On this page
- Departments (4)
THE NORTHERN STAR. SATURDAY, JANUARY 24 ! 1841.
I&otttv* ^&fti»f^f »*
. . THOUGHTS TUB. THE THOUGHTFUL.
TO HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY THE QUEEN.
Note: This text has been automatically extracted via Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software. The text has not been manually corrected and should not be relied on to be an accurate representation of the item.
Note: This text has been automatically extracted via Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software. The text has not been manually corrected and should not be relied on to be an accurate representation of the item.
Additionally, when viewing full transcripts, extracted text may not be in the same order as the original document.
TEE CHARTER . WHE 3 thrones shall crumble tad moulder to dost , And sceptres shall fall bom the buds of the great , And all the rich b&niRes a Monarch might boast , piim . 1 l vanish before the good sense of a Btate ; When Lords ( produced by the mandate of Kings ) , >* oir proud and dominant , rampant with power , ShsR be spoken of only as by-gone things That shaJi blast this part of creation no more , Based firm npon troth , the Charter shall stand The land-mark of ages—sublimely grand . '
ipThen dass-disoncfaons shall "wither and die , And conscious merit shall modestly bear The earlands -wrought by its own-industry , The proper rewards cf labour and care ; yChsn man "h ^ l rise to his station as man , Jo passion or vice no longer a slave ; ¦ VOses the march of mind already begun , Shsfl gathering roll like avast mountain waTe , The darter shall stand the text of the fres , Of a cation ' s rights the sare guarantee . go Ion ? as tyrannic oppression is found To come as a blight o'er the face of the earth ; Jo spread its devastating influence round , And nip " patient merit" e'en in its birth ; So lose as ire see in meagre array , The demon 3 of want and misery and woe , In their direst forms stali forth at noon-day ,
Spreading h&voc and death m their tract as they go J The Charter shall shine the pole-star bright , The hope of these victims of " might against right " So long as Justice impartially spreads The savour sf truth o ' er discord and stitte ; So Ions as kindly benevolence sheds Her halo divine on tie dark path of life ; So long as the thrice-hallow'd sacred fires Of " love of comtry" burns in the breast ; So long as the impulse virtue inspires Shall lead to relieve and support the oppress ed ; So long shall the Charter be deeply engraVd On the high-beating hearts fef millions enslav'd ! Joseph RjlDfobd . Birmingham .
rSTOCATIOh" TO THE ilEMORT OF SIR WM ¦ WALLACE . t BT " ABGCS . " Hail ' purest gem , thy country ' 5 pride , Bail ! first on nature ' s roll ; Hail ! Scotland's land of heroes * guide , That led to freedom ' s goaL Hail ! patriot pure and undefiled , Hail ! "wisdom ' s favoured choice ; Eail ! justice , truth , and virtue ' s child , That still pars Scotia ' s hear : rejoice . Oh ! that the sympathetic tear Could blot the stain thy wrongs impart ; Oh , that thy spirit yet could cheer The gloom from Scotia ' s bursting heart . Thrice didst thou plant fair freedom ' s tree ,
Thrice did ' si thon rend the despot's chain , Thrice did thine arm thy country free , And yet her sons are slaves again : Oh , that thy courage still would meet Thy country ' s tyrants band to hand ; Then would thy dauntless spirit greet The myriads of thv father-land . '
EXTRACT FROM THE PLAT OF JOHX FROST . 5 CESE , A DUNGEON—FBOST £ EAPI > 'G . " Blessed are the merciful , for they Ehall obtain mercy . " Prom whom shall they obtain it . '—not from man . ' Man curses man ; cruel e ' en in his mercy . ile , merciful , they recommend to nitrcy , And what do I obtain ?—not that , nor justice . ' I sought for mercy for the suffring poor , And am condem'd for't—aye , for that I ' m sentene'd to be hanged , be drawn , and qnarter'd—My sevcr'd limbs to be disposed of—how . '
Sold , strewn , or cook'd , as pleases our good Queen To pixy poor men ' s woes is treason now . The loyal laagh at them , are thmk'd and knighted . God , ihou art merciful' have merer on me ; On those who have more need of it than I , Because they ' re none on-me , nor on the poor . Oh , Goi 1 if 'tis expedient one man perish For thy poor people ' s sake , I'll be that man : If I hav * erred , twas -vrith no feaJ intent ; But strictest judgment they have dealt on me . Oh may my deatk atone my sics in life . Oh , >!« " my prayer , Oh God : and pardon me .
EXIE 2 JA 1 L 0 S . Jailor—Her Majesty most graciously has mercy—She will not hang you , but transport yon , Sir . Pros : —Transport me . ' I'd rather die—I'd rather far be hanj'd . Jar or—At yoirr pleasure , Sir ; Bat you -wi . 11 be transported . Sir—not hang'd . 1 thought you would have Lied to h-rar it . Sir . Ifixit jailor . ] Frost ; solns>—Transported : —' tis to drag on death alive . Such merer is the worst of cn&lir . The Sends alone can call it mercy . Oh , ' tis sanioHie ! transport ; aye , indeed . ' Transport in penal flames : —transported , ha :
They'll next call hell , —heaxeu—aerils , too . They'll christen angels—so , indeed , they are , Compsrd with th * 3 e who mak . e their hell of England . Ala- ; for me ;—what shall a good man do ' : Tice reigns on earth and virtus is her victim . They seiz'd me , immured ms—the very priests , That pray God's pity on poor prisoners , Made me a prisoner—was't to pray for me ? I was betray'd by mine own counsellors , And men , I saved , witne&s'd a ^ iiust ma falsely , < Jondenm'd their friend to shambles to be slaughtered More like a bnast for market than a man . And cow Victoria ' s mercy for me is" What ' : —banishment xa earth ' s remotest bounds , Par out of hearing of redress , or
pity—There to be chain'd with felons "neath the sun , A keeper o ' er me with a whip of wire , And ¦ when I eroan ¦ with unhabitual toil , Or faint with " thirst , and huiiger , or disease , To have the whip scourge off my blistered skin , And fee worse tortor'd for my cries and shrieks . Nay . when worn nature sinks in torpid sleep , And dreams of former life stir thoughts of home , To be aw&k'd and goaded to my doom , — I whose whole course of life hath run contrary , So that my fate will make itself moTe felt . I to Epeni life ' s latter days thus , —thus tameless , It is too dreadful for ay mind to bear , How can ay body then ?—it most aot be : They canao : meaa it , sure—3 moment
so—Tf ith such companions and such overseers , In such su irrctpensive wilderness , Where man is amhoriz'd to torture man , And so exults in his most savage p ^ wer That wildest beasts grow tame and lose their terrors Compsr'd with him , ann'd with his racking engines , A moment of such life were lite whole years . And must I go with memory and sp ^ ud The las : gr ^ y remnant of my being thus ? I shall go mad , or worse , become a £ etd—And this they call their mercy—royal mercy ! Be merciful , indeed , and give me dtath—Oh , Is : me die "while yet 1 am a : iian—Give m = sc : ns chance of leav . ng earth for heaven , JW
( From the Chartist Circular . J " Of all that is pernicious in admiration , the admiration of heroes is the mos ; pernicious ; and how delusion should hare made us admire what virtue should teach us to hare and loathe , is among the saddest evidences of hnman weakness and folly . The crimes of heroes seem lost in toe vastness of the field they occupy : a lively ides of the ;_ ischief they doof the misery they create—seldom penetrates the mind through the delusions with vrhicn thoughtlessness and falsehood have surrouEded their names and deeds . Is h that the m&iOiicuvie of the evil is too gigantic for entrance ? We read of twenty thousand men killed in a battle , with no oiher feelings than
that " it was a giorious victory . " Twenty thousand , or ten thousand , waai reck we of their sufferings \ The hosts who peri-hed are evidences of the completeness of the triumph , and the completeness of the triumph is the increase of merit , and the giory of tie conqueror . Our schoolmasters , and the immoral books tbej hare so often put into our hands , have inspired us with an affection for heroes , and the hero is more heroic in proportion to the number of the slain ; add a cypher—noi one iota is added to our disapprobation . " Four or two figures give us no more sentiments of pain than one Rgire , while they add
marvellously to the grandeur and splendour of our ¦ victor . Let us draw forth oi ; e individual from those thousands , or tens of thousands : —his leg has been Ehivered by one ball , hi = jaw broken by another , he is bathed in his own blood and that of his fellowsyet be lives , tor tured by thirst , fainting , famishing . He is but one of the twenty thousand—one of the actors and sufferers in the scene of the hero ' s glory and of the twenty thousand there is scarcely one whose suffering or death will not be the centre of a circle of misery . Look again , admirers of that hero —4 s not this wretchedness ! Because it is repeated ten , ten hundred , ten thousand limes , is not this wretchedness V '—Bentham .
* Of the three reigning monarchs of Europe to whom I have now been presented , there is not one whose natural dignity and personal fitness for his station hare impressed me , in any degree , like that of our own Tenerable President . I hare approached tie former through guards and masters of ceremony , with all the splendid paraphernalia of palaces around , themselves in the imposing dress of monarchs , standing in the sanctuaries of nistory and association . I alted npon the latter without even sending up my
name , introduced by the son of one of his friends , in the scarce-finished government-house of a new re public , and found him in the midst of his family , hardly recovered from & severe illness . The circumstances were » U in favour of the former , but I think the most bigot ted follower of kings wouid find something in the simple manners and stern dignity » f the grey old *• chieftain "* that would impress him far more than the state of all the monarchs of Christendom . "— Willis's PencUlings by the Way . " A commercial crisis strikes first and heaviest on those who are the least prepared to meet it ; that ib , on the" poorest class of the operatives . It is obvious that a proportionate reduction of wages is a measure very unequal in its pressure : take one-fifth from the man earning 5 s . a-day , aud from the man earning Is . a-day , the former only loses some comforts , while Tt&mf * tntTftffnrtAfi Ttiv ill a onn nt t \ rttk nt \\\ a "frianf 1 a _ tti
the latter is reduced to absolute destitution . But reductions have not even the fairness of proportion ; when mills work half-time , or when their operations are suspended fora season , masters generally endeavour to find employment for their more skilful operatives , in order to secure their services lor better times . It is on the hewers of wood and drawers of water that the calamity comes , and , as in the best of days , they only earn a bare sufficiency for support : reduction is , ip them , another name for ruin . The same observation is applicable to an increase in the price of provisions ; it rails with its worst severity on those who have the lowest rate of wages . The difference of Id . or 2 d . in the price of a loaf will cot be a great deal to a man who is earning £ 3 or £ 4 per week , but to a man who does not gain doubie that number of shillings , it becomes a partial prohibition of necessary food . "—Athenceum .
" It is a mistake to think our tuft-bunting wealthy merchants and manufacturers , whose only ambition is to dine at a nobleman's table , or our supple shopkeepers , who would sell their souls to Satan for one customer more , will ever achieve the recognition of the'rights of their order . " The privileged classes must trample us into asserters of equality . "—Taifs Magazine . " We should defer our cavill ' iDg about niceties till the great battle against usurpation and the general oppressor has been fully won . ' '—Godtrin . * "General Jackson .
^ ~~ MEANS OF EFFECTING A BLOODLESS REVOLUTION . All Iaw 3 for the benefit of only a particular class , to the nation ' s detriment , such as Corn Laws , Game Laws , tec , should be repealed ; all Monopolies destroyed : Entails prohibited : allotments of the Crown land * , of Church iands , and of the vast tracts of waste } aud throughout the country , should be given in freehold to all whose incomes are below the sum sufficient to provide a comfortable subsistence ; accumulation of wealth restricted to a certain amount . These enactments would prevent thelexcess of misery necessarily the consequence of partial laws , the concomitant of inordinate accumulation . Meanwhile , the moral elevation of the community steadily progressing , the temptation to acquire a selfish gain at
the expence of another s loss would be more easily resisted ; the crime would be thought greater ; and encouragement bein ? given by the government to the experiments of Socialists and other endeavours to de-a-ch men from the present baneful thraldom of Commercial Competition ; trada , left free and untrammelled , aidiDg in the work of its own ruin ; the day would not be far distant , which would see so great a revolution in the minds of men , that public opinion would command Government to adopt measure ^ for insuring the best bestowal of universal cooperation—the desire of selfishly hoarding passing away at the prospect of the vast advantages proved possible and easy of attainment under a system of universal union .
All these beneficial measures might be accomplished , * withont , at any time , causing to individuals anything like the amount of suffering now daily endured , and inevitably to be endured , so long as the present disarrangement of society shall continue . Few of the present geueration wonld suffer from the change , while millions might be immediately benefiued ; our children would pass through the transition siate yet more easily , having the advantages of an education far superior to the training hitherto received-by any , much of outward opposing prejudice circumaiaiice being also cleared away , so that
their way would be smoothed before them ; and our chidren ' s children might possess their father-land in peace and happiness , a . ? brothers , aiding each other in the work of progression toward the fulfilment of man's high destiny—speeding the acvent of that day - " When every transfer of earth's natural gifts Shall be a commerce of good words and works ; When poverty and wealth , the thirst of fame , The fear of infamy , disease and woe , War with its milli-jn horrors , and fierce hell Shall live but in the memory of Time ; Who , like a penitent libertine , shall star t , Lv > ck back , and shudder at his younger years . " The Xaiioital .
HUMAN MADNESS AND MISERY . Mourn ! for the din of labour hath ceased , and the workman ' s hand forgets its cunning ; ihe spider builds securely in the idle loom , the ploughshare lieth f .-ozen in the furrow . Industry sneth for employmentthere is none ; his heart sickens ; with clasped hands and tear-suffased eyes , he flmgeth himself at the footstool of lirsury—Give me bread!—the pampered slave sparneth back the unwelcome suppliant ; the haad of Power gripes the throat of the dying one , and hurleih him to the bottom of a dungeon . There is neir ime . 'ike poverty .
Mourn ! for the husband and father is torn from his family , the son from his widowed ^ mother , the brother from his sister , the lever from his betrothed bride : they mu > t leave them destitute and friendless ; they mustJeave them to perish iu want , or to pine in misery and sorrow—and for what 1 To murder their fellojv-men , or with their own blood to manure the field of slaughter ; to dishonour and insult tne Eternal Spirit oi Peace , at the bidding of—a king . The fate of the nations is weighed ; the balance is in the hand of an laiot : in the one scale lies the hopes and happiuess cf a vast empire ; the idiot S : ngs hjs / olly in : o the opposing scale , and the destinies of millions kick the beam .
j Mo' . rn ! for the biood of man is poured upon the j altar of God : human ficsh is seething in the caui-1 dron ; tne priest thrusts in the fleshhook and seize ? j his portion of the sacrifice;—whose shall be the rej maicder 1 I : is a burnt offcriigfor the God or' Loye . I Human bones are heaped before the gates of the ! sanctuary ; on the summit of the pile thres seats are j placed : who are they who sit ihereon I j Know ye no : the dark shade of Ignorance , with | sightless-eyeballs and hands tieJ behind his back , j his feet resting upon a massive book bound with | strong iron clasps 1 I Pnesicraft and Tyranny have joined hands . ! Smite the oppressors to the earth ! ] Robbery sitreth in the high places ; murder hath i usurped the throne of honour .
j Wisdom crieth in the streets ; but her voice is ! drowned in the jests of the tnfler , in the scurrility of the iool : ! There is a ' jyeword in the mouth of man , a term j of dension and reproach , a stumbling-stone and rock , of offence : that word is TRUTH . —The National . [ r ¦ -
The Car Drives- — " A few characteristic anecdote ? of the £ enu = may amuse our readers . Some one lelh a story of a lfilow who , on grumbling at the shilling gratuity at his journey's e : sd , said in a sly undertone , ' Faith , it ' s not putting me off with this ye ' e be , if you kuew but ail . ' The traveller ' s eurkf = ity was excited . 'What do you mean ; ' 'Oh , faiz . ' ihar ' ud be telling . Another shUlin ^ was tendered . ' And now , ' asked tne gentleman , ' what do you mean by saying if you kuew but all V ' That I druv yer honnur tne last three miles without a lineh-pm '' \ Ye had ourselves once a touching application for the string ol our cloak ' to tie up a small bit of the harness that was broke up into smnhereens from the weisrhi of the hih . ' ' Will 1
pay the pike or drive at it , pla .-e yer houour ! ' wa ? the exc- ' amation of a driver to his passenger , as he stiddtniy mow up a Jew yards from the turnpike gate . Oae of the richest characters ol the class , we encountered on the road irom Ross to Wtxord ; be told us how he got his first situation : — 'The mafther had two beautiful English horse ? , and he wanted a careful man to drive them ; he was a mighty pleasant gintleman , aud loved a joke . Well , there was as mauy as fifieeu afther the pla . ee , and jhe first that went up to him , " Now , my man , " says he , " tell me , '' says he , " how near the edge a precipice would you undertake to drive my carriage f " So the boy considered , and he says , gays he , "Within a foot piase yuur honour , aud no harm . "
" Very well , " says he , go down , and l'ii give ye yer answer by-and-by . " bo the next came up , and said he'd be boaad to carry ' em within half a foot ; and the- next said five inches ; and another—a dandyfied chap intireiy—was so mighty nice , that he would drive it within " three inches and a half , he'd go bail . " Weil , at last my turn came , and when his honour axed me how nigh I would drive his carnage to a precipice , I said , says I , " Plaze yer honour , I'd keep as far off it as 1 could" " Very well , Misther Byrne , " says he , " you'r my coachman , " says he . Och , the roar there was in the kitchen whin I wint down and tould the joke !"
When Mr . V , the Assistant Poor Law Commissioner , fir 3 t visited Cork , the coach by which he arrived set him down next door to the Imperial Hotel—his place of destination . Not being aware of this fact , he ordered a car , and gave his direction to the driver . The fellow conductea him round the town , ' and through various sweets and lanes , and , after an hour ' s driving , placed him at the hotel entrance ^ demanding and receiving a sum of five shillings , which his victim considered a reasonable charge . A f « w minutes afterwards he discovered the trick that bad been played upon him . —Ireland : its Scenery , Character , S [ c . by Mr . end Mn . S , C Hall . A > 2 .
The United States mint , is engaged in coining a new dollar . It is of smaller diameter , and consequently more convenient than the Spanish coin , and is altogether better executed . It may not be generally known that , three years ago , a new die waa got np , the coins from which looked so bad that it was broken . The atehage value of the annual produce of the mines of the British Islands amounts to the enormous sum of £ 20 , 000 , 000 , of which about £ 8 , 000 , 000 arise from iron , and £ 9 , 000 , 000 from coal . Tie mineral produce of Cornwall and Deyon alone haa recently amounted to £ 1 , 340 , 000 . In this estimate the value of the copper is taken in the ore before fusion ; and that of the iron , lead , zinc , tin , and silver , after fusion , in their first marketable condition—as pigfl , blacks , and ingots—the coal is valued at the pic's mouth . Trni TTiTFwn Mva * r > q minr ? a antroa ^ A £ ** * . r * Z ~* l ~*»
Admiral Tchitchakoff , who commanded a division of the Riissiau army when Napoleon invaded Russia , has recently taken up j his residence at Brighton . ' Adhesive Labels . —It cannot be too generally known , that the very numerous cases of cancer which have lately prevailed are attributed by the faculty and scientific men to moistening the adhesive postage stamps with the tongue or lips . A little new milk is much preferable , and also causes them to stick faster , particularly on glazed and smooth letter paper . — Correspondent of the Liverpool Mercury ,
Quees Elizabeth's Wedding Dress . —March of Intellect . —At a shop in Wardour-street , Oxfordstreet , London , is an old silk dress , rather quaintly embroidered , exhibited at the window . A paper is attached to it on which is written— " This dress more by Queen Elizabeth on occasion of her marriage , oaly £ 13 liis . N . B . Amient dresses broghc to aney amount . " The " learned clerke" fails to inform us in what year the marriage of th& ' Virgin Queen" took place . A Machine has been invented at Manchester that
will ' braid a gross of whips in a day . " This flogs all that has hitherto been known in whip work . We do not see how the enlarged supply is to be disposed of , unless the demand for whips be very much increased . With the growing outcry agaiust flogging this does not seem very probable , except the Poor Law Commissioners should be disposed to introduce the whipping system into union workhouses . A large order for " cat-o' -nine tails"from each Commissionee , would doubtless give a pleasing stimulus to this branch of manufacture .
" Black Bottle Cardigan had a palatable proof of the disgust his arbitrary temper has excited , at the concerts d'Hiver , Drury-lane , on Tuesday evening . Beiug pointed out in a private box , he had the felicity of being so heartily hissed by the audience , that even he , case-hardened as he is to demonstrations of dislike , could not stand it , but was ultimately obliged to make what is vulgarly termed ' * a bolt . " Those much-abided persons , the Poor Law Commissioners , have lately taken upon themselves the benevolent offices of inquiring into alleged cases of pauper ill-usage and starvation ; and have eveu gone so far as to censure and dismiss certain functionaries connected with the administration of the new law . Although this course of proceeding seems very like Satan reproving sm , we do not obje .-t to their occasionally appearing in the character of
redressers of wrong . There is novelty in the thing , if nothing else ; and people have been so much in the habit of regarding the Somerset-house functionaries a 3 incarnations of inhumanity aud oppression , that any change must be necet-sarily for the best . The pauper-oppre 3 sing officials connected with workhouses are , we dare say , much mure astonished than delighted to find their superiors acting a new part ; and , as for paupers themselves , they must be surprised beyond measure to see the Commissioners interfering on their behalf . Neither paupers nor workhouse-keepers , however , have much cause to be frighitned : tee humanity of the Commissioners will lead them to no very alarming lengths ; they are merely too capricious to be always cruel ; there 13 no fear of their trying to establish a character for kindness to the poor , by persisting in what to them must be extremely strange and disagreeable .
A toung female , only 20 , the daughter of a ptrson attached to the Conservatoire de Musique , was engaged to a young man , and was to be married to him about a month ago . Before the day fixed , he was arrested upon an accusation of forgery , and is still in prison awaiting his trial . Two days ago , the young woman not having quitted her room at a late hour , her family went to call her , Tne door was fastened , and , on its being Jorced open , she was found dead on her bed , dressed iu her bridal robes , with the virginal crown ou her head . In the room was a letter addressed to her intended bridegroom , declaring that , as her union with him had become impossible , she was resolved never to be married to another , and therefore would put an end to her existence . She had suffocated herself with charcoal . —Ga'wnani ' s Messenger .
Baptism bv Immersion . —A numerous assemblage of the parishioners was attracted to St . Mary ' d Church , Reading , a few days sincp , to witness the uuvel and ( in that town ) unprecedented ceremony of a young lady , the daughter of highly respectable parents of the Baptist denomination , being received within the pate of the Church of England , by public immersion . The ceremony , which was performed by the R = v . C . J . Goodhart , the Vicar , was witnessed by the numbers who were present with the most profound attention . The whole of the service for '' the ministration of Baptism to such as are of riper years , and able to answer for themselves , " was read by the Tiev . Gentleman who officiated . The immersion took place in the Coley Chantrey of the Church , where a large viesel was placed for the recipient , filled with water partially warmed . The ceremony , which took place at rhree o ' clock in the afternoon , occupied nearly an huur .
A few nights ago , a quarrel having arisen betweeu an IialiaD , who is a b . auking-ma ^ it ' ucturcr , in the Rue rt'Aligre , and his wife , the latter , after having been beaten , was thrust inio the street by her brutal husbaud , and told not to attempt to return . In this situation she wassem by a journeyman cabinet-maker ^ named Siller , who , knowing her , humauely invited her to pass the night at the bouse of his mother . Whilst he was talking with her , he was overheard by eight men belonging to the class or disr-ipated workmen who haunt the barriers , and
told to surrender the woman to them . This he refused to do ; afld , notvrithsiauding the number of his assailants , protected the woman , until ie was so severely beaten that he could uo longer resist . The ruffians left him for dead . He was picked up in the morning early by some persons going to market , aud conveyed to the Hotel Deu , where it was ascertained that , iu addition to other injuries , his jaw had been broken . He died in a few hours . The pohce have succeeded iu tracing and apprehending six of his assailants .
Coroners Invests . —Shocking Death from Starvation . —Recently , an inquest was held at the King ' s Arms public-house , Sun Tavern-field ? , in the parish of St . George in the East , before Mr . Baker , the coroner , on view of the body of John Auger , ased 58 years , who came by his death under the following shocking circumstances : —Esther Hanns stated that on the day before , between the hours of nine aud ten o ' clock , she called at the house of Mr . Engleton , No . 2 , Phillip-street , St . George ' s , where the deceased lodged , and took a cup of coffee up stairs to him . He was in bed at the time , and did not complain of being ill , but said lio would get up and have his coffee . She then left him , and went up to his room a second time in about an hour
afterwards , when she fouud him lyiDg as she had left him , but quite dead . She , witness , instantly gave au alarm , and Mr . Gurney , a surgeon in the neighbourhood , was called in , but he was past remedy . Witness had not perceived any marks of violence about the deceased , nor was she at all aware of his having taken anything to destroy life , nor that any person had injured him in any way . Mrs . Engletoii deposed that the deceased had lodged at her house about a year and five months , and generally enjoyed a # ood state of health , but latterly had complained of being poorly . He was a basket-maker by trade ^ but did very little at it , and existed principally by his pension . The witness , after corroborating the latter part of the
testimony of Mrs . Hanns , ? aid that the deceased was exceedingly ecceutric and filthy in his manner , and would seldom admit any person into his room . He was also a great drunkard . Mr . John Gurney , a member of the Society of Friends , and surg < on , on his solemn affirmation stated that he had been called ou the morning before to attend thedectased . and , on KOing to his lodging , he found him iquite dead , and he appeared to have been so about ten minutes . On examining the body , he found it in a most filthy state , aud literally covered with vermin of an uuusual and almost incredible size , and it was bis impression , nay , conviction , that he died of starvation . Juror—Is it your present opinion that the deceased died of starvation ? Mr . Gurney—leave no hesitation in saying that his death has arisen from destitution . It appears that when he received his pension , which was £ 20 a year , he almost immediately drank
it out , and from that time until the next payment became due , was left without a single halfpenny , and perfectly destitute . In reply to a question from the Coroner , Mr . Gurney said he was not aware , from his own knowledge , nor had he beard it from anybody , that the deceased had applied for parochial relief . The Coroner , in summing up the evidence , remarked that tbe case was one of those which not unfrequently came under his notice , wherein the deceased persons were alone to blame , as the wretchedness which led to their deaths was brought on solely by their own improvidence . There could be no doubt that the wretched state of the deceased had , at least , accelerated his death , and as there waa no direct evidence before the jury as to the precise eause of death , he thought their safer course wonld be to return a verdict that the deceased was found dead in the wretched state described by the surgeon . The jury concurred in this ftuggeatiou , and returned a verdic * icoordingly .
An old soldier , who had fought in the famous battle of Fontenoy , died near Perigneux , a few days since , aged 117 . His wife , who survives him , is 98 . Wisbech . —On Sunday last , a female , named Maria Tate , daughter of Captain Tate , of Wisbech , took a quantity of arsenic , and , after lingering for several houra in great agony , confessed to her friends that she had taken poison . Every means waa used to save her life , but to no purpose : Bhe died on Monday , in great suffering . It is supposed that she took the poison owing to disappointment in a love affair .-1- Stamford Mercury . *_ . n ^_*_ * * . . - .
Serious Affray m Jersey . —The Jersey papers received yesterday bring an account of an affray between soldiers of the garrison and civilians : —" A serious affray , which is likely to lead to very disagreeable consequences , took place ori Thursday evening , between several soldiers of the garrison an 3 some public officers and other citizens of Jersey . It appears that two police-officers were in search of a man suspected of having fathered an illegitimate child On the parish of St . Helier ; two soldiers attempted to enter the room where the ofiicers were . The centenier would , not allow the soldiers to enter the room and interfere with his duty . A struggle ensued , and one of the police-officers received some severe blows . The soldiers were , however , mastered and ejected from the room . A rumour , however , spread in the town that some of the police had been murdered in George Street . Mr . Alexander , a most active police-officeraccompanied
, by Mr . Le Neveu , hastened to Mr . Lloyd ' s , to render assistance if necessary , but before they reached the house , from 20 to 30 soldiers were seen rushing from the esplanade towards the house . In one moment they were on Mr . Alexander and Mr . Le Neveu , when Mr . Alexander wassuddenly felled to the ground and beaten about the head with his own htaff . Mr Le Neveu went to the assistance of his friend . One of tho assailants cried out , " Draw , bayonets ! " The order was obeyed ; Mr . Le Neveu was wounded and struck to the ground , bathed in his blood . Mr . Alexander ' s head was cut in four places . The court of inquiry has not yet closed its proceedings ; the members are stiLt collecting evidence . In the meantime , we are happy to say that measures have been adopted to prevent the recurrence of a collision between the soldiers and the civil authorities . At one moment it was expeoted that the whole garrison were about to rush on the centenier and his officers .
The Chartists . —Does a Chartist marry two wives , it is particularly noted that he is a Chartist ; scores of Professors of the Church of England , or of certain Dissenting bodies , and professing the ordinary run of political opinions , may commit the same offence , and no persons think it worth while to record what is their faith , either religious or political . The same fact is true of all other offences . If a Chartist n « ts drunk , or steals , or breaks open letter ? , or commits forgery , it ia carefully chronicled that he is a Chartist , and the offence is imputed to Chartism . Such a mode of proceeding is improper , and we are sure that it would tell much against the
Church were every offender who professes its creed to be set down as a Churchman , and were his offence , as is done with Chartism , to be traced to its religion . But while the Chartists alone are exposed to such observations , it follows that much more is expected of them than of other men . They are to be more virtuoas than their neighbours , and set them a good example . This has always been the case with rising sects , both in religion and politics , aud the professors of Chartism will probably bear it in mind , and commit no moral offences which may be torturtured into reflecting disgrace ou their political creed . —Sun .
" The Robbers at Rome , " says a correspondent of the Leipdc Gazette , " hare adopted a new mode of attack . Instead of assailing solitary persons in the streets , they lay in wait tor them on the staircases of their houses . Three persons have thus been surprised and wounded in one of the most populous parts of the city , and upwards of 16 similar assaults have been made with incredible audacity in another mueh-irequented quarter . The young Marquis de Capegna was attacked a few nights since in his own palace by tour men , and , as ho defended himself , was killed . Some of those outrages are said to have been committed ia open day . "
A Bishop Disgraced . —I had an account on Thursday of the judgment that was given that day at Lambeth , when a sentence # f deprivation wa 3 pronounced against the Bishop of St . Da , vid ' s , upon three heads ; simony , extortion in taking exorbitant fees for his instruments , and giving certificates to persons of their having taktn the oaths when they had not , which in the canon law is called forgery He is , besides , condemned to pay about X 7 « 0 for costs . — James ' s Court and times of William III .
The Northern Star. Saturday, January 24 ! 1841.
THE NORTHERN STAR . SATURDAY , JANUARY 24 ! 1841 .
THE FIRST PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT . It is a peculiar and ominous sign of the age that many of the first English journals have lately been discussing , in their leading articles , the origin , theory , and framework of governments . The Times , the Herald , the Morning Chronicle , the Sun , and others , have respectively advanced their opinions on the comparative merits of a monarchy and of a republic . What dot's this fact prove ? That there is a
restless anxiety , a dissatisfied and discontented feeling , in the public mini , which , on the one hand , has set afloat arguments in favour of a pure democracy ; and , on the other , has made its opponents on the alert with their reasons 'to the contrary : it shows that the spirit of inquiry and of discussion is abroad ; that men must be satisfied as to the grounds of tha institutions by which their Ii 7 es are influenced , ani that they will no longer be led blindfold in supine listlijssness and degrading ignorance .
The truth i ^ , that opinion is strongly excited with regard to the different modes of government . It cannot be denied that there is a strong tendency to republicanism throughout Europe and America ; the reverential awo once felt for monarchical rule is gradually fading away ; the connection between the aristocracy and the people every day becomes weaker and weaker ; the democracy of every civilised country is gaining a giant ' s strength ; it has rapidly progressed in intellectual , moral , social , and political power , while the laws , the maxims of rulers , aud the miuds of , the titled orders , hare not kept pace with this advancement .
Free and liberal sentiments have by degrees mstilied themselves into the public character , and have at length taken so ' firm ahold that they can never be shaken off . During the reign of Elizabeth , and previous to that period , we fiud thewhole nation generally ina dangerous and apathetic slavery ; all bowed their necks to the yoke without a murmur ; the will of the Sovereign was law and no one thought of questioning the right divine , the prerogative , aud the authority of kings . The stand made against oppression , embodied as it was in the person of Charles I ., was the
commencement of a continuous opposition to this state of things ; the nation conquered , the monarch fell , and it began to be known that even a crown , and what is more , the head inside it , may be rolled in the dust by the justice of the sovereign people . Again , however , the country slumbered ; s& length , once more awaking , it drove James II , from his throne . Since that period Britain has chiefly been the spectator of events in other lands , and by the light of experience and the progress of knowledge , has been
forming that new and powerful spirit which now exists . The French Revolution was a tremendous lesson 1 It spoke audibly to the hearts of kings aud people ; it shook monarohy to its foundation ; the pillars tottered , they did not fall throughout Europe , but they have never regained their strength and security . The effects of that awiul appeal to a nation ' s will live , and must live for centuries ; they influence and colour the political aspect of every state .
For years , also , we have been regarding the workings of the American Republic ; until the present time , it was not sufficiently established to form a sound practical basis for the support of theory , or to afford a safe and trustworthy guide for others . Now , however , it may be fairly adduced ad a ground for argument , either one way or the other , as the party may conscientiously believe to be the truth from a calm and unprejudiced
re . These considerations plainly account for the present discussions and inquiries , and they trace with certainty the growth and formation of opinion . Long oppression has raised up patriots ; patriots have instilled their noble aspirations into the minds of their countrymen ; their countrymen have profited by the lesson , and become imbued with high and generous principles . We must confess that we are not pleased with the mode adopted by our contemporaries of arguing the
important question of government ; the friends to monarchy bring forward a sentence from Aristotle (!) to the effect that a democracy is the worst of all governments , and they add ¦ extracts from the work of M . de TocquEviLtE , decrying the American Republic ; their opponents generally answer them by a verbal quibble on the signification of democracy in the time of Aristotle , and deny the premises a » well as the conclusions of M . de Tocqueviixe . -. ' _ _
We would regard the sabjeofc in » more general and useful form , by the light of reason and experience , hanging our faith on the individual opinion of neither this person nor that . From one principle alone , we feel convinced , may be deduced every rational and true proposition relating toV democratic government—and that principle is : — " The people are the source of all pwer . " Is this assertioa well founded 1 Let us try it by the common , yet excellent , hypothesis of a transition from a state of nature to a state of society . Men
first unite together for protection and mutual advantage ; they feel the necessity of having some h ? ad , or leader , to controul the vicious and reward the meritorious ; they , therefore , by the general voice , and for the general good , invest one or more of their fellow-beings with superior authority ; these persons , thus privileged , may admit others to their councils , and to a share in their power ; but yet this alters not the Bource of that power ; it must , if traced up , be found to spring originally from the people , the publio , the nation at large .
From the establishment of the above truth flow many valuable maxima . Firat . All who are affected by this power are entitled to a voice in its creation Thi 3 assertion , so strongly supported by reason and common sense , receives additional strength from the supposition , on which we are proceeding ; for , how can we conceive a body of men , just associated from a state of wild nature , all equal , all free , delegating a power to one individual above the rest , for the government of all , without at the same time believing that he was nominated and elected by all . To aver the contrary would be absurd and contradictory to that self-interest which reigns so powerfully in the human mind .
Secondly . Power springing from the people must be responsible to the people . In other words , the channels must be referrable to their source . We cannot fancy that any men would be such fools , and so blind to their own advantage , as to dolegate unlimited and irresponsible authority to any individual as to say , " Cut off our heads , spoil our property , ruiu the country ; we give all into your hands ; we throw ourselves upon your generous mercy ; we reserve no license of revocation to ourselves . " The Crown , the Ministers , and the Parliament , are all trustees for the nation ; they have peculiar privileges delegated for the sake of the prosperity of the country , not for their own sakes .
Thirdly . Any power exerted to the disadvantage and detriment of the country at large is illegal , and without any authority . The people do not confer strength for their own injury , but for their own good ; they do not furuish weapons for their own destruction , but implements for their preservation ; they limit the power of their rulers to the wants of the ruled ; they bestow it for the general prosperity , and , therefore , there is no power delegated for injury and injustice . Many more important corollaries might be deduced , but these are sufficient for our present subject . Well , then , what government
approaches most nearly to these necessary qualities of a free constitution ? Under the now existing forms we have no hesitation in giving the palm to a republic ; but if our constitution , in its mixed monarchical form , were to bo rendered sufficiently democratic ; if every member of the State had a voice in its publio affairs ; if Universal Suffrage prevailed , and the whole people were , in truth , recognised as the legitimate source of all power , then we believe the requisite advantages would follow , that their delegates would bo responsible to the nation at large , and exert their powers , thus bestowed , for the good of the whole community .
Let the whole country ; let every class then be assured of this , that in the present age and the present character and opinion of the nation , the only means of avoiding a republic is by infusing the true spirit of rational democracy into our constitution , and giving to every Briton his rights as a human being , and his privileges as a freeman .
Madam , —In the conclusion of my last address , I was insensibly wrapt into the visions of the future . I found myself standing upon the elevated mountain of prophecy ; ami , in the glorious prospect of the future happiness and prosperity of my race , I lost , for the time , all consciousness of the great and terrible wilderness through which we must take our weary journey before we can rationally hope to find ourselves the favoured citizens of the land of promise . From this delightful
vision we must now descend into the vale . Let us do so , however , animated with the assurance that the scene we have been contemplating is not a mere chimera or f reak of the imagination , but a sober reality which shall speedily burst forth into actual life , when man in the complex shall learn to co-operate willingly with the benevolent designs of his Creator , and to sacrifice his infernal selfishness , consuming it to ashes in the fire of benevolence , "while , with a tnfly expanded mind ^ he recognises in every human being , Without distinction of country , class , or party , a brother and a friend .
We have already seen that man is not now what he originally was ; and that in every stage of his being , as a citizen of the world , he is acted npon by hope and fear in one or other of their three degrees of developement . In pursuing the subject , let mo request your Majesty to bear in mind the fact , that in their lowest manifestations those faculties are only sensations , and that in order to their elevation into principles of life , it is necssary that the mind of man should be separated as much as possible from its material organ , by which it exists in and acts upon the material world , and through which it is again acted upon by the thiogs of
time , and the objects of external sense . I mean that man should be trained to look into himself more , and out of himself less , than he has ever done within the period of recorded history . He should , that his hopes and his fears may really be what they ought to be , be led to contemplate his internal nature and his immortal destiny , that lie may justly feel the importance of a faithful discharge of his personal , domestic , and social duties ; since upon the right formation of bis character here depends the nature of his state hereafter . The veriest heathens were not ashamed to recognise the influence of religion to sanction aud confirm their enactments . Lycurgns , Solon , and tho compilers of the twelve tables , have left us abundant proof of this
They knew thaV the religious principle was deeply seated in the mind of man , and they also * knew the salutary influence which that principle exerted over public Affairs . They had nothing but the blind superstition and external ceremonies of Paganism to work with , and yet they found even that to be of the most essential service . We have the pore and sublim * morality of Christianity placed in owr bands , and y « fc practically we make less use of it than the old Pagans did of their senseless mummery . Can it , then , be a source of wonder that our laws and institutions are of a nature rather to encourage crime than to repress it—to discountenance morality than to promote it When , Madam , shall this foul reproach be removed from this professedly Christian land ?
I am not now considering man in his individual capacity , but in his relations with society , by his connection with which he becomes deprived , while his union with it continues , of some portion of bis natural liberty , and in return acquires a right to enjoy all those good things , for the attainment and securing of which communities of mankind were established , and continue to exist Society coheres together for mutual assistance , protection , and support , and as it ia impossible for good to be effected without some common centre of unity , the influence of which , like the main-spring of a watch , extends to every part ; the person or persons who execute the laws and watch over the interests of the state , become in the social
machine that msrn-aprlng and centre of nnity . Hera , then , we arrive wt ' ther point where ire most ascertain what are the spectSo ends of society , and what line of conduct is required oh the part of the governing power to secure the attainment of those ends . I have just said that soeiety coheres together for the proposes of mutual assistance , protection and support These are the generals ; but every general involves a vast varietj of particulars , some of which , at least , are essential to be known . Th » , the general 1 end of society which is called niutmal assistance inwlves in
it the developement of mutual wants , and , also , thff necessity of cultivating a spirit of mutual kradnesv and good will . This general purpose of society , in a newly-fbnaed state , where the people are only just beginning to emerge from a condition of savage life , is enly required in the cultivation of tie ground , seciring the crops , and aiding each other ir * the construction of rude , and , in general comfortless , dwellings . But as the state advances in civilisation and refinement , the calls for assistance become more marked and frequent The various raw materials of nature
assume new forms of use and elegance- under the plastic hand » f the artificer , and the comforts and conveniences of life become extensively diffused by a general system of exchange and barter . New energies are displayed as new wants make their appear * ance . Remuneration is offered for work performed , that which was rudein one age becomes improved in the next , and elegant in the third ; and all this trading and exchanging , this advancement and improvement , forms , as a whole , what we call mutual assistance , without which seeiety eoald not hold together .
This is a pleasing' subject of contemplation ^ but permit me to remark , , that it forms but aTeryBmall portion of the picture . Were all men good and virtuous , the necessity for mutual assistance would be the only bond required to bind nations together in an indissoluble union . Mutual love would render suoh a thing as private property , using the word in its common acceptation , almost unknown . But we know , yes , Madam , we know , by painful experience , that this is not the case . Man has become vicious and degraded . He would gladly graap at the enjoyments of which he wishes to partako without either rewarding those whose
skill , ingenuity , and industry produced them , or acquiring a right to share in the common good , by hi * own contribution to the , commen stock ; an 4 as this vicious propensity would , if unchecked , speedily destroy society altogether ; hence arises the necessity for the second general end foi which society is established , namely , mutual protection . And this again involves several particulars ( as , for example , the enactment of laws defining the limits of general liberty , and providing for the security of life and the possessions which
have been legally acquired by individual members of the community ; the establishment of courts of justice and the investiug of certain parties , in whom the public are suppesed to confide , with power to preside in them , t « carry the laws into execution , and see justice dona between man » and man ; and the establishment of such a civil force as shall be able to preserve generally the public peace , protect the honest citizen in the pursuit of his lawful calling , and restrain by their authority the evil disposed from committing acts of aggression upon their more orderly neighbours .
All these matters , and many others , are included in what I have pointed ont as the second head or object of society . But , besides these , there is another bond—another end of society—which . is of equal importance , and may , in some sort , be considered as embracing the other two , as without it they could have no existence . Men are united together for _ mutual support . Thia general end combines the means employed for internal improvement and external protection . The community , in order to afford to each member of the state that support and stability which each has a right to expect
from his fellows , must , in all its public acts , recognise , not only the security of life and property , but a fair remuneration to the efforts of industry , and the suppression , by a ¦ w holesome and well-regulated system of penal discipline , all the attempts of lawless aggression , whether from within or from without , upon the' jieace and good order of society . Thus the end of mutual support connects itself with ,, those which we have already noticed , but it goes much further than the two first . They are principally the r . esult of necessity . The understandings of men teach them that mutual assistance .
and mutual protection are needed ; and , therefore , human intellect and intelligence are employed to bring them into operation and use . But the principle of mutual support has its seat in the will ; is to a considerable extent tha developement of voluntary choice ; and hence , attaching itself to the affections of fue mind , creates and forms circumstances of its awn ; and in many cases these circumstances ore , independent of those by which society was previously surrounded , directed and influenced . Now , mark the exhibition of this third strand in the threefold cord which binds the social compact When men begin , front choice , to wish mutually to
support the interests of each other , that is , of the community at large , they soon discover the necessity of a tolerably correct acquaintance , with the wants , desires , and capabilities of those who are members of'the same national family ; and also of the way in which the capabilities of each may be most effectually employed in supplying those wants , and in gratifying . those desires with the greatest possible advantage to the whole . And thus a system of . education , suited to the state of the case , and more or less perfect as society is iii-r-or less advanced in the true science of human improvement and happiness , is gradually introduced . Then come the
establishment of societies for the promotion and protection of various branches of trade ; and associations for the promotion of improvements in arts , sciences , and literature , spring up , people hardly know how . The . rude inventions of one man are improved upon by another , and the sight of some effort of art , or of . some phenomenon of nature , calls up in some ingenious mind a train of new ideas which are pondered over , and dwelt upon till some result is obtained , big with the most important consequences to & nation , a continent , or a world . These and a thousand other things which men might do without , but -which are essential and indispensible to the
improvement and perfection of the race , are involved in that bond of social order which I have distinguished by the title of mutual support But there is in it one point to whish I ani nipst especially desirous of drawing the serious attention oi your Majesty . In every social state in which the members are in a state of progression , events will frequently occur which will cause a temporary stagnation or panic , by which members of the industrious population will be for a time deprived of the means of support ; and this will be ths case most frequently , when the advancement of the community is the most rapid . Besides these , there will be
in all states , a namber of persona rendered incapable , by . old age , sickness , or accident , of obtaining a maintenance for themselves and families ; and , in addition , we must count upon a considerable number of children left destitute from various causes , at an age when they can do nothing for their own support . All these parties , asthe children of the common Father of all , have a right , a divixely conferred right , to life and liberty , and , consequently , to such a comfortable maintenance as shall render the life which God has given them a blessing , and not' a curse . In consequence of
this right , which no law Or statute can take away ,. parties so situate are entitled , while the circomstanees suppused continue , to live at free communion ; they may take as much food and clothing as are necessary , not only for their subsistence , but for their comfort and convenience wherever they ean find it , and erect for themselves a habitation with snch materials as the ; can get , and on any Jand on which they may please to locate themselves . This state o ! tMngs , however , it i » readily admitted , is incompatible with the security of society and the lights of . property . What , then , ia the
alternative ? Clearly this ; that society is bound to provide a comfortable habitation , decent and sufficient clothing , and plenty of wbolewtme and nutritious diet , for all who , either by its own' arrangements , or by tha dispensations of Providence , are rendered incap&bU of providing for their own support This brings us to the second point , which it is necessary for us to ascertain namely , what line of conduct is required on th » put < k the Government , in order to aecore the attainment of these ends , Bat this must form the subject of another letter . - ¦ . ' '' "' . . ' ¦ " ' : ¦ ' ' -, lam , Madam , Your Majesty's faithful and obedient subject and servant , . '¦ ' . - ¦ ¦ ¦ ' ¦ ¦ inmA . London , December 23 , 18 iO .
I&Otttv* ^&Fti»F^F »*
I&otttv * ^ &fti » f ^ f »*
. . Thoughts Tub. The Thoughtful.
. . THOUGHTS TUB . THE THOUGHTFUL .
THE NORTHERN STAR . 3 __ u ? i 1 . : . ¦ ' ¦ * ¦* .- ¦ .. ... -
To Her Most Gracious Majesty The Queen.
TO HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY THE QUEEN .
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 2, 1841, page 3, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/vm2-ncseproduct1090/page/3/