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THE SPECIAL COMMISSION TO " PUT DOWN" CHARTISM,
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The Special Commission To " Put Down" Chartism,
THE SPECIAL COMMISSION TO " PUT DOWN" CHARTISM ,
ttiOES SIB T ' BOLLOCK , PLLIH JOHS CAHPBELV HATU . G FAILED . Stafford , Friday Night . —Another alteration has takes place is the proposed arrival of the Lord Justices Tjutead of twelve , it is now determined that they shall jeaeh here at three p . m , by the mall train . It is deemed by the local authorities that inch an hoar will be more compatible 'with the hour of their lordships -jgjjig . it is farther arranged that the cavalry who are ordered here from WolTerhampton shall be here by . an earlier honr , so that their lordship ** corporal existence uuj be put completely ont of danger and out of the -each of those Tile ¦ wretches , the Chartists . By-theenacted here
vTfi & tntfT laughable scene was on last SieW- It * " notified that on this week Messrs Pesie and Glencoe Chnrehill , the revising barristers , —sold open their court * . In consequence of this notifi . -ation , general saddle or snail farmers attended . Their presence was the signal for the immediate cry that the ni ^ rtists were coming . A general hubbub ensued . Tbe police were on the look ont—the ' magistrates were Qji the gui rice , asd an immediate attack upon our gaol ¦ ns hourly and momentarily expected . At length the wbear vanished , upon the poor honest farmers taking fvgjr Bags and riding home , to the great annoyance of the > lae bottles and their masters , -while the people ^ ere conrdsed with l&ttghter at beholding the sad disappointment of the officials . and eTineed
There is much curioaty anxiety respecting the trial of Mr . EUia . Hi * friends may be quite gjty oa one point , as it cannot posribly come on before ten days siter the finding of the bill against him , -which ^ ill . as a matter of comae , take place . He will then be served -with a copy of the indictment , with a list cf the jury psnel , and the names ef the witnesses , and allowed ten days to plead . Messrs . Cooper and O'Veil are the men for -whose safety the greatest anxiety Efcould be evinced ; for if convicted they will most undoubtedly be made examples of . If they are sacrificed , the enemies of the people and of libeity yill achieve a signal and decided triumph . To avoid gus dreadful result , it is absolutely necessary that large ample funds should be forthwith supplied for their defence , and the defence of the other two hundred and forty-two prisoners . If these funds are not torticomtg , the fate of Messrs . Cooper , O ^ eil . EUis , and their unfortunate fellow-prisoners , is irrevocably sealed . And -what a crime will not the country have to answer for if such is the case I
Stafford , St-SDat I ^ ight . —It is impossible for Englishmen to read with cemmon patience the recital cf giiiaiiBi that have within the last forty-eight hours been perpetrated against their liberties , and the . glorious constitution which their ancestors purchased with their life ' s blood , but which a degenerate and bastard progeny have not only abandoned , but basely outraged . Before I insult the English nation with this re-Tolting recital , I must be guilty of a digression by giving sn account of yesterday ' s drama , as it was enacted here by the parties whose performance had been previously , by bills and otherwise , ar-nounced for some days past
I hare ilre * dy stated that two changes took place in the mode in which the judges were to be conveyed . Sinoe then a third and final arrangement was adopted and acted upon . It was deemed infra dig ., and . unworthy oi the representatives of her Majesty to be conveyed by either first class or mail trains ; therefore at the snjgestion of the Minister ' s faithful counsellor the Gaoler , who is now swollen into the great personage of a Governor , it was ulBsiaiely decided that the three ministers of the Executive should be conveyed from London to Stafford by a special train , at the enormous expense to a , bankrupt country of at least £ 200 !! ! while their lordships could have been as safely and expeditiously conveyed by the mail train for a sum not exceeding £ 10 Why and wherefore it may be asked , all this expense ? What purpose will it
serve ? What end will this flagitious reckless outlay of the public money effect ? It cajmot further the objects of justice . It cannot 6 trike terror into the minds of the people . It cannot add dignity or weight to the commission which those judges are sent to execute . >" o ! the only result it can produce is , , one generaffeeling of disgust , loathing , and hatred , throughout the country , especially where there are bo many millions in the land sinking into the grave from the want of the commonest necessaries of life . Well , by the special train their Lordships arrived at half-past four , p . m . Mr . Britton , th 9 governor , having previously received a , notification that they would be at the rail way station at that hour , but that the high sheriff , major , and aldermen -were to meet them at the same station at four o ' clock . This latter announcement
favoured a good deal of a " bull ; " but it having been perpetrated by one of the lights of the nation , must ^ as a matter of course , be pardoned . Arrived a £ the station , their Lordships were met by ths high sheriff , the under sheriff , the mayor , aiid aldermen , the gaoler , the head turnkey , the rector in his pontificals , three policemen with large poles , and Mr . Superintendent Thompson , looking big , and the javelin men , dressed in their best Before starting from the railway station , their Lordships were ushered into the ladies' room , where they pnt on the iTurigpte of office , and then proceeded to the Court-house , the trnmpeter announced their arrival at the court . Then the usual ceremony of commanding silence , reading the Queen ' s writ , and all the et celeras for causing effect , were gone through . After which the court was adjourned .
Before the Jndges left the bench , Mr . Lee rose , and apDlied to have Mr . Arthur O'Neil admitted to bail . The Chief Justice said he would hear the application in chambers . Upon their Lordships" return to chambers , Mr . Lee renewed his application , to which the Judges paid great attention , especially the Chief Justice , who repeatedly expressed his opinion of the hardship of keeping Mr . O'Xtil in prison , while he was prepared to put in satisfzctory bail . Mr . Lee said that hia client was committed on the 29 th of August , by the Rev . Mr . Cartwright and Mr . Badger " for making and cawing a great number of persons to assemble and gather tegether to disturb the public peace at the parish of Kowley Regis . " At that
time Mr . O'Neil produced two responsible persons an his bail , namely , Mr . Truman and Mr . Page . But in consequence of one of these gentlemen having taking a part in a Chartist meeting , and the other having signed a requisition for the use of the Town Hall for a similar meeting , these sureties were rejected . Two applications for a habeas corpus in his favour were unsuccessfully made to Mr . Justice CresawelL A third application was made to the same Judge for a habeas on _ Friday , which his Lordship granted . On that habeas Mr . O'Neil appeared that day before their Lordships to be admitted on bail . Mr . Lee , in conclusion , dwelt very forcibly upon the hardship inflicted upon his client in keeping him incarcerated , and thereby preventing him making that preparation for his trial , which he would
otherwise have done . Chief Justice Tisdal and Mr . Baron Rolfe were cf opinion Uaat the application should be granted . MrrBaionPABKE differed-with his learned brethren , zs he was impressed with the convietion that once the commission opened they bad no jurisdiction in the case , and could not , therefore , take bail . Mr . HIB 3 EKT , a Birmingham attorney , said that he appeared for the prosecution , and that he opposed the application both on account of the politics of the proposed bail , and in consequence of the little
inconvenience that would arise from Mr . O'Neil ' fl being imprisoned for the few days that would intervene between bis trial . Chief Justice Tindal said that politics had * xhii , g whatever io do tciih bail , the srFFiciEKCT OF ¦ R " hich should aloe be CONSIDEEED . He conceived it a great hardship that Mr . O'Neil should , under the circumstances , be kept in prison . Mr . Baron Rolfe agreed with the Learned Chief Justice . Mr . Baron Parke had no desire to inflict unnecessary pnnishment upon the prisoner , but he was strongly of opinion that they could cot take bail , as the assize had opened .
The CHiEr JCsiice called for the Habeas Corpus Act , in the perusal of which he and bis learned brethi en were for half an hour attentively engaged ; after which , fed -with much setming regret , the Judges deceided that they could not interfere . Mr . O'NiEL , who heard the decision with great calmness , was immediately recond acted to his- dungeon . It cannot be denied that their Lordships paid every attention to his case , and their whole conduct as yet is landed everywhere , and gives confidence" that their judgments will be tempered with mercy .
The Solicitor-General , Mr . Sergeant Ludlow , Mr . Sergeant Talfourd , Mr . Godson , Queen ' s Counsel , Mr . Tslbot , and Mr . Maule , are here for the prosecution ; Mr . Roberts , from Bath , attends for the prisoners generally , and , with few exceptions , is engaged by them . Ee is indefatigable in his preparations for their defence . Since his arrival amongst the poor fellows they have become high-spirited , as before it they looked upon themselves as deserted . A curious Bcene occurred upon his first visit to the g&oL He told the turnkey that he wished to see Mr . Cooper , and that hia name was Mr . Roberta . Turnkey—Oh , yes , you are Mr . Roberts . Why , the attornies here say that yon are no attorney !! Hr . Robebts—Indeed ! do they say so ? I will give them an opportunity of proving it ; for I" will act as an attorney , and for every ad of mine as such they cm , if I am not an attorney , sue me for a penalty of £ 50 .
Turnkey—Deal me ! that will settle it ; but I assure you that we are told that you are not an attorney . However , I shall tell the Governor that you are here . And no sooner said thun done . Old Cerberus , whose race is as red as a full moon , and who weighs about sixteen stone good weight , scampered off to the Gaoler , —I beg his pardon , "the Governor , " and made the communintjon . Upon which Mr . Roberts was admitted first to Re " the Governor , "—and then the prisoners . . On thiB morning , the Judges , Sheriff , Lord IienteaantMayorAldermen&c went ia « t * te to Christ
, , , Church . The usual prayers having been read , a prayer * &s offered up for the Queen , Printe Albert , the Prince of Wales , the Jndges , the Higb Sheriff , the Mayor and Aldermen , the Church and Ttate , and all chosen in high station ; but not a word » as introduced into that prayer about the poor of tt » e land , who are groaning beneath the most insupportable sufferings They were left to pray for themselves . Prayers concluded , the Rev . W . E . Coldwell , M . A . preached , taking for bis text the 1 st and 2 nd verses cf Paul to Titus , chsD , iii .: " Put them in T »"" d to be subject to
principalities and poWfK , to obey magistrates , to be ready to do every good work , to speak evil ot no man , to be no brawlers , bat gentle , showing all meekness unto all men . " He then launched Into an empassioned phillippie against the prisoners and parties engaged in the late riots , denouncing their leaden and themselves as rebels , anarchist * , deisU , and infidels , who aimed at the destruction ot the altar and the throne . He compared them to Voltaire , Paine , and Hume , against whom , forgetting the old principle which Christians as well as Heathens adopt and adhere to , de mortuis nit nisi honum , he vomited the
whole measure of his bile . After giving bis audience a quantum suf . ot that unhappy tirade against the dead , he commenced , having for the moment lost sight of Pnseyum , boasting of the wonderful advances that the Church bad made within the last two years . As an antidote against Chartism , he recommended a good supply of the needful to the church , and a plentiful distribution of bibles and prayer books . He finally wound up bis address by a side attack upon the Church of Some . After this exhibition the Judges returned in procession-order to their lodgings , and thence , if report is accurate , they made their way to Earl Talbofs , where they had a good spread out .
The promised dragoon guards have arrived , and occupy the George . Detachments are also stationed at Stone and Pensbridge , to protect all parties who may have to come here as witnesses . Every day fresh vietims are brought to our gaoL On Saturday ten ¦ were brought in , handcuffed . Their appearance was pitiable in the extreme , and even excited the compassion of the soldiers and turnkeys on duty at the prison . An application will be made to-morrow to allow Mr . O'Neil to traverse to next assizes . If that is not granted , he will not be tried before Wednesday , as his counsel will pray for a day to be appointed .
Mondai . —Before ten o ' clock this morning , the Court House , which is a large and most convenient structure , was crowded almost to roffocation , by individuals whose sympathy or curiosity had induced them to attend the hearing of the trials of the prisoners . At ten o'clock the Jndges appointed to try the poor fellows entered the court Sir Nicholas Tindal , Chief Justice of the Common Pleas , presided , and was assisted by Mr . Baron Parke and Mr . Baron Rolfe . The proceedings bave excited considerable Interest in the town . The prisoners were brought iB companies , escorted by parties of the 3 rd Dragoons . There were a considerable number of ladies in attendance . ' On the Bench we observed the Earl Talbot , Lord-Lieutenant of the county ; the Earl of Dartmouth ; the High Sheriff , J . E . Pierey , Esq . ; the Mayor of Stafford , J . Rogers , Esq ., and several of the Magistrates of the county .
The grand panel haviDg been called over , the following Noblemen and Gentlemen answered to their names , and were sworn on the Grand Jury .
Viscount Ikgestbe , M . P ., Foreman . Viscount Sandon , M . P . H . J . Pye , Esq . Hon . E . R . Littleton . William Ley , Esq . E . Monckron , Esq ., H . Hordem , Esq . W . F . Chetwynde , Esq . Thomas Salt , Esq . H . Chetwynde , Esq . Tbos . Cartwright , Esq . Francis Eld , Esq . J . 0 . Oldham , Esq . Thos . H . Parker , Esq . C . Coyne , Esq . Ed . Grove , Esq . Thos . Powis , Esq . H . H . Williamson , Esq . S . S . Bristowe , Etq . G . T . Whitegrave , Esq . C . S . Forster , Esq . C . B . Adderley , Esq . Thos . Hartehoroe , Esq . Her Majesty ' s most gracious proclamation having been read , Lord Chief Justice Tindal delivered to the Grand Jury the following charge : —
" Gentlemen of this Grand Inquest , —It is -with unfeigned regret that those who have been appointed under her Majesty ' s special commission to inquire into , and adjudicate upon , the numerous offences committed within this county since the last assizes , are called upon to meet you , the grand jurors of the county , on the present occasion . It is at all times a painful and distressing occupation for the mind of the Judge to pursue the investigation of charges of guilt , and to apportion the just measure of punishment to be awarded against each individual offender ; and if thiB be the case in the comparatively few instances which occur in the ordinary administration of criminal justice at the assizss , much mare is it so upon the present occasion , when the number of offenders is so large , the nature of the alleged offences so injurious to the welfare of society , and the offences have been committed , not by single individuals , or even small numbers of persons , but by large masses of the community impelled by one common motive , and labouring to effect one cammon object .
" Gentlemen , it is not our design , nor indeed have we sufficient information on the subject , if we proposed to do so , to trace , with any particularity , the origin or exact progress of those violations of the law ¦ which have taken place within this county , and which will shortly be brought under your consideration . It 1 b fully sufficient for our present purpsse to give a general outline of those transactions , dra"wn from the depositions taken before the magistrates , the only legitimate source of information to which we have had access . ' It appears that about the middle of the month of August last the workmen employed in many of the coJlieries , and also in many of the various manufactories established is this county , had become dissatisfied as well pith the amount of wages allowed by their employers as in some instances with certain regulations under which they were placed in the course of their
employment ; and that for the purpose of oempelling their masters to allow them greater wages , and to alter the regulations by which they thought themselves aggrieved , they refused to continne to work at the various employments in which they had been engaged ; that in a short time , not contented with simply refusing to work , they proceeded , by threats , intimidation , and violence , to compel other workmen , who were -willing te continue to work , to join the number of those who were discontented . It appears farther , that whilst large bodies of the workmen , perpetually increasing in number , were thus collected together in a state of idleness , and of consequence destitution , certain strangers , persons altogether unconnected with them in interest , appeared amongst them , and by addresses made to them against the religion , the law , and the Government , excited them to a state of dissatisfaction with all the established institutions of the
country , and laboured to persuade them to persist in their refusal to return to their employment , as the sure , and effectual , and only means of redressing the evils by which they were oppressed , and of obtaining their just rights , called by the speakers the "People ' s Charter . " It appears that after such addresses had been made , in some places tumult and disorder forthwith ensued amongst the assembled multitudes , to the great terror and alarm of the quiet and peaceable part of the community , In other places large bodies of the workmen , so collected together , proceeded to acts sf open violence and breaches of the law , in some instances against the persons of the subjects of the Queen , by beating Borne , cutting and maiming and robbing others , and sometimes against their preperty by act of theft and plunder , by forcibly breaking into the
dwelling-houses , by actual demolition or by fire , beginning with the houses of magistrates and other public functionaries , and soon caarying the work of ruin to the dwellings of private persons ; and it is impossible to foresee to what extent the rapine and devastation of a lawless and misguided mob would have proceeded in the land , if it had not been met and countervailed by the zeal , activity , rnd firmness of the magistracy of the county , aided fey the unwearied exertions and courage of the military and yeomanry , who lent their effectual assistance , when called upon for that purpose , in repiessing violence and disorder , and in giving security to the lives and property of their fellow-subjects , by whose combined efforts the work of farther destruction was suspended , the fearful and ominus results which seemed to impend -were averted from the county , and the law was restored to its just supremacy .
" Gentlemen , it has already been intimated that we conceive it to be no part of our province on this occasion to discuss the justice of the complaints made by the workmen against their employers , or to decide on the merits of the dispute existing between them . Neither is it put of our duty to show by argument that the course pursued by parties who thought themselves aggrieved was of all others the least calculated to accomplish— on the contrary , perhaps , the most likely to defeat—the very object which they wished to attain . Nor , again , are we called upon to suggest or te discuss any remedies—which may be provided by law for the psevention of similar mischief , if , unfortunately , at any
future time , the same ground of dispute should arise between masters and workmen—a discussion which is better fitted for a legislative assembly than for the members of this tribunal , to whom the only duty allotted is that of declaring the law as it stands at present . Our direct and more useful course will , therefore , be to endeavour to expound the law as it applies itself to ths sever&l case 8 arising out of these unhappy transactions , upon which you will be required to exercise your judgments , in order that you may arrive at a just conclusion whether sufficient appears in each individual case to call upon the paities accused to appear before % jury of the country ,
" Axd the first observation that arises is , that if the workmen of the several collieries and manufactories who complained that the wages which they received were inadequate to the value of tbtiir services , had assembled themselves peaceably together for the purpose of consulting upon and determining the rate of wages or prices which the persons present at the meeting should require for their -work , and had entered into an agreement amongst themselves for the purpose of filing guch rate , they would have done no more than the law allowed . A combination for that purpose , and to that extent ( if Indeed it is to be called by that name )
is no more than is recognised as legal by the statute 6 Geo . IV . ; by which statute also exactly the same right of combination , to the same extent , and no further , is given to the masters when met together , if they are of opinion , the rate of wages ia too high . In the case supposed—that is , a dispute between the masters and the workmen as to the proper amount of -wages to be given—it was probably thought by the Legislature , that if the workmen on the one part refused to work , or the masters , on the other , refused to esapley , as such a state of things could not continue long , it might fairly be expected that the patty must ultimately give
way whose pretensions were not founded in reason and justice—the matters if they ofiared too little , the workmen if they demanded too much . " Bat , unfortunately for themselves and others , those who were discontented did not rest here . Not satisfied with the exercise of their own . right to withhold their own labour , if they were discontented with the price they received for it , they assumed the power of interfering with the right which others possessed—of exercising their discretion upon the same point ; and accordingly yon will have numerous cases laid before you in which large bodies of dissatisfied workmen Interfered , by personal -violence , and by threats of intimidation , to compel others , who were perfectly willing to continue to labour in their callings at the rate of wages then paid , to desist from their work , to leave the mine or manufactory , and against their own will to add themselves te the numbers of the discontented party ; than which
- a more glaring act of tyranny and despotism by one set of men over their fellows cannot bo conceived . If there is one right which , beyond all others , the labourer ought to be able to call Mb own , it i s the right of the exertion of his own personal strength and skill , in the full enjoyment of his own free will , altogether unshackled by the control or the dieUtes of his fellow-workmen ; yet , strange to say , this very right , which the discontented woikman claims for himself to its fullest extent , he does , by a blind perversity and unaccountable selfishness , entirely refuse to his fellows who difier in opinion from himself . It is unnecessary to say , that a course of proceeding so utterly unreasonable in itself , so injurious to society , so detrimental to the interests of trade , and so oppressive against the rights of the poor man , must be a gross and flagrant violation of the law , and must be put down , when the guilt is established , by a proper measure of punishment .
" But , even without any evidence that combination is the object or purpose of the meeting , if a large body of the people assemble themselves together for the purpose of obtaining any particular end , and conduct themselves in a turbulent manner , either accompanied with acts of violence , or with threats and intimidation calculated to excite the terror and alarm of the Queen ' s subjects , that is in itself a riot , whether the end and object proposed be a just and legitimate one or not If , therefore , bills should be brought before you charging individuals with riot , for the purpose of raising the rate of wages , and the evidence should show the conduct of the patties to have been of the description just aderted to , tha offence of riot is eomplete in point of law .
" Gentlemen , there is another description of offence -which will probably be submitted to your consideration —namely , the exciting and encouraging large masses of the people by means of seditious and inflammatory speeches to commit acts of violence and to break the peace . If snch charges are brought forward it must be left to your own good sense to distinguish between an honest declaration of the speaker ' s opinion upon the political subjects on which he treats—a free discussion on matters that concern the public , as to which full allowance should be made fdr the zeal of the speaker , though he may somewhat exceed the just bounds of moderation ; and , on the other hand , a wicked design by inflammatory statements and crafty and subtle arguments , to poison the minds of the hearers , and render them the instruments of mischief . He that addresses himself to a crowded auditory of the
poorer class , without employment or occupation , and brooding at the time over their wrongs , whether real or imaginary , will not want hearers ready to believe , and apt followers of mischievous advice . You will consider , therefore , the language that is employed on such an occasion ; if it consists of broad and bold assertion , unfounded in feet ; if , in discussing religious topics , you find the Bpeaker endeavouring to be sprightly and facetious on those subjects which make wise and good men serious ; if , instead of argument , he deals only in sneers and sarcasm , it will be for yourselves to say whether , under such circumstances , the party charged with the offence is an honest but mistaken man , or whether he is wickedly intending to bring the religion , laws , and Government of the country into contempt , and to teach the hearers to despise all those institutions which it is their duty to hold in respect and
veneration . " Gentlemen , it has been already stated , that in the multiplicity of charges which spring out of the transactions above adverted to , some will appear for assaults ; some for the felonious offence of cutting and maiming with intent to do some grievous bodily harm ; soms for robbery by violence and force ; some for theft ; some for breaking into the dwelling-house by night or by day ; some for a riotous assembling , and beginning to demolish , or actually demolishing , the dwelling-houses of magistrates and clergymen , the offices connected with the police establishments , and the private houses of individuals ; some charges also for effecting similar works of destruction by means of fire . But it would be
tedions , and , at the same time , altogether unnecessary , to enlarge upon the law by which those offences are regulated , more especially to gentlemen so well experienced as yourselves in the ordinary business of the assizss . One observation only shall fce made which relates to every apeciea of offence committed by several acting in concert and company together , —namely , that if many are present at the time when the breach of the law takes place , having one common design in view , and acting with common consent , although they do not all take share in the performance of the very act which is the subject of the indictment , yet by affording countenance , encouragement , and protection to the persons who actually perpetrate the crime , they are all equally guilty in the eye of the law .
"But there is one case in the calendar to which , for the purpose of avoiding any interruption in the general view of the transactions which have taken place in this county , I have not yet adverted—I mean the case of one William Ellis , who has been committed by the magistrates on a charge of high treason ; and as we are not aware whether bills of indictment may not possibly be presented against that person , and perhaps others also who appear upon the depositions to stand in the same predicament for the offence of high treason , it becomes necessary that the principles of tbe law , so far it relates to the species of treason upon which the charge , if preferred , will probably be founded , should be laid before yea with sufficient precision to enable you to determine whether the accusation is so far established that the parties accused ought to be put upm their trial for that offence .
" Gentlemen , the precise specieB of high treason upon which the charge , if made , must rest , is either that of levying war against Her Majesty in Her rtalm , under the statute of Edward III ., oi that for which Ellis was committed , —vie ., " tbe compassing and intending to levy war against the Queen within her realm , in order by force or constraint to compel her to change her measures or counsels ; " which latter offence was first made substantive treason by the more recent statute 36 th George III ., c , 7 , made perpetual by a subsequent act . _ " Gentlemen , you are well aware that , at least as early as the statute 25 th Edward III ., and thence down to the present time , the bate compassing or imagining the death of the Sovereign , when proved by any open or overt act , has amounted to high treason . For ,
where the life or personal safety of the Soveieign is concerned , so precious has it always been held in the eye of the law , that the bare intention or imagination of the heart to put it in jeopardy , although no injurious consequences follow from such intention , when proved by an overt act , has , of itseif , and alone , constituted the treason . By that statute also , the levying of war within the realm , when proved by an ovett act , is made a distinct and substantive species of treason . Bat the mere " compassing" or " intending to levy war , " that is , the mere purpose or design of the mind or will to commit that crime , was never made a specific treason until the statute 36 th George III ., c 7 , and then only " where such compassing or intention is expressed , uttered , or declared , by publishing any printing or writing , or by any overt act or deed . "
" Now , tbe only or principal evidence of treason stated in the depositions is the uttering of violent and inflammatory speaches to the assem * led multitude . But it is to be observed , that the mere speaking and uttering of words , considered by itself , and abstractedly , and without reference or connexion with any act or design , however wicked and atrocious those words may be , is not an act of treason . The Judges , on a reference made to thrm in the 4 th year of Charles I ., upon the snbject of words spoken by one Pyne , certified unanimously , that though the words were as wicked as might be , yet they were no treason , for unless it be by
some particular statute , no words will be treason . " On the other hand , however , where words are uttered and spoken with reference to any treasonable plan or design already laid , and in the contemplation of the speaker , if they are words of exhortation or encouragement to carry into effect snch plan or design , such speaking and utteriug of words is strictly and properly an overt act of treason , being the means made use of to effect the treasonable purpose ; although , even in that case , the more precise and accurate mode of expression w « uld seem to be , that the plan or design ia the treason , and the words of encouragement and encitement are evidence of the existence of it .
" It will be for you , therefore , to say , supposing no further evidence is given than that of words uttered , supposing there is no proof laid before yon of any existing plan , to subvert the authority of the Queen , the established order of government , or the laws of the land , —whether , from the mere speaking and uttering of the words by the party charged with treason , yon can feel yourselves authorised to infer that at the time the words were uttered there did not exist a deliberate design in tbe mind of the speaker to effect any of those wicked purposes , and that the speech waa made by him to indnce the hearers to take np arras , or to use
force and violence for the purpose of carrying such design into effect ; yon must determine for yourselves whether snch is the safe conclusion at which yon can arrive upon snch evidence alone , ot whether the words are not rather to be considered as the production « f a heated and distempered mind , thrown ont at the moment rashly and hastily—words , indeed , " as wicked as might be , " as was said in Pyne's case , bnt words spoken without reference to any formed design or settled purpose in the heart of the speaker . In the latter mode of viewing them they would not constAtnte an act of treason , bnt be punishable as a high misde meanour only .
' Gentlemen , I cannot dose the observations which I have thought it right to submit to yon without expressing the eirnest hope of my brethren and myself , that the administration of « rtm < imi justice under the
commissions which have been specially issued into this eonntr , and into others where similar enormities have taken place , may bare the wholesome effect of teaching aU who need mob . warning , first , that in this country tee ponlshment of crime will follow the commission of t with a pace so rare , so steady , and so speedy , that he guilty o » u have no ch&noa of escaping ; and econdly , the more important lesson , th « t whatever attempts may be made by discontented persons to sttbyert the Government , the laws , or the religion of tiwi * country , and to establish a new order of things in their stead , they wiU find the law of the land too strong for tfaeai ; and that the honest part of the community , the lovers of peace and order , will at all times unite themselves with the established authorities of the Gotemment to render their attempts futile and abortiveand to put
, down such eTil-doers with a strong hand ; and I would ,. In conclusion , farther suggest that the effiwtnal , and only effectual , method ef counteracting the attempts ef wicked and designing men to undermine the principles of the lower classes , and to render them discontented with the established institutions of their "P " ^'* . the "H ^ wton of sound religious knowledge ( in which there can be no excess ) amongst those classes who are the most exposed to their attempts , and the educating their children in the fear of God , so that all may be taught that obedience to the law of the land and t » the Government of the country is due , not as a matter of compnlsion , but of principle and conscience . " Gsntlemen , her Majesty ' s Judges will be happy to render you any assistance in the performance of your duty , if any difficulty should arise " for the are Sir
t , 7 . f * ^^ retained Crown W Follett ( Solioitor-Genera !) Mr . Sergeant Ludlow , Mr . Sergeant Talfonrd , Mr . Godson , Mr . Waddington , and Mr . Talbot Mr . Sergeant Murphy ia retained for the defence . | . ¦ The unavoidable absence of Mr O'Connor la greatly regretted . Hia presence would cheer up the poor prisoners . th def toWli ' aUd iS tode ' 8 able in getting up it . « th 8 time of '"' tin g there are eight bills before the Grand Jury , but not as yet brought into court . The bill for treason against Mr . Ellis has not yet been presented . The first case to be tried will be that against the men charged with setting fire to Dr . Vale ' s house at Hanley . [ fn reference to the " Judge's Charge" given abeve , the Evening Star of Tuesday has the following just and appropriate commentary . It is well worthy attention : —
" The charge of Chief Justice Tindal to the Grand Jury is what we expected from him , dear , calm , and lawyer-like , but filled with that general kind of censure and sweeping denunciation , in which it ia the custom of Judges to deal against all , who are even suspected of having violated the law . There is none of that nice discriminationof circumstances , noneof that extenuation arising from the peculiar faots , wbioh would have been urged by a man of the world and the world's experience , but which can seldom be obtained from the mere lawyer . We must protest against the facts as
stated by his Lordship from the depositions , and which wouldjlead to the belief , that until the Chartists came among the workmen , who had struck for wages ,: there were no riots , and that to the Charter must they be attributed . In the first place , as all the working classes are Chartists , the influence of their politics was present at the time of the strike , and did not commence afterwards ; secondly , the outbreak never did assume a political aspect , but was throughout the struggle of workmen for just wages , though of course their political opinions could not be altogether silent at such a time .
" His Lordship having then stated that workmen or masters may assemble peaceably together , and agree among themselves on the rate of wages , for which they will be employed , or employ , and having distinguished between inflammatory speeches made by honest , if mistaken , men , and those made by men whose design is to subvert the Government , next proceeds to the case of William Ellis , and dilates on the law of high treason . He shows that by stat . 25 Edward III ., an overt or open act of treason was necessary to constitute the offescd , but that the mare " compassing" or " intending to levy war against the Sovereign , " that is , the mere purpose or design of the mind , or will to commit that crime , was never made treason until the vile and unconstitutional statute of 36 Gao . III . c 7 , was passed . However , by this act , ' such compassing or intention must be expressed by publishing some printing or writing , or by some overt act or deed . '
" Now Ellis is eharged only with uttering violent speeches ; and words do not amount to treason , either at common , or by statute , law . "Inthe fourth year of Charles ; the First , the Judges certified unanimously , that " though the words were as wicked as might be , yet they were no treason , for unless it be by some particular statute , no words will be treason 1 " There is no statute declaring them to be so ; and therefore we must protest also against tbe law of Chief Justice Tindal , when he endeavours to draw the subtle distinction ( which he takes from Foster ' s Pleas of
the Crown , p . 200 ) , that words exhorting to carry out a treasonable design amount to an overt act of treason . What authority is there for this ? None . What against it ? Reason—justice ; the above unanimous opinion of the Judges , who made no such distinction ! By their test we try it ; there is no sUtiuteniaking words treason ! It there were , we bad better go back to the reign of Edward IV ., when one man was executed for saying he wonld make his son heir to the Crown , " being the sign of the house in which he lived ; and another , whose favourite buck the King had killed , for wishing it , horns and all , in the King's belly !
"' Words , ' says Blackstone ( vol . 4 , p . 80 ) 'may be spoken in heat , without any intention , or be mistaken , perverted , or misremembered by the hearers ; their meaning depends always on their connexion with other words and things ; they may signify differently , even according to the tone of voice with which they are delivered ; and sometimes silence itself is more expressive _ than any discourse . As therefore there can be nothing more equivocal and ambiguous than words , it u-ould indeed be UNREASONABLE io make them amotmt to high treason . ' * ' Such is the opinion ef the great commentator on the laws of England ; and being ' unreasonable it is illegal ; ' for we are told 'law is the perfection of reason , ' and 'the law only recognises what ia accordant with reason . ' In this age we cannot , we must not , allow any new " constructive treason" to be invented by any man , be he Judge or King ; for , as it has been truly said by Montesquieu , the crime of high treason being unascertained , is alone sufficient to make any Government degenerate into arbitrary power . " ]
Th e Lord Ch i ef Ju s tic e Tindall , Mr . Baron Parke , and Mr . Baron Rolfe , took their seats intheA ' ut Prius Court a little before two o ' clock , when the Grand Jury returned several bills .
BURNING OF THE REV . DR . VALE'S HOUSE . The Petty Jury panel having been called over , and the Jury empa ' unelled , the following prisoners were placed at the bar : — John Harris , Richard Wright , George Colclpugh , John Williams , James Saunders , John Whiston , Hamlet Jackson , Thomas Wagstaff , James Millington , Joseph Saunders , Sampson Whitehouse , Thos . Cotton , Samuel Heat on , William Shaw , William Bradbury , Richard Edge , Joaiah Gilbert , William Cartledge , Thomas Banks , John Owen , John Powell , William Hollins , Thomas Jackson , Edward Smith , Henry Dimmock , Joseph Loft , James Hurst , Joshua Hurst , and Jabez Phillips , were indicted for riotously and tumultuously assembling on the 15 th of Asgust last , and beginning to demolish the dwelling-house of the Rev . Benjamin Vale , of Longton , in the parish of Stoke-upou-Trent .
Most of the prisoners were youDg men , and some of them mere boys—they completely filled the dock , and some of them were placed behind the bar in front of the dock . John Williams , a respectablelooking man , with one leg and a crutch , was , on the application of his Counsel , accommodated with a . chair . The prisoners severally pleaded Not Guilty . The Solicitor General , Mr . Serjeant Ludlow , Mr . Serjeant Talfourd , Mr . Godson , Queen ' s Counsel , Mr . WarriBgton , and Mr . Talbot appeared as counsel for the Crown . The prisoner Whiston was defended by Mr . Price . Mr . F . V . Lee represented Toft , Smith and Phillips . Mr . Meteyard appeared for Shaw , Jackson , and Dimmock . Mr . Allen was counsel for Cartlidge , Edge , Harris , Millfngton , and ( with Mr . Neale ) for Williams : and Wright and
Jackson were defended by Mr . Huddlestone . The other prisoners had not the assistance of counsel . The Solicitor-General opened the case to the j ury , recapitulating the leading features of the late riots in the Staffordshire district , and then detailing the circumstances of the attack upon the Rev . Dr . Vale ' s house on the 15 th of AuguBt . The Learned Gentleman then referred at some length to the law as it bore upon the indictment preferred against the prisoners , all of whom he stated would be identified by the witnesses he should call before them , and it would be for them to say whether the prisoners were guilty of the offence charged against them . He prayed of the jury to dismiss from their minds everything they had heard outside that court , and to confine themselves strictly to the evidence which should be laid before them .
The following witnesses were then examined : — Mrs . Mary Anne Vale deposed that she was the wife of the Rev . Benjamin Vale , of LongtoD . On the 15 th August she saw a mob approaching the house , and immediately proceeded to close the shutters . The mob , however , reached t be house before she w as able to do so . : She was greatly alarmed , her husband not being at home . They demanded money and drink , which at first she refused , bnt she afterwards save t hem her p urse , containing 5 s . or 6 s ., and desired the servant to give them some drink . They proceeded t o t he stud y , and commenced de s t royin g and burni ng thebook 8 and furniture . Some of them then went up stairs and set fire to several of the rooms ; others followed the servant to the cellar with a sheet , which they set on fire , and they commenced drinking whiskey . Witness fled as soon as she saw the whole honse in flames , and took refuge in an adjoining cottage , when Jabez Phillips , one of the prisoners , came np , and said , "They were going to London to born , and bring all things to their proper level . " The witness then uroceeded to detail the several facts
connected with tbe destruction ot the property , and whioh have been already published ia detail in all the public prints . The Rev . Benjamin Vale was then called and examined . He stated that he was absent from the vicarage when it waa attacked by the mob . On his return he saw the house surrounded by a large mob , and the furniture and building in flames . He was prevented by a friend from going into his house . Sarah Tomer , servant to the Rev . Mr . Vale , corroborated the evidence of Mr . Vale as to the condnot of the mob , a nd the de s tru ct ion o f the property . The- gardener of the Rev . Mr . Vale identified Shaw and Bradbury , Phillips , Williams , and Whis to n , as being aotively engaged in the demolition of the house and furniture .
After the examination of one or two other witnesses , who spoke chiefly as to the identity of the parties engaged in the destruction of the properly , The Court , finding that a large number of witnesses were still to be examined , adjourned the proceedings at a quarter past six o ' clock , and the jury were given in Charge to three constables , and locked up for the night in the Sun Inn . The court was extremely crowded during the day .
TUESDAY . Ocr . 4 th . The court was opened this morning at half-past eight o ' clock , and shortly afterwards the three Jndges entered the court , and took their seats on the bench . The prisoners having been again placed at the bar , and the jury called over , A large number of witnesses were examined , by whom most of the prisoners were sworn to .
STAFFORD , Wednesday Morning . The work is going on as I predicted . The Grand Jury are doing their duty , and bringing down bills of indictments in loads , to the great gratification of those whose Interest it is that such things should be done swimmingly . The people are , however , taught by this wholesale buainesa , that their masters will , if possible , force them toobey , their mandate * , ) and if . they dare to obey their mandates , will make them feel the effects of the power which the constitution of this great , free , and glorious nation baa conferred upon them . This I believe the people feel , and feeling it , have made up their minds as to how they shall act , and what course they shall pursue ..
The trial of the twenty-nine unfortunate wretched men and boys , for the burning of the Reverend Mr . Vale's house , is likely to occupy two days longer . As a matter of course , a number of witnesses have been found to identify them by the colour of their jackets , and that ot their neckerchiefs , as being concerned in the fire . The evidence is so much of a piece that it is almost useless to go over the whole of it , as the Crown has so admirably arranged the prosecution that of Vtxe forty ot fifty witnesses who have appeared in its support , they all | ' agreed upon , the main statements made by them . There is one fact which stamps with its proper weight the credibility of some of those witnesses—it is their denial of the slightest knowledge of a proclamation having been issued , offering a reward of £ 50 to those who give evidence against the prisoners .
One fellow , named Cope , who gave evidence , so insulted the counsel for the defence , by his laughing , that he was compelled to appeal to the Bench to keep him within the bounds of decerum . This fellow actually refused to state within a week , how long he had been in Stafford before the trial . At length he acknowledged that he had been for a fortnight in the gaol to which he was brought to identify whom he could . Another fellow , upon being asked how he gained his livelihood , replied in a most insolent manner that he gained it by eating and drinking . The Bench had also to restrain this fellow ' s audacity .
George Barlow , a fellow who gave his evidence offhanded against the boy , James Millington , aged 17 , acknowledged that he had been twice in custody for highway robbery—once for stealing a tambourine , and at another time for thimble-rigging and cheating at that gome . This pure character positively swore that he had not heard that the £ 50 rewards had been offered by the Government for detecting and prosecuting rioters . He bad been most innocently engaged for nearly an hour in visiting the several rooms of the Rev . Dr . Vale . Enoch Maher , who gave evidence against Loft , a lad only twenty years of age , had been charged with attacking the police station at Stoke . He was subsequently released , and admitted as evidence against the others .
He at first said that he had not been out of work . He then acknowledged that he had no employment for a fortnight before the fire , and that he had all hia goods packed for starting to America since June . His house was searched , when some fringe was found in it . This fellow , whoae effrontery in the witness-box disgusted every one , had been , it appeared , for two hours and a half traversing the several rooms of the Rev . Mr . Vale ' s house while they were on fire . Sampson Whitehouse cross-examined this fellow at great length , and with great ingenuity , to prove that he had been charged with firing the Rev . Mr . Attin ' s house ; that he was called by the police a very useful and handy man , and that he was to have hia liberty if he gave evidence against others . .
Richard Bailey was the next distinguished character who figured in the witness-box . He gave evidence against Joseph Hunter . This fellow stated that he hud been twice in prison for robbery . For the first robbery he suffered fourteen days , and for the second two months ' imprisonment . He was told thai he would be taken unless he went and told something about somebody else , and that if he did so , lie wou' d be pardoned . It is impossible to read tkiis latter evidence without feelings of horror , disgust , and indignation . It is not sufficient to put into the witness-box one fellow who bad been charged with the highway and other robberies , but another fellow who bad likewise suffered for his
robberies , is not only allowed to pollute that place which hitherto Englishmen have been taught to respect with a veneration the most sacred , and which they hitherto approached with awe and trembling ; but this fellow is actually coaxed into it under a promise of a free pardon for his crimes , if he gave evidence against others . Not only that , but he was threatened with being placed in the dock , unless he did so . This reminds the people of the glorious days of Orange aecenriancy in Ireland , when the wretched peasant was flogged at the triangle until his pains and excruciating tortures forced him to declare that A , B , or C were rebels , and who , as rebels , and upon such evidence , were sent to dangle from a gibbet
In the case of James Hurst , there was an occurrence which calls for the most general aud most unqualified reprobation . This child , who is only twelve years of age , could not be identified by the witness adduced against him . The latter , in order to assist him In the identification , was brought from the witnessbox to the table near the dock . Even then he could not identify the child . What then was done ? Will —nay , can—Englishmen believe it ! 1 The child Hurst was actually marched to the front of the dock , and dose to the witness . And then the witness swore to the poor child . After this specimen of ths evidence against the hapless accused , it cannot be denied that the police have raked up the filthiest purlieus of vice and crime to get up witnesses for the particular purpose .
On tomorrow , the prisoners will enter upon their defence , when it is expected that they will shatter to pieces a great portion of the evidence adduced against them . There will be at least fifteen witnesses examined for the defence . It is dubious whether the trial will close even to-morrow night Mr . Roberts is working day and night for his clients . It was most unfortunate that he waa not here earlier , or at least a fortnight ago , for he now has scarcely time to get up proper defences . He has four clerks working late and early , and is leaving no stone unturned in the discbarge of his duty . On last Sunday he applied to see Mr . O'Neil , when he was told by the turnkey , that
it being Sunday , he could not be allowed to see his client;—a beautiful illustration of the Christian spirit which actuates Lord Sandon and the other saints who have the superintendence of this prison . How truly ignorant must they be of the Sacred Scriptures of which they speak so much , and which teach them that on the Sabbath day we ought to assist even our neighbour's dumb animal if it sustains an injury 1 And if that is the case , how much more are we bound to assist our fellow-beings on Sundays when they are in trouble ? How better can we do so , than by performing a corporeal work of mercy in visiting and " assisting those who are in prison . "
The latest intelligence from South Wales that has reached here , states that Chartism is in the zenith there , and that its supporters are daily holding large meetings to advance it by every means . In this town , notwithstanding all the efforts that are making to strangle it , Chartism is gaining the possession of the habitations of the working classes , and in no few instances is creeping into the dwellings of the middle men .
STAFFORD , Thdbsdat . CLOSE OF THE TRIAL OF THE PRISONERS CHARGED WITH DEMOLISHING AND
FIRING THE REVEREND DR . VALES ' HOUSE . Last night concl uded the evidence for the defence . The SoticiTOE-GEHEHAt rose to reply , when The Chief Justice submitted to him whether it would be riRht at that late hoar ( seven o ' clock ) to address the Jary upon a subject which involved the interests of so many prisoners . The Solicitob-Genbbai . said that he wa s pr e p are d to proceed if the Jury desired it . The Jury replied that they were most anxious to retire after the fatigue of the day . . The C ourt w a s a c cordin gly adjourned to half-past nine o ' olock this morning . The Jurors were a third time looked np tot the night in the Sun Inn . After Mr . Axlbm had concluded hi » address m defence of his clients . ' ¦
, ., . Mr . Huddleston made a powerful appeal in behalf of the prisoner Wright , and ^ m a very bold and satisfactory manner , exposed the corrupt and the suspicions evidence that was bronght into action against the prisoners .
Toe Chief Jvstwb rhen asked tae undefended prisoners if they had anything to say . James Saunders s aid t h at he could n ot g et any one io speak . for aim , as he was suddenly takes away by the police . J . Cotton and Samuel Eaton most solemnly protested that they were hurried away by the mob to the scene of destruction . Thomas Wagstaff , and S . Whitehonse would call witnesBses to prove their innocency of the charge preferred against them . Messrs . William Owen , Charles Hackney , Robert Simpson , Thomas Fenton , of the police , James Buck , and —— Pool , knew Whiston upwards of seven , ten , and fifteen years , and durin g tha t t ime he bore a most excellent character .
Mr . and Mrs . Nathan , Mr . Cleft , and Constable Benton , gave Toft a character for quietness , industr y , and sobriety . _ Mr . Bennett proved that Phillips was forced from his work , on the 15 th of August , by the mob . He knew him for twenty years to have been a quiet , inoffensive man . j Mr . Joseph Mills , Mr . Cartledge , and Mr . Saunders corroborated Mr . Bennett ' s testimony . Mr . William Fetlow and Mr ; Barker gave Smith &n excellent character . Thomas Hartshorn , Esq ., a magistrate , Mr . Geo . Paddock , a yeoman , ana Mr . Oldham , testified to Shaw ' s excellent conduct during the last fifteen years . Mrs . Susannah Booth knew Dimmock from his infancy . He was always well conducted . Messrs . Bradbury , Halfpenny , Jenkinson ; and Potts gave similar testimony respecting Cartledge . Messrs . Hill and Sneyd spoke in similar terms o £ Edge . ¦ - ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
Messrs . Heath and Jenkinson ( in the Duke of Sutherland ' s employ ) , Marsh and Plant gave Harris a character for quietness , sobriety and industry . Saanders also received an excellent character from eeveralwitnesses . The appearance of these respectable persons in court on behalf of the prisoners , had a most talismanic effect upon the Judges , the Jury , and even upon the counsel for the prosecution , and seemed to shake to pieces a great mass of the evidence that was brought against the prisoners . Mr . Allen , when pleading the cause of his clients , brought in front of the dock James Hirst , a sickly child of eleven years of age , who was one of them , and called upon the Jury to say if they could suppose for one moment that a child of such tender years was guilty of arson and demolition . An involuntary reply in the negative echoed through the Court .
Mr . Allen made a powerful and heart-stirring appeal on behalf of his clients . When he described the wretohed condition of the prisoners , and of their b e r e aved fam i l i es , the Court , Judges , Jury , Counsel , and spectators were moved to tears , and the wretched prisoners themselves were so overcome that they sank upon the floor of the dock , while their sighs and sobs were distinctly heard throughout the Hall . The scone was truly appalling . _ Towards the close of the day , a fresh bundle of bills were found and brought into court . Amongst which were bills against O'Neil aud Cooper , for sedition , and against Ellis for every crime short of high treason . It was from the beginning dreaded by the friends of Ellis , that the indictment against
him for high treason would not be found and that one for a minor charge would be substituted , as it was admitted by all that in a Court of Justice an indictment for high treason could not be sustained , while a pliant Jury could be induced to return a verdict of guilty against him for a minor charge . It is now reported that it is the intention of the Crown to put upon their trials at this Special Commission the 180 prisoners committed for the Sessions . If this is the case it will prove a great hardship to those prisoners , as they must be so taken by surprise , that they cannot be prepared to defend themselves . Mr . Roberts is , however , doing his best" to- prepare for every extremity . He has engaged Messrs . O'Neil and Allen to defend the prisoners .
It is impossible to describe the sensation caused in the court by the Solicitor-General calling upon the Judges to turn out of the dock the two prisoners , William Hollins and Thomas Jackson , declaring that he could not send them before a jury on the polluted evidence that had been produced against them . The Chief Justice concurred with the Solicitor-General , and ordered them to be discharged . During the three days' trials the Rev . Dr . Vale , the prosecutor and his wife , occupied conspicuous seats under the- Bench , and in the presence of the unfortunate prisoners : such conduct on the part of the rev . prosecutor and bis lady , was the subject of the most unqualified reprobation , as exhibiting , to say the ' east of it , very bad taste . If an opinion ia to be formed of the Rev . Dr . Vale's popularity by the humbler of his congregation , it must be admitted
that it is not very great . If report speaks truth , his congregation . reckons only twenty individuals , while the Dissenting preaching-house in his parish is crowded to excess . That he is not a teetotaller is equally clear , by the quantity of whiskey which was found in his cellar , which whiskey was the real origin of all the excesses that ¦ were committed , as the mob never attempted firing until their brains were fired by that demoniacal spirit , which they found on going into the house to ask money from Mrs . Vale . It is now absolutely necessary that the people should immediately contribute funds amply towards the Defence Fund , as it is more than exhausted . If money is .- not generously supplied , victims upon victims will be made , and thus a stab will be inflicted upon the cause , which it will be difficult for it ever to recover .
THE STAFFORDSHIRE '' TREASON" PLOT . As we yesterday anticipated , the charge of high treason against Ellis could not be supported ; and the Counsel for the Crown have therefore wisely withdrawn it . We do not , however , regard this aot in the same light as the Times does , "an act of leniency , " but one of neoessity , to which they were driven . But we do regard the having committed him at all on such a charge as cruel and unjustifiable . Was it to give a pomposity to the calendar , or to make the charges more formidable , so that the jurors might think there really was something in them ? Thus magisterial treason sinks into a shadow ; and thus , perhaps , their misdemeanours may . turn to nothing . "The mountain labours , and a mouse is born !" Some men cannot distinguish between " Reason " and " Treason ; " but we wiBh they would begin to learn , both for their own sake and the sake of others . —Evening Star , Wednesday ,
On Sundaypn the Christian church held in the Chartist Hall , Leith , the son of Mr . Lauchian , was named Henry Hunt Welsby M'Gregor , by Mr . John Tankard , minister of the above place . Theophenia , the wife of Mr . William Ranford , of Kidderminster , was delivered on the 1 st of October , of two fine boys , who were registered on the 3 rd instant , one Emmett Feargus O'Connor , tbe other M'Douall Feargus O'Connor . Mr . Ruiford has now three boys living , all of whom are rfgistered Feargus O'Connor .
DEATHS . On Tuesday Ia 3 t , suddenly , at Harrogate , after i very short illness , Mr . James Clarkson , of Bradford , solicitor , aged 37 . He was a young nan of considerable talent and acquirements . He was the son of the late Mr . John Clarkson . jrmerly a respectable woolstapler at Wakefield vlr . Clarkson was articled to Mr . Robinson , o ! Wakefieldjiolicitar , and after the expiration oi lis clerkship , wa 9 for soma years in the office of Vlr . Hailstone , o f B ra dford , solicitor . He had ieen in business for himself in Bradford , abom ive years , and acquired a practice whiob vas already respectable , and promised to become ucrative . Ha was a Radical in his politics , and
iad , during late years , frequently taken a proainent part in the meetings of the Radicals , particularly of that large section , the Chartists , * hose doctrines , he , with many men , of mor e ; levated rank in society , contended were the iootrines of the English Constitution , as well as che doctrines of all just and wise men . He was in extremely pleasant associate , and bis information , which was both various and extensive , vas always at the service of his friends without he tax of a professional fee . He has left some -elatives , who will have great reasons to deplore lisloss , for a great portion of the emolumenlerived from his labours was devoted to theii isaistanoe .
~ O " n Thursday , the I 8 th of September , t hat old Radical Reformw , Mr . John Marsland , of Broorr . lane , Haughton , in the 84 th year of his * w On Monday last , aged 66 , deeply ; -T" ^ tieS by all who knew her , after a long ^ painful i ]] nesB Hannah , the wife of Mr . tfOgeph Armitage , < lothdresser , of Little Q"J ^ a treet , m this town .
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^ ___ THE NORTHERN STAR . 5
Northern Star (1837-1852), Oct. 8, 1842, page 5, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/vm2-ncseproduct1182/page/5/