On this page
- Departments (2)
Note: This text has been automatically extracted via Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software. The text has not been manually corrected and should not be relied on to be an accurate representation of the item.
Note: This text has been automatically extracted via Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software. The text has not been manually corrected and should not be relied on to be an accurate representation of the item.
Additionally, when viewing full transcripts, extracted text may not be in the same order as the original document.
"TRADES UNIONS . " [ We take the following extracts from an excellent article in " The Labourer , " ( reviewed in our third page ) . We earnestly recommend the entire article to our Trades readers . ] We bare erer looked upon the growth of Trade * Unions at the healthiest shoot that springs from the democratic trunk . Whether we consider their increasing usefulness to society , or thtir increasing demand for knowledge sad tench of sodil improvement , rte
moving ratad must attach paramount importance to the elements of greatness in this prodigions mass , and matt look with corresponding interest to the application of jts combined strength . There have been many partial trades movements in this country , bat they have one and all lacked that powerful element which g ives strength to the eombreedfew—they have lacked concentration from the ignorant presumption , firstly , that the attempt would buttendto « cite the wrath and strong resistance of the masters , and , secondly , that those of different callings bad bo interest in common .
We attribute this backwardness of the Trades to the want of concentration , and have looked with no small p leasure to the nucleus of combined « uOTement recentl y established by Mr . Doncombe ; and our only wonder is that witfa such a head and such machinery at has been wisely collected from the working body , that that combination ^ does not now number in its ranks every indirU dnalbelonging to every trade throughout the empire . It wouM require but a very slight calculation to convince those nho subscribe their pounds to a sectional moretnent , that their pence would confer greater and more lasting benefi t * , if subscribed to suppor t a national eombiaation .
We have admitted our delight at the new ground assumed by the Trades ; but , neferthe 1 eu . it is meanly deficient a * an element of combination . The Trades are now entitled to a representation cf their own body ; they are in possession of more wealth than belongs ' to their united oppressors ; they are in possession of mere iatell « ct than belongs to their united employers ; they ate consequently in possession of the main ingredients adnutted to be within the pale of representation , but still , fiough possessed of the material , of ample material , they have been lamentably deficient in its application . We » r aware that the democracy of trade has a hard contest in the struggle with itt own aristocracy . We are aware that the perfumed mechanic prefers being the least among the little at the luring Athensum , to being opon an equiility in bis own « ssembly . room with him , with whom he has toiled at the same bench , bat not screwed in the same vice .
The Trades dandyism is not only pernicious to the general body , but debauching to those who indulge in it . We believe that the Trades , like the minister , mutt com * nence , de noco . That like good workmen , they must understand the materials , and out of the most fitting , manufacture the most suitable machinery ; and hating given the subject much thought , and in order to overcome the three great difficulties of disunion , dandyism , and comparative satisfaction , measared by the positive misery of others , and in order to make the Trades what they ought to be , to give them the influence in the Senate which they ought to have , and that power over their em . ployers which justly belongs to them , we would suggest the following mesns of achieving those desirable objects , namely , a thorough representation of the concentrated power sitting permanently in London ; a dob-bouse upon a comfortable and commodious principle , divested
of all luxury , and of which none , save those who labour , shall be members ; a commodious and comfortable meeting-room , capable of accommodating 1500 persons seated respectably , fitted np ia amphitheatrical form , with an elevated chair for the chairman , and enclosed space for the committee , reporters and speakers , and a tribune abc £ e that and under the chairman's chair for the speaker ; also , in connection with this establishment , a large , convenient , and well ventilated shop , for shoe makers on one tide , and tailors at the other , those trades pro ' actuK the wort most easy of transmission . That there shall be a public discussion on each Monday night during the sitting of Parliament , to which all parties shall be admitted free , and in which all classes shall be entitled to take part—the dUcution to be conducted under the rule and governance of . the chairman , who , we presume , will be
Thokas SuicnY Dukcoxbc , hi ? deputy presiding when he shall be unavoidably absent ; and that apon other nights in the week , the meeting house , to be called the Trades Honse of Commons , to be let for public meetings fur all purposes , but never for exhibitions or tomfoolery . That the clabhouse should be let to a competent person , removable niwn the vote of a competent committee , and shall afford every comfort to the members at a much lower price t- ' ian they can now procure them elsewhere ; in short , that the priuciple of co-operation shall be carried out in its fall integrity . That the tradesmen working upon the premises shall receive the highest rate of wages they are worth , and that the proSt upon their produce shall go into the general Trades Exchequer . That there shall be no bed rooms , or no appearance of an hotel about the concern : that it shall consist of a spacious club room , reading roam , library , kitchen , committee rooms , and the ncceggory aptitmenU , all upon the ground floor .
We n-ay be told that this would require a larger preliminary expenditure than the body could meet . This we wholly deiy , and propose the following easy and equitable plan by which the whole and more may be accomplUbed , namely , after the advantages , are simplj and un « mwerably propounded to the Trades , the subscription of a shilling a man from 500 , 000 would realise the sum of £ 15 , 000 , and which , U applied to the alteration of commodious premises ia a convenient situation , rented in perpetuity , would go farttur than £ 60 , 000 sunk in some out of the way place , with the first floor mortgaged before the second floor could be commenced .
Every man employed by the society tbonld consent to be a full member paying tw « shillings a week , to be applied to the purchase of land for the location of the sub . scribers ; or , if they please to sell , thoie who were will , ing to buy . T hese appliances , if properly worked , would soon develops the strength , the power , the value , and the knowledge of the Trades . Their House of Cora , sson * would present an attraction to the juvenile senator , to the manufacturer , the aristocrat , and the shopkeeper ; while thtir coffee house would be the resort of men who would find a wholesome check upon licentiousness ; and the profits they would make , alter the payment of generous wages , would speedily convince their fellows of their value toothers , and induce them to look for that system of representation which would confer it upon tbemselvts .
In lest than twelvemonths from this time , such a society might be the most flourishing in the kingdom ; in two years they wanld have located some hundreds upon their own land , thus relieving the mar . Icet of its surp us , and convincing all of the value of cooperation ; in two years it might have its printing house , its morning paper , and magazine , for , let it be under . » too 4 , that with a proper confederation , it is not a violent assumption to presume that 200 trades in London and different parts of the empire , would be able to compel the landlord of their bouse of resort to take a single paper , which , ntunaiins ; the combined members of the trades at one million , would secure a circulation of itself of five thousand dail y . Such a body would soon command power ; such an association would soon drive Moses and ^ Son out of the ' marktt , and leave the masters of Northamp ton empty houses to let .
We cannot conclude our observations upon this bead , without reminding mechanics , and trades generally , of the conspiracy of the Kewton masters against their men , and the necessity of arming the latter with toe means of fittin g the pitched battle ; as labour defeated in that simple , will have received a heavy blow and great discouragement , from which it will not speedily recover .
DALKEITH SHOEMAKERS . : The Operatives Shoemakers here formed themselves into an Association about eighteen moDths ago , and ' in conseqience , have twice saccteded in getting an advance of wast * . Some sneaks amongst the men nave refused to join the Union , and the union men have , therefore , refused to work with them . Another strike has beta thus occasioned . All the masters cave giv « n in . except two , Stewart and Landsn . but as trade is brisk , it is expected that they will do at the others have done , and employ none but union men .
TO THE FBAME . WORK KNITTERS OF THE MANSFIELD DISTRICT . Mt Fbiesdi , —If you will be at the trouble to turn over the pages of history , you will find that every institution which has been formed , every movement which has been s < . t on foot , having for its object the ameli oration of the condition of the working men , has ever been beset with a great amount of difficulty and danger . Many—very many of the disasters which the working classes have met with in bygone times , are traceable to their own folly and imprudence , the miscarriages , failures , defeats , and the entire annihilation of their societies , have been occasioned in too many instances by their hasty , rash , and premature conduct . Let us then be more guarded , and not drive our vessel against the rocks upon wliieli many hare so fatally split . Many of our members have of late grown discontented , alleging as the cause tbat the executive has broken their promise in respect to purchasing frames and setting them to work , while other
and better paid trades who havenot been in the association near so long as us , and who made application for assistance subsequent to us , have bad their request responded to . To the first part of this complaint , I can only say that when the central committee made that promise , it was upon the supposition that the associated trades wsuld soon furnish them with the means to do so , but if the trades neg lect their duty , that is , if th « y do not furnish them with funds who ' blame them or the executive ! Ay , but , say some , they have had funds to strike others , —why not us ? To this I msy reply , that the executive were placed in office by the late conference , toptomotetheinter « stof the whole association , and to thow partiality to noue , and I think any otber trade harms applied f « r assistance subsequent to us , and the executive having calml y and dispassionately canvassed the merits of the case , and having found it to be more urgent nod pressing , and not having sufficient funds at command to meet both caies , I should say that they were quite right under sach circumstances , at all erenes
I faavt not the least doubt that they nill be la a position , at a proper time and place , to juitfy ths steps taken . Othsrs , there are who object to the ptv test recently recommended by the executive in case of an attempted reduction of wages or Infringements of any kind mad * upon the rights of la . bour . This is a subject surrounded with a great deal of difficulty , for "bile working a fortnight under protest , we should perhaps make one or two hundred dozens of stockings , and that , In all probability , establish a reduction throughout the trade . Whereas , if the case was taken up with promptitude , it would be fettled in a few
hoars or days at most . Still I conceive it would be very injurious , if not altogether destructive of the association , to give irresponsible power to each locality to strike , and then appl y to the . executive for support , as many trades mi ght strike at one , and the same time , call upon the executive for assistance , when from their previous engagements wit h other trades , it would be impossible to give it , thus causing confusion , disorder , andanarch y on wry hand . Parties who manage strikes must knew their extent , the amount of funds required , and every other information necessary to secure a sne cessful issue .
Let us view this question ofworktng under protest as we may , there seems to be an evil connected with it , but the proper mode of procedure in such a cast is to propose a remedy for the consideration of next confer , ence and this can be done by giving due notice of the same to the executive , and not , as some say , withhold their contribution , and wait a whil « , and see how the association progresses . Oh ! you waiters ^ -while—jou obstructors of all social reform—you who would rather submit to the grinding exactions of the bagmsn than subscribe 6 d . a week to an institution so well adapted to remove the incubus tbat is pressing you to the earth ,
what right have you to esect to derive a benefit from the toil , energ y , and other funds of men ! Remember that the awful state of destitution into which society is sunk , wasnotthsworkofa day , a month , or a year , neithsr can it be removed in that time . The essentials necessary to ensure success are patisnee , perseverance , fortitude , and untirin ; zeal . You who glory in singing « f the heroic deeds of your ancient sires , how they fought , blsd , and conquered , in the came of humanity , justice , and liberty , copy their glorious exampls , be energetic , act nobly , and posterity will regard you as thtir benefactors and deliverers .
I come now to consider very briefly the benefits this association proposes to confer upon its msmbers . It is not a mere strike association ; as the working classes art the producers of all the wealth , i t is the object of this association to put them in possession of It , and by erecting factories and workshop * , opening mines , and purchasing land , by which means the working man will be made to enjoy the fruits of his industry , and not as now have to pass through the bands of this profitmonger , and that speculator , of this gambler , and that a gent , of this capitalist , and that bagmen , until there is not a tenth of the original earnings left for the ill-used workmen . Let us rejoice my friends , that this no visionary , chimerical , or Utopian scheme , but a reality , one which the Executivt
are actively engaged in reducing to practice as far as their means will allow , as witness the London shoe makers , the Cradley nail makers , the framework knitters of Duffield , and the framework knitters of Nottingham . Let us not indulge in any petty jealous feeling ! because our case is not attended to > o toon as we anticipated , but let us rather rejoice that the good work is commenced , and strengthen the bands of the Executive by furnishing the means , and I have not the least doubt that our case willbe attended to at the earliest possible moment . Let us also disabuse our minds of the idea , that the Executive are actuated by motives of partiality towards any trade , for I am quite sure that the noble-minded , indefatigable , Buncombe is a sufficient guarantee for you against any meb . improprieties .
Up then I say and shake off yourpresent unpardonable apathy and indifference , rally round our own Duncombe and the Executive , and they will speedily become a terror to tyrants , and respected by those who do well . I am , friends , Your respectfully . Williah FsxKiir , Secretary .
THE "CONSPIRACY"CASE . TO THE EDITOK OF TBS XOSTBiaX STAB . Sir , — -Seeing a statement concerning myself in th » columns of your valuable paper , I am compelled to trouble you in order tbat th » statement may be cor . rected . It is mentioned in your excellent journal that I said in the course of my remarks at a meeting held in the Temperance-hall , Watsrfloo-road , London , on Tuesday Bee . 22 , that when Mr . Selsby was taken , his locks were broken , and his valuable papers taken , without any legal authority . Allow me , sir , to repeat what I did ia reality say at the meeting . I said tbat whtn Mr . Selsby was made acquainted with the businessof the police , heasked for permission to see his family , but owing to their being
so little time to spare , as they wanted to go by the last train to Warrington , it was refused him ; he then begged of them to allow him to write a note to his wife for his overcoat , and while he was writing the note , the officers took down from behind the door a notice paper , and afterwards searched the letter box , and the letter found in the box not having upon it any marks that would lead them ] to suppose that it had to do with the matter in question , was deposited again in the bos , or banded over to Mr . Selsby without being opened , this being done without auy legal authority , the officer only having a warrant of arrest , and not a warrant of search . False stated
that Mr . Selsby was taken with keys upon him , and the parties put in authority in the room of Mr . Selsby had to get the locks picked , and those that could not be picked bad to be broken open , in order to get some papers that were then wanted , and the letter referred to was found sealed up ; this was on the Tuesday following . By correcting the above you will oblige , Yours respectfully , Thomas LANcasna , 13 , Slater-street , OUhanwro&d , Manchester . P . 9 . —I should have wrote sooner but owing to my en . gagementt I could not .
CO-OPERATIVE LEAGUE . The objects and plans of this body ( noticed in our latt ) are set forth in the following extracts from their prospectin : — I . —Objects . The purchase or rental of land , and the erection of suitable buildwgs and machine ) y thereon for the purpose of enabling members profitably to employ themselves , either in agricultural , mechanical , or other pursuits . The property to be indivisible and inalienable property of the League , ana to be leased to individuals or companies of subscribers , in the proportion of not more than five acres to one family ; and at an average rent not exceeding five per cent , on the original cost . Tenants to be sup . plied with implements , seed , manufacturing machinery , and otber requisites . The cost of the tame to bear Interest at the rate of five per cent , per annum , and to be repaid to the League at the rate of ten per cent , of the principal per aonnm . II . —Means .
In order to raise a sufficient fund to carry out these objects , each member shall subscribe one pound per annum , and the capital so raised shall be devoted solely to the purchase of property . Each member shall also contribute one penny per week to meet expenses . ' In order , therefore , to prove this plan practicable , and to illustrate the manner of its operation , let us suppose that a given number of persons—say , One Million , agree to contribute a Pound each per annum to a general fund , one million sterling would thus beraisedin a year ; the half of which might be devoted to the purchase of land and buildings , and the otber half to that s > f seed ,
implements , manufacturing machinery , and other requisites . Thus , from 20 , 000 to 25 , 000 acres , of good land would be ^ secured , and at least 5 , 000 families be provided for ; while , in addition to the ordinary subscriptions of members , £ 50 , 000 per ann « m would be added to the income of the League , by rent of land , and interest of money ; and if we suppose these subscriptions to be continued for twenty years , and the produce of each year to be added to the interest of the preceding year , tbe grocs value of the property so accumulated woald be upwards of £ SS 000 , 000 . Thus we can prove | beyond & doubt , that the working classes can become the possessors of great property if they will .
It is true , that all the members of the League could not be provided for at once ; but all would receive immediate advantage from association . Such a body of individnals could do much , even in the infancy of the under , taking , towards supporting each other , by mutual employment , interchange of commodities , and the va . rioa * kind offices which it will be the duty of tbe members of tb . ii League to render to one another . And it wlU b « evident that a » Boon at a » y considerable quantity of land is obtained , such a combination could entlrel . support themselvss , by tbe mutual exchange of produc tlons between the agriculturist and the manufacturer ' * n such a community production could have no other limit than that of the fertility of tbe soil ; and as ex . ckanges would not depend , as at present , upon gold , the reward of the Industrious would be certain .
Kilmarsock . Teades . —There is not much doing in any of the branches of the manufactures of thic town . To whatever cause it is owing , the products of the looms—Brussels and Scotch carpets , mousseleine de laines and shawls , are as languid in demand as yarns , bonnets , and shoes . The high rate of provisions—the want of full employment—and the lowness of wages , are in combination , pressing hardly on the lower classes , producing disease with an increased mortality .
THE LIBERALITY OP THE STAR CONTRASTED WITH THE LEEBS PRESS . TO THE EDITOR OF TBE NORTHERN STAR . Sir , —In a note which I sent you last week , with the printed address which you kindly inserted in the Star of the 2 nd instant , and for which I return you my sincere thanks in the name of the carpet weavers of Great Br itain . I there gave it as my opinion , and I believe that I only gave the prevailing opinion of the working classes of this country , whin I stated that the liberality Of Iht Northern Star in representing the interests of the working classes was without a parallel in the British press . Sir , subsequent events liave confirmed me in the above opinion , as the following will plainly show : As secretary for the Leeds carpet weavers , I received two copies of the printed address referred ( o , from Scotland , on Monday , Becember 28 , one of which I sent off the same day to you ' , I then went with the remaining copy to the " Leeds Mercury " , office- ( not without misgivings)—and
respectfully requited the « dUor to insert It In the Xtteury for tbat week ; but I was told that it could only ap . psar as an advertisement , for which I would have to pay . I then hied myself off to the Ttnwi' office , where 1 thought I shtuld be more liberally treated ; but blessed are they who expect nothing from sham liberals , for they shall not be disappointed . I received a similar answer . I then thought I would try tbe Tory office of the MtUigenetr their answer was a shade more liberal than the other two ; but here also I was doomed to disappoint ment , as they thought that those to whom the addr « is was made were too remoU to be of any interest in this
neighbourhood . Since then , without any refusal , equi . vocation , or demand , you have kindly inserted it in the Star . The above facts , I think , speak trumpeUongued to the working meu , who is , and who is not , their real friends in time of need . I call then , in conclusion , to the toiling millions , but to the carpet weavers especially , to mark well their real friends , and support them as such ; the only direct way to do this ( so far as we are concerned with the press ) is to withdraw our support from tbat portion of the preis which dees not represent the interests of the working classes , and to support tbe only paper—the Star—which mort faithfully echo ' s the voice of an insulted people .
If you can give the above a place in this week ' s paper , you will still further oblige , Yours , respectfully , Leeds , Jan . 4 , 1847 . J . MittSB . WARRINGTON "CONSPIRATORS" AND THEIR
VICTIMS . A mechanic forwards us a long letter addressed to the Trades , the conclusion of which is as follows : — " Where must we look for protection f I say to your union , and to Mr . Duncombe and Mr . Roberts . Union enabled you to defend the Dorchester labourers and the Glasgow cotton-spinners ; and union will enable you to success , fully defend your brethren against the Newton tyrants . Mr . Duncombe will use his great influence in parliament for your protection , and if Mr . Roberts is but properly supported he will bring off our brethren victorious . Upon the extent of support you afford depends the issue of the struggle . "
THE OPERATITE BLOCK-PRINTERS OF SCOT . LAND . " A Subscriber" belonging to this trade appeals to his fellow-operatives to bestir themselves for their own emancipation . The great evil affecting the trade Is the vast number of unemployed hands ; the supply of labour far exceeds the demand . This enables the employers to dictate wages , being always able to command workmen from the surplus bands . Nor is this all , owirg to the great number of workmen , the employed bands have work for only about one-balf of the year . " A SubtcrL ber" suggests tbe following remedy : —
" I would suggest to' you a means , which at least to me , appears capable of amending this state of things ,- * vix . the locating so many annually upon the land , or the co-operative system , as laid down by Mr . O'Connor . As you are numerous , a very small contribution , weekly , would enable you to dispose of , say fifty , a hundred , or as many as you think proper , yearly , until you had removed the surplus labour , if you did not ^ chooss to go any further . " The writer concludes by an earnest appeal to the trade to take bis suggestion into immediate and serious consideration .
MINERS PUBLIC DINNER . William Hulton , Esq . and sons , near Bolton , having given their colliers the handsome sum of Five Guineas by way of a New Year ' s Gift , it was resolved by the men to appropriate the same to a public dinner . Accordingly , on Monday , the 4 th instant , about 100 of the hardy sons of the mine sat down to a good substantial dinner at the house of Mr . John Marsh , Queen Ann Inn , Dean Church , near Bolton . After ample justice had been done to the good things provided , Mr . W . Daniells , Editor of the Miner ' t Advocate , was called to the chair , and Mr . W . Scott to the vice chair , when the song , toast , and sentiment went merrily round , and all seemed to enjoy themselves to their heart ' s content . The workmen in this case appear to be quite eontented with their employer , and the employer perfectly satisfied with the conduct of the men—both striving to promote the welfare of each other . This is as it ought to be .
We must not omit to mention that the worthy landlord , Mr . Marsh , generously gave tbe colliers a barrel of ale , and the meat left at dinner he caused to be served up for supper , free of cost . The following toasts and sentiments were enthusiastically drank during the evening by the chairman : " The People—the source of all legitimate power . " "William Hutton , Esq . and sons , God bless them ; may they and their families enjoy a happy and prosperous New Year . " " Success to the Coal Trade . " "The Miners Association ; may the noble objects for which it was formed be speedily accomplished . " " W . P . Roberts , Esq ., the honest and talented Miners Attorney General .
By the Vice Chairman-. — "The Miners Advocate , may its future career be a prosperous one , and may the miners generally give it their hearty support . " " Mr . William Danielle , the Editor of the Miners Advocate , and the honest and independent portion of ( he Public Press . " "Thegeneral officers ef the Miners Association , and the past and present officers of the Dean Church district . " By the Chairman : — " The Lecturers of the Assooi ition , and the health , of Mr . M . Scott . "
The miners—their wives and sweethearts . " " The worthy host and hostess , may they live long and die happy . " Mr . Oliver and tbe rest of the just and trustworthy agents of Squire Hulton ' s Colliery . " Several addresses were delivered by Messrs . Danialls and Scott The greatest harmony was kept up to a late hour , when the company separated .
RENEWED AGITATION FOR THE ADOPTION OF THE TEN HOURS' BILL IN FACTORIES . SECOND GREAT MEETING AT EDINBURGH .
On Monday evening a second public meeting of the inhabitants of Edinburgh was held in the Music Hall for the purpose of htaring addrasses from Mr . Oastler and Mr . Ferrand , M . P ., on the Tea Hours' Bill , and of considering the propriety of petitioning Parliament in favour of that measure . The hall was well filled by an audience composed of both sexes . Sir James Forrest occupied the chair ; and on the platform beside him we observed , amongst others , the Rtv . JDrs . Candlsh , H . Orey , James Buchanan , Claion , and Duncan ; the Rev . Mr . M'Crie , Dr . Smyttou , Mr . Wbyttock , Mr , W . K . Johnston , and Mr . Boyd .
Mr . OiSTLM then , at great length entered into a history of the factory system , similar to what begare at the previous meeting ; showing the cruelty and oppression exercised towards the factory apprentices prior to the introduction of the bill limiting the labour of children under thirteen years of age to six hours a-day . He proved , from the evidence adduced before the Parliamentary committee , tbat be bad not over-stated their excessive toil , when he bad set it down at fourteen and fifteen hours per day—the fact being , that in some instances it extended to seventeen and even nineteen hours a day . He referred to the little time afforded to the
children by the present hours of labour for intellectual , maral , and religious improvement ; and stated that , although these hours | were only twelve by statute , yet from various circumstances they were nearer fourteen . He also noticed the effects of this excessive labour upon females ; and after relating several interesting anecdotes bearing upon his own career , and exhibiting the attach , ment which was displayed towards him by thoie whose cause be bad espoused , he concluded , amidst much applause , by recommending the Ten Hours' BUI , for which Saddler , Fielden , himself , and others , had so long struggled , to their serious conaideratioa and regard .
Mr . Femahd , M . P ., who was loudly cbeered , commenced bis address by observing , tbat tbe advocates of the Ten Hours'BUI had united the working men of the manufacturing districts in England ; they were as one man in favonr of it . There was not a man , woman , or child in th « factory districts , having to earn their bread by factory labour , who was not united in an Indissoluble bond to demand , until the ; obtained , the Ten Hours Bill . ( Cheers . ) They were backed in this movement by a majority of the ] manufacturers of the West Hiding of Yorkshire , who wera themselves impressed with the awful responsibility which rested on their heads while they continued the present blood-stained system ; and his friend Mr . Oastler and himself had been sent across tlie border by the largest cotton-spinntr and manufacturer in the ] whole world . They had hoisted in Scotland the
banner of freedom to the factory slave , and wherever it bad yet been exhibited it had been hailed with gladness and with joy , with every demonstration of sympathy and devotion . ^ Cheers . ) And why , he asked , were the working men of England so determined to have pro . tection for their labour by a Ten Hours' Factory Bill ? Because they were at that moment the most distressed race of men and women in the whole elvilized world . Go where they would , search the records of every country , and tell him a land whose population was so degraded , so trampled upon , as the factory workers of Euglaud . Look at what they have suffered for half a century . Ever peaceable , ever loyal , ever asking the Parliament and Government of the country for protection , they had hitherto sued in vain . They had sent them to Scotland to proclaim their wroHgs , which were so well known in
England ; and would it be said that the enli ghtened people of Edinburgh , that great city , said to contain the mind of Great Eritsin , appealed to in vain , would send them back careless and unconcerned about the fate of their suffering fellow-countrymen t He knew he came upon a successful mission , and that he should return to tell the poor factory workers that the people of Scotlan d did indeed feel sympathy for them , and were prepared to demand of Parliament that the working population of the manufacturing districts should no longer be kept the degraded iaee they were , but that they should enjoy those benefits of prottctiun for their labour which the rich enjoyed for their property . ( Cheers . ) Mr . Furrand continued to speak at suine length , and recited many melancholy cases of destitution in Yorkshire and Lan . cashire , the principal seats of the cotton manufacture . Mr . CtiMMiNo , seconded by Mr . M'Faklane , both working men . jmoved a resolution to the effect that a
reduction of the sours of labour In factories was abso lutely necessary for tbe health of those employed in them . The motion having been unanimously agreed to , a . person rose in the body of the hall , and made some observations as to the cruelty of subjecting females to factory labour at all . He also took the liberty of stating tbat the landed aristocracy were as much to blame at the manufacturers in regard to the way in whish they treatsd those in their employment . The Rev . Dr . Hihkt Grit said—Tbe facts that havs been brought before us this evening have been , indeed , most interesting and affecting ; and you have responded to them by tbe expressions of your sympathy . It has been impossible to listen to the narration without deep sorrow and distress of mind , and without perhaps a feel .
ing of indignation . The circumstances to which the poor , the labouring poor or operatives , have been reduced are altogether peculiar . England is considered as the ricbeat country in the world , yet nowhere , I believe in the world , is so much abject poverty to be found . Lately , in travelling upon the Continent , I no doubt saw much poverty ; butl never witnessed such degraded poverty ss may be found sven in the city ; and from ths accounts just given us by Mr . Ferrand , the state of things appears to be still worse in the manufacturing districts of England . And again , England is considered as the most intelligent country in the world ; and yet , nowhere do we find humanity reduced to such a wretched and miserable state of ignorance ; and this is to be attributed to the 1 mp » ssibllity of affording education tar those poor
children who , at the tender age of sevsa , are introduced to factory work . ( Applause . ) England , I believe , will atso present to us many of the noblest specimens of Christian character , yet nowhere do we find vice so rampant , and exhibiting such revolting features . Surely , therefore , there must be something wrong in the constitution of things , or at least in the arrangements of society , 1 cannot but express a sympathy with those who regret the immense difference found not in rank , not in honours , but in property , tbe immense disparity in respect to property that we discover in different classes of the community ; that while a few are loaded with wealth , the great mass are sunk in the deepest destitution . I am happy to find that in this meeting tbe obligations of religion have been so distinctly acknowledged ; and on look
ing to the institutions of the Great Ruler of the worldon locking at the arrangements prescribed by Infinite Wisdom for the government of that nation , which in former ages it pleased God specially to distinguish with His favour , I have observed that provisions were made to prevent the excessive accumulation of property , and again for preventing the test of destitution . ( Cheers . ) I will just refer to that remarkable arrangement by which , at the commencement of every 80 th , the year of jubilee , he who had been compelled by the pressure of circumstances t « sell bis inheritance was again put in possession of it . This law at once prevented a great accumulation at least of landed property , and provided relief for the destitution of the distressed . ( Cheers . ) An agrarian law was continually aimed at by the people of Borne . I
speak not now in praise of such an arrangement . The thing Is Impossible . Property must , of necessity , be dispensed in very different allettments ; still we must regret , not the comfort and happiness of the rich , but the degradation and misery of the poor . ( Cheers . ) I have listened with the deepest interest to our friends wko have addressed us , and especially to the affecting speech with which this meeting was opened by Mr . Oastler . No parts of it were more refreshing to me than those which threw some little light on his own personal character and conduct . I had , like others , been led to think on some occasions that he was an agitator , and perhaps something worse . ( Laughter and applause . ) How delighted lam to find him a witness for the truth , and almost a martyr for the truth ! ( Cheers . ) The resolution which I have to propose to this meeting declares that children of thirteen years of age and upwards are kept fourteen hows a day , meal time included , which is a great hardship ;
and that the hours of labour might be shortened by the use of additional machinery , which has arrived at great perfection , without any material injury to the employer . ( Applause . ) Children of thirteen years of age 1 what man ef humanity would permit a child of bis own to be worked for fourteen hours out of tbe twenty-four f It is altogether unreasonable . We ought to sympathise with those poor creatures who are subjected to fourteen hours ' continuous occupation at that early period of life . ( Ap . plause . ) And we must do the same as regards the females . Is it not melancholy to think , in this civilised age and couutry , we are brought to this state , that the women and children are often the persons who , by their labour , by their unseasonable , toilsome , and oppressive labour , support their fathers and their husbands ; and this , in many cases , not from the will of ths men themselves , but from the unnatural arrangements of the factory system ! ( Applause . ) Mr . M'Crie seconded the resolution .
Dr . Candhsb then rose amidst the most snthusiastie applause . He said—I will not , at this hour , trespass on the patience of the meeting at any length . I appear here very gladly , at the request of several working men of Edinburgh , to receive the statements and communications of the gentlemen who have come from a distanoe to address us , and who , while I offer no expression of opinion on other subjects , I have no hesitation In welcoming as true philanthropists on this question . ( Applause , ) I appear to express my entire concurrence in the object of this meeting , viz , for shortening the excessive hours of labour , especially in the case of women and children . ( Applause . ) The resolution which I have to propose is ¦¦ That an abridgment of the hours of labour , especially in the case of women and children , is necessary to afford
time for the religious , the moral , and the intellectual culture of the labourer , which , under the present system , is lamentably neglected . " Now , I am vary well atvare that during late years some improvement has taken place in this department of soolety . I am well aware that some restrictions have been placed on the employment of children in particular ; and I regard this as a stop in the right direction , the legislative enactment requiring tbat children of a certain age employed at work should be , during a certain period of the week , at school . I rejoice in this , as a step in the right direction ; but it is a very , very small step indeed , ( Applause . ) I have a personal knowledge of some of the manufactaring districts in . the west , and of the working of that system , and I know how very little real education can ba imparted to children hastily dismissed from work , without time for
preparation at home . I can see no remedy for the great evil of children being employed so as to prevent their be . ing educated , if it be not made a matter of absolute requirement that every person employed shall have learned to read and write ; but upon this point I am not required , according to the terms of my resolution , to enlarge . I am sure it must be evident to all , tbat an abridgment of the hours of labour is absolutely indispen . sable to the spiritual , moral , and intellectual cultuteei the community . After some other remarks to the same effect , Dr . Candlish read a letter signed " A Dress , maker ' s Assistant , " and called attention to the wearisome toil and scanty earnings of this industrious class , whose bard lot was truly depicted in thelmmortal " Song of the Shirt . " ( Applause . ) Mr , Whttock seconded the resolution .
It was then proposed and agreed to that a netition It was then proposed and agreed to that a petition should be drawn up , iu nccordanee with the resolutions , and after being sign « d b y the Chairman , should be transmitted for presentation to both Houses of Parliament . On the motion of Mr . Oastler , seconded byMr . Fer . rand , a vote of thanks was then given to the Chairman , aad the meeting broke up . RICHARD OASTLER , ESQ .
to the Eorroa or ths hoxthixh stab . London , January 6 , 1847 . Sir , —Permit roe to trouble you with a few words in repl y to Mr . J . Macpherson ' s letter in your last . I did not "put myself in communication with parties in the tywns of Scotland . " I left all the arrangements with Mr . Pitkethley , and followed his directions throughout . The road between Dundee and Aberdeen being impassable for several days , prevented Mr . Pitkethleys s letter reaching Aberdeen in sufficient time to
give notice for the meeting . I was not aware that Mr . Pitkethley ' s letter had been delayed , —but , when I inquired for a conveyance from Dundee to Aberdeen , I was told there was Hone , either by land or water , but that the mail bags were conveyed on horseback from Montrose to Aberdeen . Finding myself locked up in Dundee , | I wrote a letter to the chairman of the Dundee meeting , explaining the circumstances which hindered my arrival at that town , and shortly stating my views on the Ten Hours' Bill .
Still I wag anxious to reach Alerdeen , if possible , and being informed by the Dundee Short Time Committee that the Aberdeen meeting weuld be held , I resolved to wait till the last moment , hoping that the road might be open , and that I should have the pleasure to address the inhabitants of Aberdeen on Monday evening . I waitod three days in Dundee , and on Sunday night at twelve o ' clock , left that town in the mail for Aberdeen , where I arrived at eight o ' clock in the morning . I retired to rest , being very weary , and was very sorry to find that the snow had delayed Mr . Pitkethley ' s letter , and no meeting could be held . I was , liowevw , delighted to meet Mr . James Macplierson and others , and 1 hope I paved the way for a future meeting ; at all events , for petitions in favour ot the Ten Hours' Bill to Parliament during its next session . I was pressed to remain in Aberdeen a few days , that proper notice might bo given and a meeting held . My . engagement in Edinburgh prevented ma having that pleasure . '
Through Mr . James Macpheraon ' s kindness I was enabled to reach the packet the moment before she started , else , I might have been too late for the Edinburgh meeting . I did not receive Mr . James Macpherson ' s letter , addressed to me at Dundee until 1 arrived at Edinburgh . ' 1 cannot conclude this letter without returning my grateful thanks to all those kind friends in Scotland , who supported me in the glorious cause which it is my delight to advocate . To all ranks I am thankful , —but most to the faithful operatives , I never can furget their kind attentions .
May I urge our friends in Scotland to finish tie good work by obtaining numerous petitions . I reniain , Sir , Your ' s respectfully , T . C M * U I 4 , , RlCllARD 0 ASUER . V - ~" . Y th a . nk 9 aM tendered to you for the kind notices with which you favoured us . —R 0
TO THE ROMAN CATHOLIC HEIRARCHY OF IRELAND . Kwht Rsv . ahd Rev . Sui , Aggressive parties having seized upon the possessions ef their neighbours . lt followed that thoie whom they robbed of their inheritance wsre cast upon the world as beggars , to become slaves or vagrants . They w « e rendered poor by violence , against which they could not successfully contend , and were therefore compelled to submit to tbe conditions imposed upon thtm by their new masters . What was gained by the sword was preserved by the sword , and the lath and the knout were introduced as auxiliaries in the war of aggression . It is an old but true saying , that all the large fishes eat the little
ones , but it is a mercy tbat Provid « nce has so contrived it that many of those large fish have small gullets , and that a spirit of resistance eiisti in the animal economy of the small ones , or there would not he a sprat left in the ocean . As It is with fishes , so it is with men ; one large fish requires many small onss to fill his stomach , and swallows them accordingly ; fish eat fisb , man eats man , and thanks God for a bsllyfull , and prays for a happy digestion . Whenever we turn our eyes throughout our unhappy country , we mav see the truth of this analogy , she is preyed upon by the autropophazi of class legisla . tion in all Us hideoutness and deformity . First—thtrt is the Ruler , who dispenses the laws which grind her te the dust , and claiming merit for mercy , where Justice is denied . Then we have his minions in red coats and in
green , ready to whet their weapons on the emaciated bodies of starving fellow creatures . Here we have the gown and wig cannibals cutting . and slicing and stew , ing the savory pottage ; and there we have the gown and mitre epicures purloining every bit of fat left in the nation . To-day we have tbe landlords working and starving their famished viptims ; and to-morrow we may see their agents hunting and driving them to destruction , and pre . mature and miserable deaths ; and as if her bones were not already picked clean enough , aextcomes in all its hideousness the " Youmanle" of the Carlbs , as a middle man and a rack renter ; bis repast is sqeezed out of her vitals and her tears , and hearts' blood furnish bis ssnguinary beverage and to readerdestruction still more complete , we have the carrion crow and vulture , birds of unholy and ominous asptct , the last and the worst of astrophagi , in the shape
of political traffickers , devouring with napacious energy , the few remaining remnants of Inland ' s mangled corpse ! Ne wonder , reverend sirs , that starvation is in the landthat death is iu the highways—that Erin receives her children to her bosom coffinless !! But , blessed are the martyred dead—the living claim our consideration , and to their interests let us devote ourselves . Let us by unanimity , perseverance , and honesty , exert ourselves to remove the evils of the present , and provide blessings for the future ; let us lay down our prejudices , and like true philanthropists , enlist ourselves in the cause of suffering humanity ; let us labour like men and Christians to place our fellow creatures in such a position , that huuger will henceforth have no power to KILL—or might or monopoly toleck up the land which God declared should bring forth abundantly to supply their want .
In my last letter , I stated < hat the land for the people , and ' political power to secure its possession and advantages , would b » found the only true remedy for Irish grievances . I believe there is not one Irishmen in every ten thousand , who would attempt to deny the first part of this proposi . tion ; and it ii quite certain did they properly under , stand the latter , and were in possession of it , the first would be immediatel y achieved . Much time and energy have been lost in instilling into the minds of the people doctrines which could only lead to their further debase , ment , and it is melancholy to reflect that you , reverend
sirs , whom 1 believe to be sincere In your motives , should have so long been the dupes of the political artifice of designing and self-interested Individuals , Heretofore , it was fashionable to lay all the charge of Irelaud ' s misery to the influence of the Tories ; at another time it was laid to the account of the Whigs ; bat this seems to have been a pretence only , if we are to judge from results ; but now the juggler would endeavour to cheat honest men out of their senses , by laying the blame at tbe door of Divine Providence , merely because a failure has happened in the Potato Crop !
Do the impious and unhallowed lips which dare to libel the munificence of Heaven , ever feel the parching thirst which consumes the starving victims of man ' s injustice ; or does his stomach ever fe « l the gnawing , and the hankering , or the delirium , or the madness of hunger t Does the libeller ever see his children stretched on the bare ground starved , dying , anddead— "foodfor vermiu !" —or feel the awful certainty tbat his own dissolution is at handt Oh No ! He sits at "Belihaizar ' g feasj , ' where wine and oil , milk and honey are in abundance ; he is dressed in " purple and fine linen , " and his feet rest upon carpets , and the wails of widows , and the cries o ( orphans are drowned in the dulcet tone of vocal and in . strumental music ; he sits at the " Rich Man ' s Table where Lazarus is denied the crumbs which the dors pick
up ! , ' Ah I Rev . Sirs , the message has gone forth from Heaven , and already the " Handwriting" is " on th « wall . " Divine Providence will not be libelled with impunity , for HE does not visit one with hunger , and another with plenty ; but it is man who monopolises tbe right to lock up and dispense at his pleasure the products of the earth for whieh he never laboured , and thereby frustrated the intentions of Providence who has sent sufficient ( even for tbe present , ) to supply tbe wants of all his creatures . Providence has not taken the corn , and the cattle , and the pins . Providence built no walls , or erected no ehvaue 4 t frite to exclude his children frem the land which was to supply them with food ; he built no castles or bastions to frown over the fair face of nature ; the banners of the Almighty waved aloft amidst
the clouds , —bis fortress was the snow-capped summit of the sternal hills , and the valleys at his feetwere stretched out In native beauty , teeming with life ia all Us various forms , that man , the " Lord of all , " should take , and eat , and live 1 Providence made no landlords , but man made a lord of himself , and compels his equals to bow down before the " calf" which he set up as the object of their adoration , and this kind of idolatry has become so prevalent tbat we have ealves of all kinds and classes , from the great calf who made a lord of himself down to tbe wretchsd " slink " who pockets the price of a dirty sum . mons served upon some unfortunate wight whose means will , not permit him to pay tribute to the particular idol he Is bound to worship . The great lord (!) gourmandises turtle and wine on the continent or elsewhere ; the lord , ling calf of a middle man apes the manners of his mas . ter , and grinds his tenants to prosure luxuries to gratify his vanity and satiate his vulture appetite : the little
lord of a landlord , who rents under the middle-man , al . though he works hard is obliged to be satisfied with buttermilk and salt herrings when he can get them , but the poor wretch who may be employed to labour for either of them dines in a ditch upon " lumpers , " and would deem it a luxury to have the appendage of salt and water to dip his worst class of potatoe in , but if this , bad as it is , fall him , if Providence denies this last re . source , as at the present , he is left to starve I And whj ? Because the turtle must still be eat on the continent . Landlord Calf Dan , and Landlord Calf Noodle must have their hunters and tbeir beagles ( for beagles must eat though Christians should starve !); they must be gentle , men and M . P . ' s if possible , to enhance their dignity ; and alHhe corn , and the pigs , and every available article must find their way te the ' ' big house" to enable its owner to sustain his respectability , and to enable him , if he is a political pedlar , to attend the auctionraart where patronage is bartered for liberty .
The education of the people has heretofore be « n such as so give sanction to the principle which now operates so injuriously against thtir interests ; but it is now time that such grois errors should be expunged from your national seminary . The quirks and the quibbles , and tbe theorisms of interested pedagogues , must now give way before the principles of truth , and " Measures , not men , " mast be the cry of "Every man who loves his country and would see her happy . " You , Reverend Sirs , are pluced in a position in which you may render vast and important service ; you possess the confidence of your flock , and they are ever willing to obey your commands : they give you credit for sincerity ; and if you will candidly inform them that you have heretofore acted in error in lending yourself to the Repeal agitation , they will believe you , and follow your advice , in all your futuVe progress for national regeneration .
0 Connell possesses their confidence by your suffrage ; io the sooner you dispel tbe delusion , the sooner will you gain for yourselves honour , and for your country , liappi . neai . But what should be the basis of this education , you may aek ! " It is moral , virtuous , and religious !" It Is consistent with the principles of Christianity , and , therefore , you cannot reasonably object to it . Nor will all tho clamour in the world stifle its spirit of truth , evsn though the denouncer of " Godless colleges" should lend himself to the task of doing so . 1 like , Roverend Sirs , the doctrine of the Saviour , which renders to " Casar the things which ARE Caesar ' s ; " butl would like to ask the C » Bar of Derrynane , what things he possesses which are trul y his t 1 would like to ask all the idle Csesars who claim things as theirs , and use other people ' s substance , why they do not produce things of their own , instead of growling for the " lion ' s share" of everything , which belongs to industrious people only .
I would certainly submit to the " powers that be , " but , notwithstanding , I hold it to be a bad doctrine to tench a man thnt he should submit patiently , and die silently , under the influence of injury or injustice ; and I submit that it will not be inconsistent with the sacred character of your office , if , instead of tesching your flocks to be meek beasts of burthen— " hewers of wo « d and drawers of water ; " you teach them to look upon themselves as men formed iu the image of the Creator and possessed of a natural ri ght to live and be hnppy on the earth ; thnt nil men are equal in the eye of God . and that rank nnd worldly distinctions are onl y emanations of the pride and corruption of human nature ; if
you toach them that the laws which govern him should be made by all , and for the good of all ; and that when thev are not so they are unjust , and mustbecome mi schievous tell him that labour has Its rights , and that the people " ought to be the legitimate source of power ; tell him that the laud which gave him birth , and which will receive back his ashes , and which was intended to furnish his subsistence , is his natural inheritance , hut that it has been wrested from him by tuu ruthless hand of power ; if you tell him that it is criminal to be a slave when free , dom \ fi attainable ; if jou tell him tills , you will have given him his first , beat lessoa ; and If you will only now fearlessly and honestly inculcat j those heaven-born prin .
ciplestoyour countrymen , fhere will be no dantsr to , the result of your labours . I am , Right Reverend and Reverend Sirs , Tour most obedient Servant , W . H . Curioi .
TO LORD JOHN RU 88 ELL . The " Act for the more effectual Rsllef of the destitute Poor in Iteland , " received the Royal assent on Jul y i , 1838 . The avowed object of this aet Is distinctly stated * and the uecessory steps were taken to ensure itssuccen . The 130 workhouses erected were estimated to coit be * tween £ 1 , 100 , 000 and £ 1 , 200 000 ; the money being lent by Government , free of interest , for tea years , » o 4 to be repaid by annual instalments within twanty years . The Poor Law Commissioner receives a salary ef £ 3 , 000 eleven assistant commissioners each rtceive £ 700 ; lalg . ries of the clerk of each Union , the masttr and matron of each workhouse , respectively £ 90 , £ 10 , and £ 25 or £ & annually .
The workhouses are described to be the most noble * looking mansions externally , built in the domestic Gothic style , and estimated to contain 92 , 860 psupers ; but , la cases of emergency , this acommodatlon may be Increased from Un to twenty per cent ., and the houses are buil t on plans with a view to their enlargement . The dress is a kind of prison uniform . There is no arrangement as to diet beyond the usual one , the object being to give . such diet to the inmate as shall be worse than the diet com * monly obtained by tbe labourer la the immediste neighbourhood . 1 now ask your Lordship when yon expect that ths So .
vernsnent will be repaid the Immense sum granted oa loan t Your scheme was a gigantic and costly expert , ment , and was introduced with all the usual ceremony , no means being spared to render it successful . Wg | Toa seriously in earnest when you passed the law under dis . cussion t if so , what is its evidence as to your ability to go . vern Ireland 1 Arethe poor more effectually relieved than they were in 1838 f Let the present state of Ireland an . swer . Hen , women , and children dying of starvationthe workhouses filled to repletion , and a whole people in a state of mendicity . The ' . Iriih Poor Law was passed by tbe political economists and Whi g * . 'You are a Whig and— " By their fruits ye shall know them . " '
I do not assert that the present impoverished state of Ireland Is entirely attributable to Whig goverament . Tou no doubt affirm that the failure of the potatoe crop was an unexpected calamity , of which you could hare no fore-knowledge . I grant the justice of your statement ; but what does It prove ?—the hollowness and uttsr inuti . lity for good of the principles by which you and your friends , the Maltbuslan economists , attempt to govern a nation . W « have abundant crops of wheat , ryo , oats , barley , and every other necessary for food ; but there is a failure of a single root—one of the meanest of Its class —and the effect is to shake the entire system . Law has succeed « d law—reports printed—speeches made—politi .
cal economy discuesed—true princi ples enforced—tbe affairs of a nation managed by tbe exercise of " great facts "—when lo ! a creeping , crawling root , not much better than chickweed for sparrows , falls , and behold tbe result !—a nation bankrupt , and a people starving [ and that , too , in a country , the soil and climate of which ena . bles it to produce grain of every kind , equal , if not superior , to the most productive soils of England . Someidea of tbe productive powers of Ireland may be formed from the following statement by Sir William Jacksea Hooker , which you will find by referring to the section " Botany , " in M ' Culloch ' s statistical account of the British Empire . Sir William says : —
" We find many plants incapable of bearing the cold of more northern latitudes . Hence the strawberry tree > adorning the woods of Eillarney and Baatry , with its rich evergreen foliage , and its copious redberries , comes to such perfection that a trunk has been measured nine and a half feet in girth . " Ireland is , par exceUena , the land of the daisy and cowslip—the region of fruits and flowers . Her wont soils are superior to the sharp gravels and hungry moulds of many parts of Scotland , whils she is declared by competent judges , to contain lands equal to the cars *
of Gowrle , on the banks ot the Tay , which are univer . sally allowed to be the best wheat lands north of the Tweed ; while Roscommon , Galway , Limerick , Mayo , and other countiei , are equal to any parts of England for pasturage ; and ao singularly combine fertility with firm , ness , that bullocks of 100 or 105 stone weight , may be seen rapidly fattening upon them in jjacei where , in even the wettest season , the sward would not receive thsprint of a horse ' s fo « t . It is stated in Mr . Tighe ' s remarks on the soils of Ireland , that , " In Longford thereis a farm named Garnard-klll , which produced eight cropi of potatoes withost manure . "
I now ask why is it thtt any people living under so many advantages starves Why is it that potatoes have become the , principal food of such a people ! Is it tbat they are indigenous to the eoilt Not it is because oppression and misrule have destroyed the taote of the people for a higher order of food . Potatoes are grown bectute they fill the stomach—not that they fatten ' , the flesh ; th « y are easily cooked , requiring only to be washed and helled , and so little has civilization done for Inland that domestic culinary operations are only required one step above the most savage state of barbarism . The savage eats the raw root , and he has no taste beyond his first desires ; he kills game , it Is his own , and is savoury to his appetite . The Irish peasant is robbed of the flesh , and receives in its stead the boon of knowing how to boil his roots .
The failure of the potato crop has opened the eves of many to the rotten system of government under which we now live , « nd affords much food for thought . We naturally ask what would have been the fate of tbe Irish people If pototoes had never been planted on her shores ? would they have been poorer than they now are ! Such would have been impossible : on tbe contrary the peasant would have desired and possessed food of n superior kind ; and as landlords , middlemen , merchants , te ., have taken all they possibly could from the labourer . I Infer that the working classes would have had better food , and the other sections of course less profit from labour . Again , the failure of the accursed root shows tbat the rich cannot injure the poor with impunity : there seems to be a level in the affairs of men , and Ireland has reached it . The rich are poor because they have no security that they will continne to possess their wealth . They have continued te take from the people until nature can afford no more , and the people are miserable because : they have been robbed of all .
The meeting of Parliament is at hand , and your Lordship must grapple with the difficulties you have helped to create . Fine speeches , about" great principles ; " « oft words and fair promises will be but of little value—the people want food—all look to the government , all wait for your promises nnd their fulfilments ; all say , " By their fruits ' ye shall know them . " A LSAIIKOK THE ANNitS Ot A SHOEKiua ' s GiaaET .
Wab and Taxation . —The New York Evening Expreu says -. —The operations of the last war are still fresh in the recollection of a large portion of the intelligent men of this country . At the commencement of that war , it was asserted by those who made it , that it would be of short duration , and that only a moderate sura would be wanted . But before it had progressed two years , government found it necessary to lay a heavy tax on every article consumed from abroad , to lay an excisa on every gallon of whigkey made in this country , —and to impose an odious stamp tax . No man could draw a note , or execute a bond to bo legal , without purchasing of the government a stamp . Every aore of land , every watch , aHd every other species of personal estate .
was taxed to an enormous extent . Tax gatherers , in one shape or another , were almost as numerous as the locusts of Egypt . Loans multiplied until they amounted to about 180 , 000 , 000 of dollars . Every bank in the country , except those in New England , suspended specie payments , and the government forced out to the people these Treasury notes , until they depreciated like continental money , to be worth only about 70 cents on the dollar . Government 6 per cents sold for about 60 per cent , on the dollar . Hundreds of capitalists , who commenced buying government securities at par , were ruined by the fall . Such was the practical effect of the war we hare alluded to . The government now owe 25 , 000 , 000 , and this war has just commenced , judeinu by present
appearances . It is now proposed to increase the debt to about 50 , 000 , 000 ; and no one can forasee what the amount will ultimately be . " Highland Funerals . — There is at present a general movement throughout the towns and villages of the north to do away with the entertainment usually afforded on the occasion of funerals , so burdensome to the humbler class of the people , and which often degenerate into excess . In the remote country parishes it will be more difficult to eradicate this custom , inconsequence of the distance which many parties travel in order to be present at these solemnities . A striking menonto ot the old Highland funerals may still be seen a few miles from Oorpach , near the western terminus ot the Caledonian Canal . On the southern bank of tho canal
is an anoient burying ground , and besides it a curious green mound of earth in the shape of a horseshoe , which was constructed in that singular shape some centuries ago , in order to accomodate the * ttendants at funera \ s . After the interment the people were seated on the grass in the curve , while the opening gave access to the servants to bring iu tho wme and spirits consumed on such occasions . It ifl still tho custom to hold these orgies occasionally in this sequestered spot , and many a fervid Gallio audress and full quaich have been poured out to the memory of the various parties committed to the f narrow-houae" in the adjourning resting place , The bagpipe , too , sometimes added the wild notes ot a" lament , " which heigthencd the effect of the strance scene .
An | 0 wxeb . —A New "i ork papor , announcing the wrecltiug of a vessel near tho Narrows , says : — The only passengers were T . B . Nathan , whoowncd three-fourths of the cargo and the captain ' s wife •' A Fkiexd of Peace . —During the revolutionary wnr , 'Friend , ' said an American Quaker in a seafight . ' 1 counsel no bloodshed : but if it is thy design to hit the little man in the bluejacket , point thine engine three inches lower . ' Mbdicine . —De Scvigne calls tho science of medicine ' pompous nonsense ; specious babbling ; words instead ot reasons ; and promises instead of results .
Eratoes ? ffloljemem ^
• THE NORTHERN STAR . January 9 , 1847 _
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 9, 1847, page 6, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/vm2-ncseproduct1400/page/6/