honour for it that neither Mr . Roberts or myself ever laid eyes on him , except in court ; in fact , lam at a loss to comprehend the meaning of sueh systematic viliany as is developed in the revelations made here to-day : and now , thanking you for your patientinvestigation , I have thought it my duty by this further evidence to strengthen the value of vour verdict .
It is right to state that several of Dr . M'Douall ' s most intimate friends were on thc Council , while the majorit y of the witnesses who were examined liad actually been induced to abandon the Chartist causo e _^ •* - _^ ouau ' representations . -Mr . ltedfeavn , one of the Council , had actually offered to establish him in business in Manchester . _When the decision of the Council was read , it was received with the most rapturous applause ; and the several delegates present instantly started to communicate the result in their several localities Mver did Mr . O'Connor receive such a rapturous welcome as when he entered the Carpenters' Hall in the evening . ___ The impression upon every mind is , that this inquiry will tend to give increased confidence in the really honest , and will cause a reorganisation « « nr ranks .
_/ LONDON . _Meteopoutas District Couscil , February 9 th : _^ _hj- _ililnein the chair . —It was unanimously resolved That the Executive eoroniJttee be requested to reply to the slanders of the Weekly Dispatch , contained _*? " -- is dav ' s number . - " After some other business the council adjourned . _Ha * MER . 3 . , —A public meeting was held at the -mi ? ? * - _'ra _« Bridge-road , on Tuesdav evening , Feb . Jitn , for the purpose of hearing Mr . P . M'Grath deliver a lecture on the -nrinciules of Free Trade as
ham i 0 the _vealth P rodnccn ? - 3 _* - - Cuffingf _*™ - jas called to the chair , and in a neat speech _"Fued the _bushics . ' * of the evening . Mr . M'Grath wen-rose and clearlv shewed thegreat evils that must arise from the adoption ofthe Free Trade principle ™ _* present circumstances . This able lecture was _g _* _- _*™! applauded throughout . Atthe condnsion of v ee ™ 3 n animated discussion ensued , in which _-Messrs . Porter , Stallwood , Smith , U . Ross , and others _^• 5 Part . Mr . M'Grath eloquently replied . A vote « h _inajiks was then _nnanimously awarded to the lec-• % _- - mi-. M'Grath responded , and the meeting
Ch £ _M- Tm , Sj " -0 n Swuav CTen ™ S last- _5 fr- T . -t rare d elivered an able and instructive lecture on ArmT _T , ? l , ltaL atMr - -Dnddridge ' s , Bricklayers ' ¦ rtiai' Joisuridgc-street . An unanimous vote of " uanks was awarded to the lecturer .
Wr * , t > YORKSHIRE . _^ _P _KiMXc Delegate _Meetixg . —This meeting ifr-,, _™> _Pursuant to notice , in the Working Man ' s foil ™ .- ahfar * _«« Sunday , the 9 th inst , when the _w"S * htts _wcrercpresented - —Bradford , _Little-Ifcti r _^ nsfidd , Wakefield , Balifax , Birstall , _oSpSH _^ - ° « _" > bary , and Lockwood . Mr . T . the _w 5 elccted to the chair . The secretary read _motC _^ llie Previous meeting , which on the eonfi _™ « -Mr- _SnteKSe , seconded bv Mi * . Sbaw , were in- p j , Iilc following sums were then handed _jjj _T-Cradford , Executive Cs . 3 d ., levy 3 s . 2 d . ; Mrs . I _^^ i ; D _* _dif- « , _&« mtive 7 s . 6 d ., levyls . 6 d . ; } : _^»^ _w-ntiTels . _^ ., levylOd . jHebdenb « dge , & ea i 7 s le ? y 3 s - ; _Litfletown , Executive w - _*^ y 9 a . - Birstall , Executive 7 « ± , levy 3 * d . ;
- Xo The Cjubxist Body Gli.Vkballr. Frie...
5 _wic t ' Iev 3 r 2 s _- _Lockwwd , Executive _^ _, od ., 52 L _~ i " _? oflua » the following resolutions r _„™ T- _Tn , m ? usI - :- " That _™ , the delegates representing the various localities in the West _Rfdin-r of the county of York , do hereby express our entire confidence m _^ the integrity of Feargus O'Connor , _fcsq ., despite the foul calumnies directed against him by base cowards , who envy the popularity his virtues nave acquired for him ; and we also express our confidence in the other members of the Executive _further we tender our wannest thanks to the Manchester Council for the just and impartial manner in whichi they have sifted the charge of M'DouaU against Mr . Leach ; and we trust that the General Council will always have the moral courage to root out traitors whenever and wherever found . " " That we aprrove of the resolution of the South Lancashire delegates m favour of bringing out a Chartist hymn ! book , which is very much wanted . "
OLDHAM . Lecture . —On Sunday last Mr . J . II . Taylor delivered a very interesting lecture on the " life , writings , and genius of ltobert Bums , " in the Chartistroom , Greaves-street The lecturer commenced bv _giving a biographical sketch of the poet ' s life from youth to manhood , r aking a variety of lus poems in true Scotch idiom , m which were exemplified a genius unexampled at such an early period of life . The lecturer gave general satisfaction .
MACCLESFIELD . Lectcre . —On Sunday evening Mr . "West delivered a lecture in the Chartist-room , Stanley-Street to a numerous and attentive audience . The subject ofthe lecture was the Queen ' s Speech , which Mr . West dissected in his usual lucid and forcible manner . At the conclusion an interesting conversation took place on the subject ot education , whieh _washighly instructive . Macclesfield bids fair to be soon " up tothe mark . "
February 15, 1845. The Northern Star. _ ...
February 15 , 1845 . THE NORTHERN STAR . __ 7
G Pmiltm* Ant* Femttodturt
_g _pmiltm * ant * _femttodturt
Manual Of Field Gardening: Or, Belgian A...
MANUAL OF FIELD GARDENING : OR , BELGIAN AGRICULTURE MADE EASY . London : Simpkin and Marshall . Iludderefield Kemp . Such is the title of a valuable little work which has just issued from the press . It is a daily record of the actual workings on four small garden-farms , lying several miles distant from eaeh other , near Eastbourne , in Sussex . It may be depended on as containing a correct report of the methods of cultivation adopted by numerous garden fanners upon the estates of Mrs . Davies Gilbert . The farms selected as models are , 1 st . That of the WiUingdon School , conducted by G . Cruttenden , who occupies , in addition to the school-house , five acres of land at the usual farmer ' s
r ent . He is assisted by from five to twenty little boys , who , paying each one penny per week , receive instruction in reading , writing , and arithmetic , from nine till twelve in the morning , and in the afternoon , help him in return with his _tarm-labours and stallfeeding , from three till six o ' clock . This place , adjoining the village of WiUingdon , is delightfully situate , on one of the slopes declining from the Chalk Downs . It is in view of the English Channel , which , with the Marteiio towers along the coast as far as the _eyecan reach , fomi a striking scene . The place exhibits neatness and order without the least display . 2 nd . That of the Eastdtan School , near Bcachy Dead , conducted by John llarris , who holds five acres of land in addition to the school , where about the same
number ot boys are trained to mental and agricultural pursuits . 3 rd . Thatof / c « e / -V 2 _« r , whichisaprivatefai _* n-i , higher up the Down than the school at Eastdean , of four acres , lie is partly employed as an overlooker with ether work , but cultivates his plot two or three days per week , assisted by a boy , and an occasional man . He was late ]} examined by the committee of the House of Commons on the Allotment question . 4 th . Thai of Jolm Dumbrell , at Jevington , or near to it , also a private , farm of six acres , who is assisted in its cultivation by his father , seventy years of age , in addition to which he keeps a little village shop ; he also was examined before the same committee . Jevington is situate about four miles from Beachy Head , and is sequestered deep in a vale amongst the
cnalk hills . In general the soil of these farms is formed from the disintegration of the chalk rock which is close below the surface , or of alluvial mould swept into the valleys ; the colour of it is whiter than is quite agreeable to the eye , and evidently must owe much of its fertility to the labours of man or the mildness of the climate . This diary has _lieen deduced from returns ingeniously contrived by T . Thynne , Esq ., steward to the Earl of Dartmouth , for the guidance of the model fanners , established hy him at Slaitbwaite and Lingards , near Huddersfield , in Yorkshire ; and it is HOW published by the benevolent John Nowell , of Farnley Tyas , near Huddersfield , as a guide to thc workers and promoters of agricultural improvements elsewhere .
In addition to the diary the work is Interspersed with " Notes and Observations" applicable to each time and season where they are introduced . These notes contain a fund of information on the best mode of securing , preparing , and _applying manures , and on many other matters essential to thc success of thc small-farmproject , in which question Mr . Nowell , though a Whig , takes a deep and even enthusiastic interest : for in that question alone he sees the salvation of the country from impending destruction . He has issued his work , he says , " to assist those kindhearted , generous men in their labours of love for the
benefit of Iranian kmd ; those who , m their endeavours to improve society , wish , to procure for every country _cottagein Britain 'its rood of land , ' and to maintain a fan * remuneration for the labour of its inmates ; those who , in encouraging better cultivation , wish to restore a sunken yeomanry to comfort and happiness ; those who , by promoting the closer union of the two twin sisters , agricultural and manufacturing industry , are wishful to benefit both master and workmen : to assist those , above all , -who , in endeavouring to unite physical and mental training in schools of industry , are desirous of ensuring the future happiness and security of their country . "
So convinced arc we of the invaluable usq of the diary here made public , that we shall weekly insert from the pages of Mr . Nowell ' s work , that portion relating to the week following the publication of our journal . We shall thus be affording to the workers on small farms ti guide for then * operations ; for the arrangement of the diary is such as to' show the nature ofthe work that was engaged in during each dav , by the parties whose operations are recorded , and whose success in their -plans has been most eminent : so much to some of them as to obtain the prizes offered b y the Earl of Dartmouth for the most successful cultivation . In doing tins we know that we shall not be giving cause of complaint to Mr .
Nowell ; for in publishing his book he has not an eye to individual profit . He has issued it to aid hi extending a knowledge of the inestimable blessings that can be secured to this nation from a proper application of Labour tothe soil ; and in carrying out the intention expressed above , we know that he will consider us as aiding him in his benevolent labours . With mere book-makers for profit ' s sake we should not have daredtotakesuchalibcrty : with Air . Nowell , —a man who has devoted his time , Ids energies , and no inconsiderable amount of money to the bringing of the question of spade _hasbandryandsmall farms before the public , —our motives and intentions will be appreciated and thankfullv acknowledged .
The two first extracts wc give relate to the nature , structure , and component parts of plants , or vegetables . They will greatly assist the reader to understand the discussion on thc nature and benefits of the different species of manure now going on : — Ax . ilogt betweex Plaxts axd Aximals . —[ " The chief art of agriculture depends upon the collection and future application of all those manures which arc essential to vegetation . " }—Plants are formed of roots and-leaves . The roots absorb from the earth liquid food into the system . It is modified in their leaves by a peculiar process . One part of such food h » retained , the other is expelled . Plants differ from animals in containing no internal sack or stomach . In the animal the food is taken into the stomach , is
acted upon by certain juices there , and converted into a semi-fluid mass called " chyme . " It passes into the intestines , is absorbed from " the grosser food by the _' _laeteals _, _¦ _, is reSned and goes into the veins as " chyle , " and is mixed with thc blood . After passing through the lungs , and becoming decarbonated , it Ls then changed into-blood , which contains matt-rials for the nourishment of all parts of the system . Iu different parts of the body are certain glands , as the liver and kidneys , which may be compared to pipes and strainers . They secrete or separate certain substances from the blood , which are carried off as being no longer necessary to nutrition . The * e , as well as the superfluous portions of food not necessary to the formation of " chyle , " are discharged as excrements .
In plants , the stomach is the earth , the roots are the _"laetcals , " the sap is the "blood . " The plant-stomach , or the earth , furnishes the food of plants in a gaseous orffuid state ; _forsolidscannot enter them . Itis taken up bv theroots . The " energy of life" in the plant can separate from heterogeneous mixtures the elements carbon , hydrogen , nitrogen , whicli are its principal food . These are furnished by carbonic acid , water , carbonate of ammonia from rain-water and decaying animal matter , & e . There are other substances required by plautg . The sea plants require iodine mid common salt as condiments . The reed tribe requires silex and other substances ; but every
tribe exercises its peculiar choice . That important element , nitrogen , Is present only in certain organic substances in plants , out enters largely into the composition of animal matter . The chemist can combine the elements oxygen , nitrogen , hydrogen , or separate them by the aid of his art in a few instances . But the plant , surpassing Ins skill , is in itself a wonderful chemical machine , can exceed all his efforts , and alone can combine these elements into organic compounds . Manure put into the earth , or plant-stomach , in a raw state , must be first _digested there , as food is digested in the stomach of animals . The digestive process is putrefaction , fermentation , decomposition . Thus organic matter is restored to inorganic , and fitted for
Manual Of Field Gardening: Or, Belgian A...
_assimdation by plants-those beautiful engines or laboratories of vegetation !! Vegetables organise inorganic matters . They are the food of domestic animals , and these the food of man . In _thetubstance _, then , or the excretions of man and animals must be the elements requisite for the food of plants , and the collection and proper application of them the primary object of agriculture . The _EcoxoMisiso of _MismiE , Mw _' s Dim' _asd _LvruBEST . —[ " There shall be no idleness in my dominions ; for if there be one man idle some other man must suffer cold or hunger . Mv villages shall be Cleaned , thai the corn may grow . "~ Chinese Emperor . ' ] _—^ cmay ahcad y advert to what will hereafter be strikingly exemplified , in-the _nvnpficn nf small
farmere , that their care must be incessant in the collection and preservation Of evcrv kind of refuse and _exei-e-sentitious matter , whether solid or fluid , or however offensive may be its nature , for purposes of future utility . And here we cannot fail to be struck with those hidden causes wliich lead mankind imperceptibly , as it were , into habits and practices necessary to the existence of our species . In the processes of the animal economy , whereby life is sustained , there are formed , separated , and voided from the animal organism , substances endowed with qualities so offensive to our senses , particularly to thc sense of smell , that we are compelled to get rid of them , and which require of man that he shall put them away , or bury them forthwith , out of his sight in our common parent , the earth . The nenaltv for thc utter
neglect of tins duty would be famine , pestilential disease , and a train Of human ills . Nevertheless , in these things , thought to be so utterly vile and offensive in their nature , are contained " pearls of great price , " indeed above any price ; which , if husbanded and duly commingled with the earth he cultivates , are the means of sustaining life W the production of the food he consumes . Let us not then sky that the fungus is alone peculiar to the dunghill , without remembering that our own existence depends upon the same elemental matter derived from that humble source . How necessary then it is , that men and nations should attend to an object of such primary importance to tlieir existence !! How deep the obligation we are under to attend to the economising of all thc manures created near our abodes as one of the first of duties !
We next give the Diary of FIELD-GARDEN OPERATIONS FOR THE WEEK commencing Monday , February the 19 th , Monday—IVillingdon School . Boys digging wheat stubble . Eastdean School . Boys digging two spits deep for carrots , and manuring from the _pigstye mixen . Piper . Digging . Bunwrell . Putting tank liquid to rye grass , digging . Tuesday— WiUingdon School . Boys digging wheat stubble . Eastdean School . Boys emptying the liquid manure tank of the piggery , applying It to the ground for mangel wurzcl , & c . Piper . Sowing peas . Dumbrell . Digging . WjsnxEsnAT—WiUingdon School . Boys digging wheat stubble . Eastdean School , Wet weather , boys thrashing , picking , sorting , platting straw . Piper . Emptying the tank . Dumbrell . Digging . Thursday—WiUingdon School . Very wet , boys in
school . Eastdean School . Drawing manure to the mixen , for potatoes , digging for carrots , and spreading cowshed tank liquid ujjon it . Piper . Cleaning barley . Dumbrell . Collecting mould . Fhiday—WiUingdon School . Veiy wet , boys in school . Eastdean School . Boys thrashing , and cleaning oats , trussing straw , sorting potatoes . Piper . Collecting flint stones , to mend roads at a future time . Dumbrell . Digging . Saiurday—WiUingdon School , Boys digging wheat stubble . _Eastdean School . Boys emptying pails , getting turnips , cleaning up the pigs , and school room , and to the mill with oats to grind . Piper . Removing potatoes within doors . Dumbrell . Digging , collecting mould . Cow-Feedixo . — WiUingdon School . Cows living on Swede turnips and straw . —PipeVs . Feeding : on carrots , with straw once a day , and hay once . — Dumbrell ' s . One cow stall-fed with turnips , mangel wurzcl , and straw . A cow and heifer fed with tur
nips , carrots , and straw
NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS . Peat Compost . —The Rev . W . Rham recommended the following compost : —one ton peat ashes , one ewt . soot , one ewt . of lime , one ewt . of common salt , lilbs saltpetre ; to be mixed well together . It has been tried by J . Bamford _, of Slaithwaite , ' and found very beneficial , when applied to artificial grasses of the second year . Potash _CourosT . —[" The meanest things fulfil most useful purposes . " ]—The following method of collecting the potash , < fcc _., from kitchen slops , has been found to answer satisfactorily . A pit was formed in a garden , about two yards square , and two feet deep , bottomed with puddled clay and roughly paved . In the summer time , or dry weaher , it is Med with loose , porous mould , yard sweepings , & e . The water
from the sink . is led beneath _ife » surface , through and over all pmts of the mould , by a temporary drain of loose stones . The dry mould imbibes the fluid , and evaporation from its surface withdraws part of it , leaving the remainder moderately concentrated . This may be further-promoted by sowing seeds of such plants upon the spot as love potash , they will grow there with great luxuriance , and increase the evaporation from beneath . The contents are removed about twice a year , allowed to . dry in the sun , and then composted with lime , and sometimes with a further quantity of potash from the shops , turned over frequently , and after some months , mixed up with other ingredients recommended by Professor Johnstone , as _^ forming a good and cheap manure for potatoes ; or it is used instead of coal-ashes for making domestic guano .
Earth and Animal _Matteu _Comrosr . —[ "Ther e is not an atom of matter in creation , but has its uses . " ] Do not lose a scrap of decayed animal substance of any kind ; blood , old rags , cropper's flocks , engine-waste , willy-dust . __ Gather up all such things as may be offensive hi their decay ; and when divided work them up together with mould into a heap . Let it remain for a year , to be fully decomposed , turning it over several times . The watering of a mass of this kind with soap-suds , or scourings from a clothmill , will much increase its value . Very striking and long-continued effects from the application of such a eompost upon meadow land , are frequently witnessed in a manufacturing district . The action of such substances in their _widccomposed state is very slow , and in some cases almost negative , as many musthave witnessed .
Reservoir Deposits . —The deposit at the bottom of reservoirs and stagnant pools , when it can be procured , will prove invaluable in making , various composts . The owners of mills ought not to permit these things to be lost , but have them composted up with quick . lime . They would be well repaid fbr their trouble . _
Guaxo, As Compareo With Other Manures.—I...
GUAXO , AS COMPAREO WITH OTHER MANURES . _—In-QVIRT 1 _N-I 0 THE SOURCE OF CaITOON IN YeOETAWOS . — [ In a recent number of the Star we inserted a letter signed " H . Davis , " in which the writer contended that guano as a manure must act as an exhauster of the soil , inasmuch as it did not supply back to the land the elements of vegetation in sufficient quantity to compensate for the amount abstracted by thc
growing crops ; he also compared thc respective values of guano and the ordinary farm-yard manures , contending that the latter were much preferable , as they gave back to the soil much more of carbon and other elements of plants tlian guano did . The following letter has appeared in answer to the positions of Mr . H . Davis : and wc insert it , because calculated to impart just notions of a very important feature of _^ vegetable jeeonoiny , the elimination or formation of thc large quantity of carbon whicli forms so considerable a portion of all vegetable substances . ]—Sir , —having observed in your number of January 2 Cth a letter of Mr . H . Davis , with regard to thc nse of guano , I take the liberty of offering a few remarks upon . it , as I think the sentiments which it expresses The
arc calculated to be injurious to agriculture . principal error consists in supposing that plants derive the greatest proportion of their substance from the soil . On many _lamiB , in excellent cultivation , and . which have been in an improving condition for years , the onlv artificial manures which have been used have been bones , or other substances equally light and portable , which could only equal in weight a small proportion of tho grain sold , and of the elements ot vegetation lost during thefcrmentation of the manure ; and yet it has been proved , in thousands of instances , that farms , for the improvement of which sueh manures have been the only foreign ones purchased , "have steadily and rapidly progressed in condition . Lidced , it is to such manure ** , io bones , to guano , to
night soil , to ashes , to nitrate of soda , and similar substances , that we must in a great measure look for the general improvement of agriculture . Supposing any person buys a larger quantity ofthe litter formed in large towns than could _liave been produced ironi the straw of his own farm , he must do it at the expense of other lands . Such a proceeding may improve the condition of a single farm , but cannot increase the general produce of the kingdom . To deal justly by aU lands , every farmer should tako . back in the form of litter and stock excrements no more than conld be made from the produce of his farm , and in that case it would be impossible to return to the soil a ton of manure , or anything near it , for every _ton of crop renped . The principal object of the farmer s
solicitude should be to supply to the sou ammomacai manures , and the inorganic elements of plants , or those substances which form their ashes . The largest proportion ofthe elements whieh constitntethe great bulk of p lants , carbon , oxygen , and hydrogen , ore derived from ' the atmosphere and from moisture , and not , as Mr . Davis intimates , principally if not entirely from thc soil . Oxygen and hydrogen are readily supplied to the growing plant by water , and the carbon must principall _y be supplied bv the decomposition ofthe carbonic acid of the atmosp here . In proof of this assertion , we have only to ca lculate the quantity of carbon taken from the soil by crops , and returned to it again by artificial means , even under good systems of management , and we shall see thatthe quantity of cjrbon returned bears no
proportion to that taken away . On a light land or wold farm of COO acres , entirety tillage , and managed oil the four-course system , if the wheat average three quarters per acre , we shall have from 150 acres 450 quarters ; of this quantity 100 quarters may perhaps be retained for seed and household support , but not SO much if thesvstem of thin sowing be followed ; thc remaining 350 quarters will bo sold off the form . To calculate the weight ofthe wheat at _Sost . per quarter , the quantity of carbon -which will in this wheat be carried off the farm will amount to about 08 , 000 lb ., for the wheat contains about four-tenths of its weight of carbon or charcoal . If we suppose the spring corn to be entirely oats , and calculate the crop at six quarters per acre , we shall have 000 quarters ; of
this quantity the half must be retained for seed , _horse-coi-u , and home consumption ; the remaining 450 quarters will be carried off the farm , and the quantity of carbon contained in tliem will amount to about 54 , ISO lb . The carbon contained in the grain and straw which are consumed upon the farm , supposing the weight ofthe straw to be twice that ofthe whole of the grain , would amount to 400 , 718 lb . Of this quantity , excepting in the case of the grain used as seed , not more probably than one-half , or at most two-thirds , would bo returned to the soil ; the rest would be lost during its consumption by men and animals , and'duringthe processes of fermentation and decay . The carbon sent awav in the grain sold would amount to 1227801 b . We may safely
calcu-, late that which would be lost on the farm at 150 , 000 lb ., which is most probably less than the veal loss . Thus , we see , that there would yearly be carried away by the corn crops from such a farm as this 272 , 780 lb . ot ' earbon . Almost thc only foreign manures which are purchased for such farms are bones , or other analogous Substances . If tllO manure be bones , and these be used for raising turnips at the rate of 2 qrs . per acre , tlieir amount will be 300 qrs ., and tlieir weight at 25 st . per qr . 105 , 000 lbs ., of which not more than 20 , 2501 b . will be carbon . But we have seen that the yearly loss of carbon on such a farm will be move than 222 , 0001 b ., to which quantity the carbon contained in the bones bears no proportion , nor would it supply a fourth part of that sold from off the favm in
the shape of grain . Ihe consideration of these circumstances may convince us that the soil cannot be the source from wliich plants extract their carbon if it were , this immense drainage , so disproportionate to the supply , would speedily exhaust the soil even on the best cultivated farms , and a farm of light soil , receiving the quantity of bones I have named , would be considered barren by a very few crops . But it is well known that a farm well tilled mid receiving such treatment , instead of deteriorating , would gradually Improve , and that the quantity of carbon contained in thc soil , instead of rapidly diminishing , would gradually increase . From these considerations wc may conclude that plants draw a very small portion of their carbon from tho soil , but they obtain It principally by decomposing the carbonic acid of the atmosphere , and a muchgreater quantity of carbon is left in and upon the soil , in the roots and stubble , than the whole quantity extracted from it by the growing
crop . Such being the case , the farmer s principal solicitude should be to obtain manures containing the inorganic elements of plants ; nor must he judge that bceause a manure is bulky it must necessarily lie valuable . Guano contains in less bulk a greater quantity of thc more uncommon inorganic elements of vegetation than almost any other fertilizer , and experience as well as theory has shown it to bo one ofthe most efficient manures for green crops , especially for turnips ; and whatever increases the bulk of a green crop , if that crop be consumed upon the land will most certainly tend to increase its fertility . I have as little sympathy as Mr . Davis with the interested _pufFei-s of quack manures . But I think it injurious to agriculture , and the welfare of our country , that any manure whieh increases the produce of the soilshould be depreciated in order that we may exalt another , if that other cannot abundantly and efficiently supply its place . J . J . Baruoii . _Octou East Hiding , _YovksMi-c , 3 _tm . 25 .
Tins _Sowixc and Manum . yg . —Sir , —I observe in your valuable paper of the 26 th January , a long dissertation , by Mr . Davis , on the superior value of farmyard manure compared with guano . This , I think , he might have saved himself the trouble of inserting , for every practical farmer in this country ( Scotland ) is perfectly aware that no artificial manures that ever haye been or ever will be discovered , are in any way equal to well-prepared farmyard manures . Guaiio is , therefore , viewed in this eountry merely as a very valuable auxiliary . Mr . Davis would appear to presume that nothing but guano was used on a farm , and that the farmyard manure was sent to the winds . The favourite rotation in this country on all turnip and grass soils ,
which is thc great majority , is a five-course shiftviz ,, oats , turnips , barley , and two years' grass once mowed . Now 1 maintain , from practical proof , that two ewt . per acre of guano , sown and harrowed in with the oats , will add , at least , two quarters per acre to the crop , and this at a cost now of from 12 s . to 14 s . per acre . Every . farmer is supposed , andgeneraUy has , sufficient farmyard manure for his turnip crop on a farm , composed of good clay loam—a six-shift rotation is often followed , viz ., wheat , dunged in the clover stubble , beans , peas , and potatoes , a portion of eaeh—oats , with a stimulus of ., two ewt . per acre of guano—turnips , manured at the rate often loads per acre , with two ewt . Of'guano , than which , so made , nothing will
raise a greater weight of turnips , barley , and grass . Iu the carses of Gowrie and Stirling , and other rich lands of Scotland , I believe a four-shift rotation is followed—but that has nothing to do with my argument . Artificial manures arc also highly valuable asameans of manuring reclaimed or waste lands , to obviate the difficulty that formerly existed , of robbing the rest of your farm by withdrawing a proportion of the manure .. As to thin sowing , tho whole of Mr . Davis ' s lecture on that head amounts to merely this , that from soil and climate he is enabled to use less seed than others not so favourably situated . The seeding of his farm must be governed by the
discretion and observation ol thc occupier . Parts of fields oven require two bushels per acre less seed than other parts . If we were sure that every grain of wheat sown would arrive at maturity , of course much less seed would be required ; but wemnst look forward to contingencies—grub , wire-worm , rooks , game , & c ., to say nothing of a severe , winter of snow , which / often rots out a third or more of the plants . I havo often , in'spring , seen fields of wheat too thinly planted , but I hardly ever in thia country ha , ve observed any that could be styled too thickly sown , and we generally sow from three to four bushels per imperial acre . I am , sir , your obedient servant , A Scotch Faumer .
Pbepariso Corn for Fattesixo Pigs . —Sir , —lo extend a knowledge ofthe most efficacious and economical method of preparing com for fattening pigs , permit me to observe that I have followed tho _jjractice of boiling peas for fattening pigs for a considerable period , and have every reason to be satisfied with the experiment , inasmuch as I have found pigs fed thereon fatten much faster than when fed in the usual way on meal , and by which a saving of fifteen to twenty percent , is obtained . I have also found great advantage in boiling oatmeal for feeding sows for the . first few weeks after farrowing , but care should be taken not to overfeed , as it is liable to
produce an overflow of milk , and endanger both sows and progeny . Thc way in which 1 have been accustomed to use the above is as follows , viz .: —To eight gallons of peas add twenty gallons of water , which , when well boiled , produces a , thick glutinous liquid , to whicli might be added or not , ' as _convenient , a small quantity of barleymeal . I have succeeded quite as well with peas alone . The oatmeal requires onethird , or , if neavy good corn , a double quantity of water : this also produces a glutinous liquid when well boiled , and standing till cold , and should be again mixed with warm water and some fresh beans or pollards ; and if given judiciously , I know of no food on which young pigs thrive _Iietter . —Tnos . Staoo . Grafton Manor Farm , Wilts , Jan . 28 , 1845 .
Dumfries.—One Law Fob The Ricn And Axome...
Dumfries . —One Law fob the Ricn and AXomER for the Poor . —Some few weeks ago , a cowardly scoundrel named George Reynolds , lieutenant in her Majesty's fOth Regiment , committed a gross assault upon the person of a decent , well conducted , young woman , whose father is employed as under gardener , or in some such post , in the family of a retired middle man , with the daughter of whom Reynolds is popularly reported to be on very good terms . The assaidt was committed in the entrance to her father ' s house ; and the poor girl naturally fled from the drunken wretch to her parents for protection , shutting the door ofher dwelling in the face of her pursuer . Even there she was not safe ; for thc
scoundrel , assisted by others of the same kidney , burst in , and when the young woman ' s father rose from bed to shield his child , tore the shirt from his back and otherwise maltreated him , to an extent that , had the offenders been poor weavers , would have subjected them to a twelvemontlis imprisonment at the very least . But what was the actual result ? When sobriety returned , the parties were naturally anxious to get out of their scrape ; and accordingly intimation was conveyed to the father , in a way not to be misunderstood , that his daily bread was in danger should he appeal to the Sheriff . Of coursesome show of justice was necessary to quiet the fear of the community , and the lieutenant accordingly surrendered to the great unpaid ; a proceeding , the station of the parties considered , which required no great stretch of courage
on his , part . Before the chief magistrate of the burgh , and accommodated with a place at the table ( had he been a poor culprit , his station would , according to use and want , have been the dock ) , the principal charge , that of breaking into a dwelling house , was , on the prisoner ' s pleading guilty of thc mere assault , departed frora _. and he was politely informed by thc just judge that he was amerciated in the sum' of 7 s . Cd ., or some sneh fine , This is " justice , justice " with a vengeance . So easy an escape from the consequences of his _misdeedswas not , it may well be supposed , calculated to check one whose name has already become a . by-word in Dumfries , ' . and a synonymefor every thing base , cowardly , and immoral . It would be painful were it needful to recapitulate many of the actions the meanness of those in authority allow him to commit , almost with impunity . We will therefore
Dumfries.—One Law Fob The Ricn And Axome...
confine ourselves to another example of remissness and shameful neglect of duty on the part ot the Dumfries local authorities , if it ought not to be called by a harsher name , whicli occurred so late as Wednesday evening lust . Two police officers had been engaged in removing a drunken and noisy person , when they were interrupted b y this _SllfflC Reynolds , and another " gallant defender , " Ac . —Arcades umbo—who if they did not actually deforce tiie officers , at least interrupted them in thc exercise of their duty . With reluctance , and _iilniost _com-jcllcd by the crowd wliich speedily assembled , the policemen took _, them info custody . Arrived at thc station-house , Jones , theenptnin ofthe county " rtirals _, " and a tool , whom by . the cftieientffaid of another minion , the
Duke of Bucelcugh has succeeded in foisting upon an unwilling community , compelled the withdrawal of the charge , and the pair were set at liberty . This was soon circulated over the town , and coming to the ears ofthe indefatigable Mr . Andrew . Wardrop , he proceeded to one of the magistrates , when the following pithy dialogue , or something like it , took place * , — Mr . W . : So , the rogues have got off , have they ?—Magistrate : What rogues ?—Mr . W . : Reynolds iCnd Irving , to be sure . Bailie Jones did it . — . Magistrate : Supcrindent Jones had no power to do any such thing . —Mr . W .: I tell you he did it ; and if these men ave not tried this day , I go to the Monument this very night and expose the whole of you to the
public ! ' This threat had the desired eitcct ; the shop-boy was sent off on the instant with a bulletin , and after a serious confab on the part of the bench , the worthies were tried ( although the charge had been withdrawn ) , in presence of a very respectable gathering of working men , and the magistrate or decency ' s sake was compelled to fine tlioin 10 s . Gd . each . It is in contemplation to lay a _stataueutof the proceedings of this ruffian before the Duke of Wellington , who may in his capacity of Commanderin-Chief , either remove , or put the public in thc way of removing so dangerous a nuisance from a quiet and peaceable town . If , on the contrary , we are " under martial law , tho sooner we know it froin authority thc better . —Correspondent .
_Melancholy Accident . —On the afternoon of Tuesday last , eight boys , all said to be remarkably fine youths , were drowned at Bogfoot Loch , a reservoir in thc neighbourhood of thoir residence , in the village of Sallysburgh . Two families lost two sons each . The lads had gone to play on the ice , not knowing that it had been weakened by the thaw of the preceding Sunday , and all fell in , witliout a soul being near to rescue them . Their bodies have been recovered . —Liverpool Times ,
_£ mmnmte , _ku
Bankrupts. (From Tfte Giwette O/ Friday,...
BANKRUPTS . ( From tfte Giwette o / Friday , Tib . "th . ) John Heard , _De- _'tfoi'd , builder—George Haywood , Luton , Bedfurasbive , bricklayer—William Henry Colt , Long Melford , Suffolk , grocer—Samuel Huge , Southampton , car . _lientev—Jmucs _Ih-adsliaw , High-street , Cnmtleu Towncoal-mevclmnt—Samuel Tavener , Sovereign-mews , Paddington , bricklayer—John llicliarilson , _Jb'isli-street-liill , City boot anil _shoemaliei-.
DIVIDE NDS . Xfarch -J , W . and T . _lliggine , Old llond-stveet , hosiers—Feh . _i'S , H . _iTlichvall , Manchester , silversmith—March i , ' £ . Colliiison , Wakefield , _Yorkshire , _boat-builder—JIardi 3 , - B . Wright , Liverpool , dealer in paint—Feb . 27 , J , Mailalieu _, Highstile , Yorkshire , wooUen-manufacturer : BANKRUPTS . ( From Tuesday ' s Gazette , Feb . llth , 1 S 45 _J John Challenor , White-street , Southwark _, _grocer—lTollll Pl'tei'S , Godstoiie , Surrey , _iii-ikeej-M- — William CottrclJ , Southampton , _tea-dealer-r-James Burrell and Thomas Hall , _Ihetforil , Norfolk , iron-founders—Hippolite Francis Tjcllcnuer , Great Pulteney-street , Golden-square , licensedvictualler—William Cheatle Paul , Uoinford , Essex , sheepsalesman—Spencer William Tyler , _Woleot-phiee _, I _. iWlbCth ) _Cai'llGUtGV—Henry Peacock Gray , Caroline-street , Eatonsquare , _horse-dealer—IlieliardSteadman-fc William Adie _, Birmingham , button-makers—Anthony nnil Francis Atkinson , Newcastle-upon-Tyne , colour-Manufacturers .
DIVIDENDS . 'March 4 , II . II . Marshall , Plymouth , draper—March 4 , W . Brookes , _^ _ew-stveet-squave , Fetter-lane , _laiiip-in-inufaetuver—March i , Xf . Robertson , Great St . Helen ' s , City , _iiisurance-bvoker—March i , S . T . Watson and W . Dyers , Skinner-strcct , City , woollen-warehousemen ; and _MlU'cil C for separate estates—March 7 , G . A . Cator , heeds , woolmerchant—March 11 , T . W . Green , Leeds , bookseller-March S , W . _liichanlson , Newcastle-upon-Tyne , glussmanufactni'er—March 4 , J . S . Carter ami It . Cornlurth , Liverpool , merchants—March 5 , M . Toinkinson , Kidderminster , Worcestershire , _linondrnpci *—March 5 , , 1 . Hayton , _Wij-ton , Cumberland , shipowner .
DJ 2 C 1-. AIUTI 0 . VS OF DIVIDENDS . . T . haycock , Colne , Lancashire , tallow-chandler , final dividend of Is . in the pound , any Tuesday , at the office of Mr . Hobson , Manchester . ( i . Grantham , Manchester , grocer , first dividend of 8 s . yd . in the pouud , any Tuesday , at the oliicc oi" Mv . Hobson , Manchester . J , C , _Tetrie , Dcdliiigtoii _. Durhmii , miller , first and _sewmd dividend , of Is , 2 d in the pound , to those who proved their debts on the 4 th inst ., any Saturday , at the office of Mr . Baker , _Newcastle-upou-Tyue . J . C . Crcspin , Eastcheap , shipping agent , third dividend of Cd . ill the pound , any Wednesday , at the office of Mr . Follett , Sambiook-couit , _liasiiiglmll-street . C . Mann , Romford , Essex , banker , first and final dividend of 20 s . in the pound , any Wednesday , at the office of Mi * . Follet , Samhvook-couvt , Bastugliall-stveet . CERTIFICATES - TO BE GRANTED , UNLESS CAUSE BE SHOWS
TO THE _COSTltABY ON TUE DAV OF MEETING . March * . A . Goodeve , Aldeiinanbury , City , warehouseman—March i , J . Hubbard , _Hamsgate , Kent , auctioneer-March 1 , G . Fielding , Thame , Oxfords hire , ironmonger-March i , W . A . _Meurus , Clapluiui , Surrey , ale-brewer—March -5 , C . Parry , Cleaver-street , Kcnningtou-rond , Lambeth , furniture-broker — March 4 , J- Coles , New Bondstreet , jeweller—March 7 , C . Dotesio _, Slough , Bucliiiij , ' _- _hanr-hire , hotel-keeper—March 5 , J . R . Kintr , Bath , _dru- , - - gist—March 5 , W . Richardson , Newcastle-upon-Tyne , glass-manufacturer—March 7 , R . Proctor , Kingston-upon-Hull , coach-proprietor—March 0 , F . Beflinne , Manchester , check-manufacturer—March 4 , W . H . _Haywavd , Man-Chester , cotton-spinner—March 4 , J . _Watcs , Old Kentroad , victualler—March i , It . J . Webb , Bath , wine-merchant—March 4 , E . Glover , jun ., Leicester , ironmonger-March 4 , D . lint-nay , Cavendish-square , banker—March 4 , J . 11 . Uttiugr , Rewman-street , Oxford-street , upholsterer-March 4 , 3 . 0 . Ross , Savage-gardens , City , merchant-March i , Xi . Stinton , Duke-street , Grosvonor-square , cook —March 4 , C- Rayner , Blackburn , Lancashire , grocer-March 4 , P . Blackburn , Salford , Lancashire , builder-March l , J . Rapcr _, Bridge-road , Lambeth , tailor .
_rABTNEESniPfl DISSOLVED . J . Gregory aud II . Buvlingham , Evesham , Worcester shire , ironmongers—C . A . Jaquin and J . Corss , New Union-street , Moor-lane , City , buttau-niaiiufacturers—F . and C . Harrison , Luton , Bedfordshire , drapers—C . Roe and J . Facey , lMeford , Devonshire , _nrillevs—J . J . Young and A . Boucneau , Upper North-place , Gniy ' s-inii-road _, marble dealers-J . Cleaver , M . Attwood , and J . Harwell , Riiilev , Derbyshire , spelter-manufacturers—A . and J . S . Buckley , Manchester , cotton-spinners—W . _Gledliill mid S , Jogger , Bradford , Yorkshire , _iitiarrymen—J . _Fai-ie , P . Tusker , and A . Tod , Liverpool , iron merchants ; as far as regards A . Tod-J . MnUhns and C . Wigley , High Holborn , leather pipe-makers—E . A . _Bowker and G . Metcalf , Man-Chester , engravers—J . and T . Radcliffe , Stockport , commission agents—T . 0 . Dobson and C . Louie , Liverpool , ship-brokers—J . Mather and J . Briudlcy , Manchester ,
tobacco dealers—J . M . Kliroiihcim , J . Starving , w . Shepherd , and F . XV . Sutton , Earl-street , _Bluckfriavs , stereotvpe founders ; as far as regards . 1 . Skivvhig—G . Paccy and T . L . Gillott , Leicester , ironmongers—J . Bullcn and It . SpailU , Woi'mw-ood-streel , City , auctioneers—B . and T . Longton , Manchester , machine-makers— J . Cliaduick and A . Andrew , Manchester , warehousemen— . 1 . II . West and G , Ives , Hertford , brewers—Vf . Burnie and W . Dickson , London , merchants—J . Shuttleworth and J . Eastham , _lUackbuvn _, Lauca & hire , c « _al-dealuvft—lt . and . J . _Lw-Uwood , Crowfield , Suffolk , maltsters—J . Whittaker and C . B . Palmer , Swansea , commission agents—T . S . and W . P . Peters , Manchester , corn merchants—C . Fairweather and W . Mathews , jun ., Kirton-in-Lindsey , Lincolnshire , wine merchants—T . Hagger and If , Payne , Fulbourn , Cambridgeshire , grocers—L . Williams and XV . Watson , Birmingham , powder iiask manufacturers .
_MmM fn & ntenwfc
Uicnmosd Con>* Market, Feb. 8.—We Had A ...
UicnMOSD Con >* Market , Feb . 8 . —We had a very heaw market to-day of all kinds of grain . Wheat sold from os to Cs 6 d ; outs , 2 s to 3 s ; barley , 3 s Ou to 4 s ; beans , -la Od to oa ner bushel , Loxdon Conx Exchaxok , Monday , Feb . 10 . —The arrivals of English wheat and barley were tolerably good during the past week , and of oats the receipts liom onr own coast and Scotland werc also to a fair extent ; but the supply of the latter article from Ireland was rather small . Of beans and peas , about the usual weekly quantity came forward . __ The arrivals from abroad have , during the past eight days , consisted of a parcel of wheat from Launceston , and a few cargoes of barley and one small lot of oats from the north of Europe . At this morning ' s market
there was a very small show of wheat by _land-caiTiagc samples _fi-om _lissex , Kent , and Suffolk , less barley than of late , and only a moderate fresh supply of oats ; the , quantity of Scans offering was large , and of peas the display of samples was also good . The weather has been very severe for several days past , and this morning there was a heavy fall of snow . The English wheat being generally in good condition , was mostly cleared oft ; . hut no improvement on last Monday ' s currency could be established . Duty-paid foreign wheat was , on thc other hand , veiy difficult of disposal , holders declined however to accept less money , and the little business transacted was at former rates . In bonded wheat nothing whatever was done , and quotations continue perfectly nominal . Flour was taken in retail ouantvtics at previous prices . Less
anxiety , Avas manifested to press sales ot _barl' _-y , and though the inquiry was by no means lively the _dowivyard movement was checked , quotations remaining precisely the same as on tliis day se'nnight . -Malt moved off tardily , and barely supported its _i-revioiis value . Oats were held with firmness , and the s . igiit depression ef Friday was partly recovered , still thc dealers paid Monday ' s rates with some reluctance . Beans were , owing to thc large . supply , only partia . ly cleared off at previous prices . Peas were rathcrniore saleable than of late , and quite as dear . 1 he business done in clovcrseed was not important ; neither white nor ved was nvessmgly offered , and prices of both sorts were well maintained . Canaryseed was again cheaper . Linseed and _rapeseed sold at full terms , and spring tares were fully aB dear .
Uicnmosd Con>* Market, Feb. 8.—We Had A ...
CURRENT PRICES OF _GRAKf , PER _IUPERIai . QUARTER . —British . s s s g Wheat , Essex , it Kent , new ii old red 4 i _** > White 50 54 _> : orf .. i ! ' ami Lincoln . . . . < lo 43 46 Ditto 48 30 "Smthmn . and Scotch _whitei 2 | i 6 Fine 48 58 Irish red old 0 0 Red , 42 44 White 45 4 t Rvp Old . . . SI 3 ' - ' New 30 32 Brank 35 36 Bin-lev Grinding . . ' 2 ( 5 28 Distil . -29 31 Malt . 32 3 ? M-. lt * Brown .... Si 66 l' _*)> o 38 62 Ware 63 65 jit ' -ms Ticks old A * new 30 34- Harrow 83 S & Yigeon 38 4 * _l'eas _Gvev . . • 'i ' l _"* _Ml'l > ' * - _** 3 * _>' _-- ite 36 4 * Oats Lincolns & Yorkshire Feed 21 23 _Toland 23 25 ; Scotch ..... Angus 22 24 _I'otato 24 26 Irish _, ; ; White 80 22 Black 20 22 For ' JSOlb . net . * s I _1 _' er 280 lb . uet . s s Town-made _l- _'lonr ... 42 44 | _Norfolk < fc Stockton 33 34 Essex and Kent .... 34 35 | Irish -35 -IC Free . Bond
foreign . ' 8 s s b Wheat , Dantsic , Koiiiasbui'ar , & e ...... o' 2 60 ., 36 40 Murks , Mccklenbwvg _« 54 32 35 Danish , _llolstcin , and Frieslnndred 44 47 28 30 Russian , Hard 44 4 _( _i Soft ... 44 47 26 2 S Italian , Red . . US 50 White . . . SO 5 * . ' 30 32 Spanish , Hard , 4 G 00 Suit 48 52 . SO 7 . 2 Rye , _Vjaltic , Dried , . . . 30 32 L _' mlricd . . 31 ' 32 21 22 _I _' ui'h-y , Grinding . * . _'ii 2 ti . Malting . . 31 33 22 29 Beans , Ticks . . 30 34 Egvptian . 31 32 2 ( 5 30 l ' eas , White . . 3 ( 5 -38 _Jiaplo . . 33 34 23 30 Oats , Dutch , Bvew and Thick 24 25 10 21 — Russian feed , 21 22 15 16 Danish , Friesland feed 21 03 15 17 Flour , per barrel 25 27 ID 20 CORK AVER AGES . —General average prices of nritish
corn for the week ended Feb . 8 , IS 45 , made up from the _UetUVllS of tllC _InspOCtoi ' s hv i \ w different cities and towns in England and Wales , nerhiipurial quarter . Wheat .. 45 s 5 d I Oats .. 21 s 6 d I Beans .. 85 s id Barley .. 3 s Od | Rye .. 30 s Id ( Pease .. 35 s 7 il London * Smithfield Cattle Mahket , _Moxday _, _Fkb . 10 . — Since this day se ' _milglit , another large _httpwtatvo-a of foreign stock has taken place , it having consisted of IDS beasts and 205 sheep , into London , together with fifty oxen and cows , and ninety sheep at Hull , all from Holland ; forming a total import of not less than 510 head . Our readers will perceive that this is the largest arrival that has hecn reported during any week " since the new tariff has been in operation , " and completely justifies the observations which we offered tinder this head on Saturday last . As respects the quality of the beasts , there was nothing
_callinj _* - for particular observation , though there werc some really saleable animals amongst them ,- but in sheep there was a decided improvement , The ? hovf ol foreign stock here this . morning amounted to seventy beasts and 130 sheep . The former sold at from £ 12 to - £ 18 ; the latter 30 s . to 42 s . per head . With beasts from our own districts we were _toletably well , but not to say heavily supplied ; yet a slight falling off was noticed . in their general condition . Comparatively speaking the beef trade , arising in a great measure from the dead markets being _heavilv supplied with country meat , was in a very _sluggisa State , and last week ' s quotations were with difficulty supported . However , thc prinicst Scots found buyers at from 3 s . lOd . to 4 s ; per 81 b ., yet a clearance
was not effected . Thc bullock droves from Norfolk , Suffolk , Essex , and Cambridgeshire , were composed of 1400 Scots and homebreds , while from the northern grazing districts wc received 250 short-horns ; from the western and midland districts 600 ilerefords , runts , Devons , Ac . ; from other parts of _England 500 of various breeds ; and from Scotland 200 horned and polled Scots . The numbers of sheep were on the increase . Prime old downs with difficulty maintained their last week's prices : and all other breeds were 2 d . per Sib lower , with a heavy demand . Calves were in limited supply and steady inquiry , at late rates . Figs werc in request , and prices were again supported . There were on sale about 1500 shora sheep and 120 lambs .
By the quantities of Sib ,, sinking the Offal , s . d . 3 , d . Inferior coarse beasts ... 2 6 2 s Second quality 2 10 S 8 Prime large uxen . .. 3438 Prime Scots . & e 8 10 4 O Coarse inferior sheep . . , 2 8 2 It _Sueoiid quality . . . . 3 0 . 3 6 Prime coarse woolled . . . 3 8 8 111 Prime Southdown , . . . 4 0 _^ 4 i Large coarse calves .. . . . 4 4 5 2 I ' l-imc sn : all 0 4 5 8 _Sucklinu calves , each . . . 18 f 30 0 Large hogs 3 B i 0 Xe . it small porkers . . . 4 2 4 8 Quarter-old store pigs , each . . 16 0 20 0
HEAD OF CATTLE ON SALE . ( From thc Books ofthe Clerk of the Market . ) _lleasts , 3 , 104-Shccp , 30 , 540-Calves , 61-Pige , 320 . Smithfield Hay Market . —Coarse meadow hav , £ 3 10 s to £ 5 15 s ; useful ditto , £ 4 IGs to £ 5 4 s ; fine upland ditto , £ 0 5 s to £ 5 Ss ; clover hay , £ 410 s to £ 6 : bat straw , £ l-lCs to £ 118 s ; wheat straw , £ 118 s to £ 2 per load . A fair average supply and a steady demand , at the above quotations . "IViiiTECiiArEL . —Coarse meadow hay , £ 3 10 s to £ 4 15 s ; useful ditto , £ 4 . 10 s to £ 0 4 s ; fine upland ditto , £ 5 6 s to £ 0 8 s ; clover hay , £ 410 s to £ 6 ; oat straw , £ 116 s to £ 1 18 s ; wheat Straw , | £ l ISs to £ 2 per load . _Trude throughout firm , at full price . ' ; . Meat Markets . —Southall , Feu . 12 . —The supply of fat stock on sale this morning was seasonably
extensive . Generally speaking the demand ruled _inactive , at about last week ' s quotations . Beef , from 2 s 8 dto 4 s ; mutton , 2 s _10 dto 4 s 4 d ; veal , 4 s to 5 s ; and pork , 3 s Gd to 4 s 2 d per Slbs . Supply—Beasts , 45 ; sheep , 1 , 160 ; calves , 40 ; pigs , 54 . Romford , Fed . 12 . —With tho exception of prime calves and pigs being in good request , at full prices , the demand -was heavy , and previous rates were not supported : —Beef , from 2 s 8 d to 4 s ; mutton , 2 s ICd to 4 s 4 d ; veal , . Is 10 ( 1 to os id ; and pork , 3 s id to 4 ;? per 81 bs . Suckling calves , ISs to 29 s ; quarter old store pigs , IGs to 20 s ; aud milch cows , with their small calf " , £ 16 to £ 19 each . _Lehts , Feb . 12 . —Beef , from 2 s lOdtoSs ; mutton , 3 s to 4 s 4 d ; veal , 4 s 4 d to 5 s 4 d ; and pork , 3 s Gd to 4 s per 81 bs . A fair average supply , and a steady demand .
CoAh Mahekt . — . prices per ton at the close of themarket : —Adair ' s Main , 17 s ; Buddie ' s West Harfclev , IGs Gd ; Can ' s Hartley , 17 s ; Ellison Main , 15 s 6 ( 1 _; Holywell Main , 15 s Cd ; Morrison ' s Hartley _^ 15 s Cd j Nelson ' s West Hartley , IGs ( id ; Old Pontop , 17 s ; . _Oril's Rcdheugh , lfls Cd ; Old Tauficld , L 7 s Sd ; itavensworth West Hartley , IGs fid ; Tanfield Moor , 19 s Gd ; Townley , 16 sGd ; West Hartley , 17 s ; West Wylam , 10 s 9 d ; WyJam , 15 s 6 d ; W . E ., Clark and Co ., 16 s Gd ; Clonnell , 16 s 6 d ; Wliarncliffe , 18 s 3 d , * Belmont , 19 s Cd ; Braddyll _' s Hetton , 20 s Gd : _llaswell , 2 ls ; Hilton , 20 s Gd ; Lambton , 20 s Gd ; Lumlcy , 18 s 6 d ; North Hetton Lyons , 18 s 3 d ; l ' cmbcrton , ISs ; Richmond . 19 s ; Russell ' s Hetton , 20 . s 3 d : Stewart ' s 20 s Gil ; Caradoe , 20 s j Hough Hall , ISs 8 d ; Keiloe , 19 s 3 d ; 'Basingthorne , IPs . 6 d ; West Hartlepool , 17 s ; Adelaide , 20 s ; Cowndon Tecs , 18 s : Gordon , 16 s Gd ; South Durham , 18 s 3 d ; Richardson ' s Tecs , I 7 s Gd ; Tecs , 20 s ; Tenant ' s , 17 s Gd ; Gyndracth , 19 s ; Hartley , 10 s ( id ; Lowiss Merthyr , 21 s : Snapcthorpo , ISs ; Holywell , IGs . —Ships aJrived , 5 .
_Maxciiesteh Corn Makkkt , Satbmut , Fee . 8 . — Thc same want of activity has continued to characterise the . trade- since our last report as we have had . occasion to note for several weeks past . There has ,, however , been a fair trailing demand for Flour , and a moderate amount of business transacted for imme diate consumption ; but on middling and inferior kinds it has been necessary to submit to Gd . to ls . per sack decline , whilst the very choicest qualities of English and Irish have found buyers at the previous currency . Oats and oatmeal have been in limited request , and the former article was easier to buy . At our market this morning every description of wheat mc _$ a very limited inquiry , and all but thc runs were freely offered at a reduction of Id . to 2 d . per 701 bs-Flour was , likewise , a slow sale . The demand for oats was trivial , at a decline of Id . per 45 _lbs . ; but in the value of oatmeal no change can be reported , although there was but little business pausing . Beans continue dull of sale , at late rates .
LiVKRrooL Conx Market , _; Monday , > f . b . 10 . —We have this week had moderate anivals of grain , flour , and oatmeal ; the trade has at the same time been _, very inactive , and any change in prices has been in favour of the buyer . Thc finer qualities of Irish new wheat have brought the rates quoted on this day week , _bttttlviatjconuavy descriptions must be noted Id . per bushel lower . Oats have also receded Id to Id per bushel ; fine mealing were bought last Friday at 3 s Oid per 45 lbs . We do not alter the quotation for flour ; but oatmeal is Od per load cheaper , and each of these articles lias met a very dull sale . Fine English malting barley has been sold at 36 s per imperial quarter ; good grinding qualities of foreign at 4 s to 4 s 2 d per 60 lbs . Peaa are Is . per quarter cheaper , and both tliis article and beans nave met a slow demand .
Liverpool Cattle Markbt , Moxdav , Fbb 10 . — We have had a fair supply of cattle at market to-day . for this time of thc year . Prices remain about the same as of late , anything prime _Ictchhss good prices . Beef 5 _Jd to Gd ., mutton 6 id to CJd per lb . York Corn Market , Fed . 8 . —VY" 0 have little alteration to note in the value of any avtWle in the trade . The condition of everything is greatly improved , and millers , in consequence , arc more free , and inclined to get into stock , Barley is bad to quit , except the qivaIUv is fine . Oats and beans dull , but not lower . Leeds Conx Markkt , Tuesday , Feb . 11 . —The . _nirong frost which we have had for several days past offers some interruption to the supplies for this day ' - * market ; tho arrivals in consequence arc small , but wc have a good show of samples . __ Wheat is slow sal ** , at rather worse prices than on this day week , thc demand being of a very retail character . Fine barley does not maintain late rates , and common qualities ' are offering on still lower terms . No material chancre is ; tho value of oats , beans , or other articles .
Lekdh Cloth Markets . —Business at prcs' _-a _* - & rather less buoyant , and ' wiles are effected Inmost descriptions ot goods at a slight diminution hi price . Maltos Corx Market , Feb . 8 . —We have a eood supply of wheat , but moderate of other giain , offering to this day ' s market , but no alteration in the prices . Wheat , red , new 44 s to 438 ; white ditto , 48 s to 529 ; red ditto , old , 60 s to 52 s ; wJ _^ p _^ ko _^ _J _^ _as t < _$ _56 s per qr . of 40 stones .- Barle _* tttf _^ jb _^ _fe $ e > . _qr . _« _J 32 st , Oats , 9 } dto _lOid j _« _mK _^^>' 44 s to 488 ; white ditto , 48 s to . 52 s to 52 s ; wJ _^ _$ _3 _fcfcHJ 2 _s tq « jB 6 s p < _Barlext _^^ oMmiehqr . f _£ 32 # ¦» _TrW & i f
Northern Star (1837-1852), Feb. 15, 1845, page 7, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/ns3_15021845/page/7/