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•• A » 41 *» U war , at least I * w « rdi , ( And—ihouldsiy chase * it happen—deedi , ) VithaUnhonu with Thought *" « T . thinkIbw » allttleWrd , who « taJi Iha proplebyandfcy willbs tits tronger . — B »< w . SOCIAL REFORM PARTIES IN AMERICA . Wethinka brief acconnt of th «^ ^ n » oMhe H ^ SSBS / 58 be interesting to our a mSSZaMa * we shall confine ourselves S 2 jV . ^ SSJ 3 i ^ » d the "
Association" when we hare Mid that the Communists gene-JJ ftLr Robert Owen , or at least approximate Jnthrir views to his , we bare said sufficient to giTe Mrreadew an idea of their principles and aims . In ttaSy pwt ° 18 i 5 we findoneofthe 8 peakewof Srifparty maW ° g the following statement - : The One-Mentian frnnof 800 acrei u purchawd and niidfor - chartered by the State of Pennsylvania with aefiaed snd publiihed ijstem . comtitation and code oflaws- and in the twenty months thatthis Community jus been in oper « tion there hare been tome forty aore » cleare d , a large log home built , nd the saw mill is ready foropfration ; and when the spring opens a num . ter ofdwellingswiUbe put up , and manufacturing iua , jjjgll Wfl y carried om to as to make it self-supporting a « toon * s powible .
What has been the subsequent history of this Community we do not know . There is or was two or three other Communities but of their history we cannot speak . In October 1845 a " World ' s Contention" was held » tNe * Tork , Mr . Owen was the convener of the Convention and its chairman ; amongst the delegates present was G . H . Evans , editor of Young America , and several leading " National Reformers . A variety of "plans" were submitted to the Convention , several of which were adopted . The following brief extract o ! the proceedings is from Young Amtriea .
The Contention was emphatically Mr . Owen Con . rention . It U true that there was a few persons preteut from Europe , and a number team different parti of the Union ; and it Is true that all plant of reform presented were discusied ' and decided upon ; but it It equall ) true tint Mr Owen's phn was the beginning and end of the Conrfction , and that he considered that nothing short of his plan cams legitimately within the meaning of the call . The erganizationof the Convention was such thateach KSihmwas in fact but a public meeting to deliberate on inch plans as might ba brought forward at the time , At two of the largest of these , two plans were adopted , ( those of Bovay and Evans , ) both of which embraced the restoration of the soil by political action , and several other desirable reforms .
Mr . Owen a plan also , adopted at the last meeting . Is , in brief , to ' establish communities by Incorporate Joint Stock Associations , the Communities to be built and let to the operatives by the Capitalists , and to have the right of redeeming the stock , which Mr . Owen thinks may be done in twenty years . Tha amoant necessary to establish a community of three thousand persons , he estimates at three million of dollars , and he thinks that when CBs shall be established as a model , they will soon become general . We have not heard that Mr . Owen ' s " JointStock Communist Associations" have advanced beyond the resolul ion-voting of the convention , but we fancy they have not . It was resolved that an annual
' World ' s Convention" should be asld on the 1 st et October in each year , bat we have not heard of any such Convention having taken place in October last . Recent American papers show , however , that Mr-Owen is yet indefatigable and undismayed in propagating his view ? . His addresses are somewhat carious , more particularly his praises of '' democracy " as the great instrument for effecting social retorm ! We may dismiss this portion of the subject in the words of the editor of Young America : — "Communism nay be the ultimate state of society , but a restoration of individual rights by political action , or otherwise , is a measure absolutely necessary to human progress . "
The As « cutiosisT 3 f ( Founerites ) . seem to command more public attention , at least they are better represented in the press , having several organs ot first-rate talent , and one—the New Yorfc Tribunt , possesses great influence . Recently this party published a lengthy statement of their principles and object * , from which we give the following extracts : —
ETATIXE 8 T Of tha " American Union of Associationists . " Observing with regret , though without surprise , that misconceptions , errors , and calumnies , are widely circulated in relation to the doctrines of Association—We , the nilersigned Officers of the " American Union of Associatiaoists , " feel bound osce again to state to our countrymen the real objects which we hare in new . We are convinced that the Associative morement is a Providential one , —that it fulfils the promises so long announctd through ages of conflict and suffering ; that it opens a new era of justice and peace ; that it practically
• mbodiei the Christian Law of Lore ,. establishes the liberties and rights of citizens which have been sought in rain by legislators im ancient and modern timee , and succestfuUy completes the reforms which the philanthropic tt of all Christian and civilized lands are proclaiming . Therefore do » e summon all men to hearken to our criticisms of existing outrages and miseries , to reipjDd to our appeals for efficient efforts to remove tte = e intolerable wrongs against Man , —to accept the principles of the Combined Order oE Society , if they can see them as we do , to be just and wise , —and pracfccilij to apply them in hope and truth .
I : is our conviction that the existing svstem af Society called Civilizatim is radically false and corrupt in several of in prominent institutions , and that a reform of this system is laid as a solemn duty [ upon every enlightened people . The institutions belonging as eltments to present society , which we condemn as false , corrupting , brutatizinp , or oppressive , and which can only be removed by an integral reform , are briefly the following : —War , or legal and honourablebutcbery , carried on by Rations ; Slavery , or the owaership of man by man ; the system of Labour for Wagai or the Slavery of Capital : the existing
wasteful , complicated and fraudulent system of Commerce , free , or anarchial Competition , with its hatreds , jealous its , frauds and lies , tbe monopoly of the Soil , mud of Machinery ; Pauperism ; Prostitution , and all approximations to it , such as mercenary marriages , and legalized impurity ; the present defective methods of Education , and unequal opportunities of the tame ; the repugnant and degrading system of Labour , which lies at the foundation of slavery , idleness , physical debility and dists . ee , and the general poverty in society ; the universal Conflict of Istesests and Hostiliti oi CuiSEl .
la place of all these we aim to establish a new Social Osdek which shall create abundant riches , aad distribute them according to the laws of Justice ; which shall banish poverty and pauperism , and the miseries to which they gbe rise for ever from th « earth ; which shall astociate the interests of all classes , and destroy in their very scarce , the causes » f gelfishnees , and antagonism , fraud , litigation and crime ; which shall secure to every child the benefits of a complete moral , intellectual and phv ; icil development ; which shall break the chains of the sla ^ e and the fetters of want and starvation that bind to 3 hireling ; which shall banish idleness from $ - cUtv by so organising industry as to dignify it aud render it attractive ; which shall secure an honourable and
congenial sphere of activity in industry , and the arts and tcieucts to wom-n , tog « tb . er with pecuniary independence and the enjoyment of equal rights with man , which aloae can raaove prostitution and venil marriages effectually from the world ; which shall render the health of the body , and a true development and harmonious action of all the faculties and passions of the soul , which constituta happiness , the general rule iastead of the exception as they now are ; which shall establish an en-U ^ hteted and philanthropic public opinion that will honestly eiamine and accept new ideas , new discoveries and phut of improvement ; and which in short shall base tte prc sperity , liberty and peace of nations upon a true aad sere foundation .
Thus we propose to reform society , and lay earnest and resolute , though patient and conciliatory , bands on the barbarian institutions which civilised man has too loog tolerated , and against which the c 3 nscie 1 . ee aud judgment of Christendom cry aloud . Bat there are other institutions of modern society which we leave untouched , whose beneficial influences we recognise , and whose tendencies to a higher good should be developed and perfected , while at tbe tame time we are assured that if any radical changes are to take place in them they will be accomplished by othsr fflea ttan those of the present times ; ihe chief of thtse " ¦ stitution * are the Christian Church , Marriage and Re-Presentative Government .
Thus in relation to the Church , we believe that the time i * approaching when tbe scattered and hostile sects kto which it is divided , will be brought into tb « tam « foW , aad one Universal Church will be established on ° > e earth . But we have , as a body , no idea whatever ° f undertaking tbe reform necessary to effect this re * ult ; «« work lies out of our sphere ; we kave it to the future . But still we do not hesitate to declare that it ° > &cot be . brought about while discord and selfishness * re tbt fundamental laws of society , and w « call upon pkristians of every sect to be true to their profession * . 'If a nan love not his brother whom he hath teen , how c he lore God whom he hath not seen !"
Aad so with regard to Marriage ; we hold that it » s the fflast tacfed and important of existing social ties , and ""u tl at it is the pivot on which the order ef society de-Kais . Accordingly , our position is that the existing in . ' ^ 'uticn is to be maintained in its greatest possible dig-* ' * } and purity , We believe that with the establishment ^ Tfa'i and Justice iu the practi c al affa ir s of society ; " *» fte abolition of poverty , and with the guaranty of j ^ aaiiry independence to all persons , the most fatal ¦^ Ptetions to debase and profane this relation will be ^» ona , and t ^ j mercenary marriage * and other le-• J ^ ed prostitution , with tbe loathsome dent and ttews ° * ' «• tolerated in the midst of the most virtuous and nb i » ai cflmuunitiM , aad . tbj degrsdinj and brutish
h » Wts which make society a hell , will disappear Bit to purer aud noMer generations , more upright , honourable and gentrons , w « leave aU legislation on this snbleet It is for us to maintain tha institution fcrloUb ' . He . r . rthel . si . we shall not refrain from thi duty of upoilng tatb , r a ^ gHt colour . th « mwHwn , tb . . h . m . C in . quit , and corruption on tbt one hand , and ft . bitter , life-eonsoaiig sorrows oa tht othw , which prevail in thia raUtlon throughout HfwLtr . The system of Representatrre Gwrntttnt , it ithardly necessary to say , we regard as the greatest step of mo . dern political improvement . We believe that it em . boaiet a part at least of the idea of human liberty , and that it is one of the chief iastrumentaUties by which Providence is working out its purposes of good in tke present epoch .
So far from aiming at the destruction of either of these institutions , wa regard their preservation as an indispensable condition of tbe reform to which we are devoted . Our work consists in the Organization of in . duttry upon true principles , so as to bring about a great increase of production or real wealth , and to distribute it with exact justice ; in the establishment of an econo . mic » l and equitable system of Commerce ; and in the guaranty to every human being of the etsential and inalienable rights of If an , which are , the right to Integral Education , the right to Labour , and tbe right to the fruit thereof . This work we claim t » be the completion of the vital movement of the American Revolution , and the application in practice of the morality of the Saviour , "Do ye unto others as ye would that they should do unto you , "
To this cause great and generous touts of all ages have devoted themselves . For the good of the Race they have given their lives in faithful thought or heroic action ; never doubting that the day of deliverance would come , they have passed serenely from the stage , leaving for our instruction their sufferings , their deeds , and their words . To all these noble spirits we acknowledge our debt as members of tbe human family . We revere their memory a « d look in their teachings for indications of needful truth and of present duty . Pre-eminent among these men in our view , is Charles Fourier , a gennis raited up in these modern times . Especially do we look upon him with gratitude and satisfaction , because , unlike many other thinkers , he descended from universal and abstract ideas into the sphere of primary , practical , necessities , the sphere of Labor .
The Organization of Labor in tbe associated township , according to the Series , is briefly what we , as a body , ac . eepted from his writings ; and on tbe realization of this neature we are assured that the safety and progress of society new depend . At to Fourier ' s theories of Marriage , of Cosmogony , and the Immortality of the Soul , we do not acctpt them , * and this is tbe position which the Association School in this country and in Europe hare always taken and nevsr varied from . # # The plan we propose , while it it sti ictly scientific , is at the same time peaceful and conservative . We wish to test our doctrines in the organisation of a single town , ship . With a less number of persons than may be found
in an ordinary township , we can make an experiment of our views , in the establishment of a Model Association . We believe that w » can to arrange manual and other industry as to render it all honourable and attractive , and abridge ft multitude of repulsive , unwholesome , and degrading labours '; that we can introduce a system of combined architecture , and effect vast economies in modes of living ; that we can establish a just division of profits ; guarantee congenial spheres of employment and a true social position to every person ; extend equal opportunities of education of all ; bring about unity of interests and general co-operation , and place the social relations of the people on a footing of truth , honour , justice , equa rightsand active benevolence
, . , Thus in one local , practical experiment , made scientifically on a small scale and not affecting the general interests of society as tnueh as a single election in some of our cities , we propose a final proof ef our method of Association . If it succeeds on this scale , as all large political divisions are but the repetition of the township , there will be no difficulty in its universal application , to tbe unspeakable benefit of society and of every being iuit . Hob ace Gbeeiet , President . Peieo Cuke , Jakes Kat , Jr .
Fbedebick Gbaiic , CrusxEs Seabs , E , P . Gbant , Bcnjavin Ubneb , H . H . Vah Akbinoe , Vict-President * . W . H . Chahhino , Dom . Cor . See , Pabkg Godwin , For . Cor . Sec . Jakes T . Fisheb , Rec . Sec . Fbahcis Geo . Sbaw , Treasurer GXOBQE RlPXST , 0 . MACDAiinX , Cbabus A . Dana , Edmdsd Twiedi , Albibt Bbisbaxe . John Alien , John S . Dwight , Directors .
We learn from the Tribune that there have been not less than twenty attempts to realize Industrial Associations on the plan of Fourier , of which ten are still in progress . We believe the most important of these societies is the Brook Farm Phalanx in the state of Massachusetts . We have no information as to the progress and prospects of these societies . Some time ago , the Associationists and National Reformers had some smartish controversies concerning the merits of their respective plans . The Associationista admit and contend for the right of the whole human race to the whole of the earth ' s soil ; but they consider that the most effectual mean 3 for restoring this right is , by formingindustrial societies , which uniting capital and labour shall enable the members to gradually and peacefully acquire their long lost rights , and secure to them those rights when gained . They are for achieving their aims by
social not political means . The National Reformers , on the other hand , whilst agreeing with the Associationhts as to the natural right of the race to the soil , think that political meana are indispensable for tbe obtainment of great social changes ; therefore , by influencing the national and state legislatures , they would—1 st . —secure to actual settlers , the free and exclusive use of the public lands in limited allotments ; 2 nd . —Limit the quantity of land to all holders after the present generation ; and , 3 rd . —Secure the homestead of each family from being taken out of its possession through any future debt or mortgage . The National Reformers , though not adopting Association principles as a party contain in their ranks many , who believe in "Association , " but who deem the restoration of individual rights to be first essential : the Land first and Association ( if desireable ) afterwards .
We should correct what we have said above as to the Associonists esehewing political means , we believe that this is true of the party , but some of their most talented leaders are wiser . Messrs . Greeley ( editor of the Tribune ) , Godwin . Ryckman , Brisbane , Van Amringe , and the Rev . W . II . Channing are foremost amongst the great intellects at the head of the Associationists , and they do not reject political means . The above-named individuals all advocate the freedom of the Public Lands . M . Ryckman is a leading member of the Reform Association , so is
Mr . Van Amnnge , and we see he is about to become the travelling lecturer for the society ; as to Albert Brisbane , he has delivered some of the most eloquent orations yet uttered in advance of the Agrarian cause , and gives his vote for the National Reform candidates , and we have friend Evans ' s testimony , that '' he ( A . Brisbane ) is a host in himself ; a devoted , a self-scrificing reformer , without vanity or pretension ; and the more deserving of credit , if there be any credit in doing one ' s duty , because he never felt except by sympathy the evils which he aims to remove . "
Before we close this article , we should say that a " short time factory agitation , " has long commanded the attention of the working classes in Massachusetts and other manufacturing states and localities . The triumph of the good cause in this country , which cannot be far off , must have a mighty and beneficial effect for the cause of our oppressed fellow-workers , in America . Surely Republican America will not allow Monarchial England to outstrip her in the race of humanity ! Factory slaves of America look to it .
Had time and space permitted , which they do not , we should like to have offered some observations upon the Reform press of the btates ; we must , however , merely confine ourselves to a few passing remarks . With the merits of Young America and the Anti-Renter our readers are pretty well acquainted ; the specimens we have from time to time given of the contents of those journals is tbeir best praise . The New Yorl Tribune , the principal ( New York ) organ of the " Associationisto" is , in many respects , an
admirable journal , though , of course , we dissent from its Whig politics . Of the Subterranean , the Voice of Industry , the Harbinger , the Regenerator , and the Alphadelphia Tocsin , we have only seen one or two numbers each ; so far as we could judge , they appear to be all able and energetic champions of progress , We should be glad to have a more intimate acquaintance with the above-named papers , and some others ( we see occasionally noticed in Younq America ) published in Pennsylvania , Illinois , and Ohio .
We hold it to be a solemn duty to do what lies in our power to promote a veritable brotherhood between the people of this country and the people of America , and with that view we are anxious to make known to our readers every movement on the other side of the Atlantic , having for its object the progression , veritable freedom and happiness of mankind . In this spirit we wish our American friends union and success , and good speed in all their labours .
• Strictly speaking , our general position on all these subjects is this : We leave them aside . As individuals each is at liberty to accept or reject any thing aside from the subject of Industrial Reform and Organisation , as truth and human good shall dictate to his own mind .
jrotttp Jntelltpnte *
FRANCE . On New-Year * * day Louis-Philippe received the usual congratulatory addresses from the Diplomatio corps , and other bodies . The ceremony was of the usual fraudulent character , enriched by an additional dash of spicey lying on the part of Louis- Pkilippe , who , in reply to the felicitations of the Peers , said : — " As you have said , the problem to be solved was the alliance of monarchy and liberty ; it was to make nations feel that liberty has need of monarchy , and to prove to kings and princes that- monarchy has need of liberty . It is from having misapprehended this principle—it is from having believed , on the
one hand , that liberty was incompatible with monarchy , and on the other that monarchy was incompatible with liberty , that France has been dragged into revolutionary storms . May God preserve- other nations from the like ! May our example convince states and kings that monarchy and liberty may live and prosper together , but that they cannot do so except at the price of mutual confidence . If the national will has raised me to the throne , it is because the tenonr of all my life presaged that all my efforts would tend to ensure the triumph of this principle , and that there was no secret thought to be apprehended-from tub . "
Bread is still rising in price , and the scarcity daily assumes a more menacing character . Upwards of 1 , 200 pieces of cannon and howziters destined for the fortifications of Paris , are ready , says the Gazetted * Bern , to be placed . They have not as yet been taken to Bourges as the buildings preparing there to receive them will not be ready until next summer .
SPAIN . OPENING 07 IHE CORTES . The Cortex was opened on the 31 st ult . by the Queen in person . Tbe " speech" is rather lengthy , but presents no points worthy of notice save the following paragraphs : — "I have contracted a marriage with my august cousin , Don Francisco d'Assis Maria de Bourbon , agreeably to my intention announced to the preceding Cortes . I trust that Heaven will bless this union , and that you , also , gentlemen , will unite your prayers with mine to almighty Gad . The marriage of my beloved sister has also taken place in the way which has been already explained to the CortM .
" My Government will present you with the budget of receipts and expenses for the year 1847 . Yon will there see the ameliorations and economies which it has been possible to make . I regret that past troubles , and the very reforms themselves which must afterwards produce good results , do not permit of my making at present all the reductions which I desire . " A fixed and fitting endowment ( or religious purposes and tbe clergy is a positive and urgent need , as essential to the welfare ot religion as it is for that of the state . My Government will present you shertly with a law on this important matter .
" Besides these , other laws will be proposed in the course of this session ; some with the view to protect the increase of wealth by curbing the abuses which accompany the first impulse of its developement , others with a view to introduce ameliorations in the different branches of the administration , and others , finally , with a view to regulate the arrangements in force relative to the press and to exceptional professions . Thb Carust Iotubrbctioh is on the increase . According to the Etpanol . the parts more particularly threatened by the partisans of the Count de Montemelin ( " who will present himself with the Constitution of 1837 in his band" ) are Navarre , the Basque Provinces , Catalonia , Gallicia , the Maeztrazgo , and the Balearic islands . PORTUGAL .
THE CIVIL WAR . defeat of the insurgents . — -cheat slaughter cf the qukkn ' s troops . Letters were received on Monday from Lisbon con tawing intelligence of an action between the Queen ' s troops and the insurgents at Torres Vedras , in which tbe latter sustained a very decisive reverse . The action was fought on the 22 nd , Saldanha commanding the Queen ' s troops , the insurgents being under the command of Bomfim . The loss on both sides in killed and' wounded was considerable . A great many prisoners were made including Bomfim . The lass on the Queen ' s side is stated to have been 386 ( including 38 officers ) in killed , wounded , and missing : but
other accounts state it at a much greater number . The casualties on the insurgents side were fewer , as during a great part of the action they fought from behind stone walls and barricades . Even after tbe Queen ' s troops had forced their way into the town , the issue was very doubtful , as the insurgents retired into the castle ; but three companies of tbe 2 nd infantry , who had charge of Fort Forca , went over in a body to the enemy , and that post—the key of the position—lost , the castle became untenable , and surrendering , or being slaughtered to a man , was the only choice left . The insurgents were allowed to march out with some of the honours ot war—the officers with their swords and the men with their knapsacks . During the ni « ht of the 22 nd Count Bomfim contrived to send off a despatch with
an account of what had taken place to Count das Antas , whom it found at Rio Maior , at the head of 3 , 000 regulars and 500 armed civilians , and who on receipt of it immediately commenced his retreat in the direction of Coimbra , to join the irregular force * there under the command of the Marquis ef Louie Antas at the same time sent off a messenger to Cresar de Vasconcellos , whom hehad left at Santarem with 2 , 500 well-armed and trained irregular troops , including about 100 cavalry , acquainting him with what had happened , and leaving it to his own difcretion either to defend the place or fall back upon Coimbra . the latter of whieh courses he ha 3 preferred . It is alleged that the news of the disaster that befel Bomfim , instead ot discouraging the rest of tbe insurgents , seemed to inspire them with increased fury against their enemies .
Bomfim and his staff were taken to Lisbon on the 24 th , and are prisoners on board the Diana , Portuguese frigate , offBelem , where it is said they are treated with more than necessary severity . Count Bomfim has forwarded a letter to Sir W . Parker , urging him to use his influence in order to procure a mitigation of their sufferings . Should the Scptembrjsts and Miguelites heartily coalese the prospects of Donna Maria ' s government will soon be gloomy enough . The two insurgent parties are now actually negotiating an arrangement of some sort . Each has an ambassador at the camp of the other ; Cap . tain MendezLeite on the one side , and the Miguelite General Macdonell on the other .
JURTHER PARTICULARS . It was hardly to be expected that the two contending armies could remain for a greater length of time in the inactive attitudes each had assumed . Antas , therefore , commenced by making a feint , sending a column to the south side of the Tagus to attract , it ' possible , the attention of Saldanha , while another force , consisting of about 3 , 200 infantry , and upwards of 260 cavalry , under the command of Bomfin , sallied out from Santarem , taking the road to Torres Vedras ; various were the reports afhat in regard to this movement . On the morning , however , of the 20 th inst ., the new battalions in Lisbon were all ordered te the lines , and joined afterwards by a small brigade which was detached from the army of Saldanha , as
it was expected that Bomfin ' s intention was to approach the capital . Saldanha , on the 19 th , broke up at Cartaxo , taki ng the route to the Caldas da Rainha . The weather was most tempestuous , and the heavy flooding rains had rendered the roads almost inipaseable . Antas also had marched from Santarem , to operate in conjunction with Bomfin as circumstances might require . It w » 3 destined otherwise . It is said tbat a courier , with a letter from the former to Bomfin , was intercepted , which induced Saldanha to come to an immediate engagement . Mousinho de Albuquerque , late minister of marine , died at Torres Vedras of his wounds . He ha 3 left a large and helpless family . He is reported to have been a skilful engineer officer , and a brave man . Ilia fall during the engagement quite unnerved , it is said , Bomfin , and from that moment he ceased to manifest
that ardour and presence of mind which he displayed in the early part of the action . The exposure of Mousinho de Albuquerque during the night to cold and wet in the uncovered place to which Bomn ' n ' s forces had to retire , and the absence of medical attendance to extract the ball from his breast , increased the risks against his recovery . When Saldanha heard , on the following day , of his perilous state , he instantly ordered a consultation of surgeons , and every attention to be paid him . His poor wife had the melancholy consolation of attending him during iis last days of suffering . The ball was extracted from his breast , but mortification speedily ' ensued . That night of exposure in the unroofed chapel attached to the castle was the cause of death to many a brave poor fellow . Few of the seriously wounded escaped the consequences ot it .
The Dtario ol December 30 , contains a royalde cree , countersigned by all the ministers , which suspends trial by jury for certain crimes until that decree be altered or revoked by the legislative body . The crimes which are not to have the benefit of trial by jury are those that produce death , wounding with fracture or permanent injury , robbery , rebellion , sedition , conspiracy , incendiarism , &c , &c . REPORTED DEFEAT OP THE M 1 GUEL 1 TE 9 . On the 26 th of December , an encounter took place between MacDonald , the rebel General , and Casal , when the former were routed , many killed , and the prisoners , by Casal ' s orders , were slaughtered in cold blood . Casal was supposed to be making towards Oporto . GERMANY . The Frankfort correspondent of the Morning Advertiter says : —While a communist plot has been discovered at Berlin , the manufacturing districts of Silesia are breaking out in riots . Prussia is lost if she does not gain the goodwill at the middle , glass by some popular measure ,
ITALY . Gbiai Fioods at Rons . —Deo . 11 . —For the last week we have had the most miserable weather imaginable , rain , rain , day and night , and as might be expected , tbe city w in a deplorable condition , and boats are plying in the Corso . TheBabruno , and allthe lower streets , the Pantheon , the Archea of Septimius Severus , and Janus , . and the excavated rums in general are aMt' atqwi , and the river continues to rise . Should it do bo to the height of two feet more , the Piazza di Spagna will be submerged , and the flood of the year 1805 , the most disastrous within the memory of man , will be'forgotten in that or 1846 , It is an awful Visitation , and the misery entailed upon thousands of the wretched inhabitants of the inundated streets , is bovond conception . ^ mi ^ b b ^
POLAND . The Frankfort Journal oi the 29 th ult , publishes a letter from Vienna of the 22 nd , which states that the most complete anarchy prevails in Galicia , All the peasants of one village quitted their parish church in a body , because the clergyman had spoken to them of the ten commandments . They exclaimed , " We have no occasion for so many laws . " Youno Nick has Old Nick ' s luck and his own too ; JJ "" recently nearly drowned , but not quite . What happiness his escape affords us ! The accident occurred at Korono . Planks of wood had been laid across the stream which was only half covered with
tnm ice , over which the carriage was to be drawn by men , as far 83 the barge , which was stationed in the open river . The ice close to the shore was deemed sufficiently strong to render it unnecessary to cover it with boards , and the Emperor was persuaded to remain in the carriage , with Count Orloft . But as tbe carriage rolled rapidly down the steep banks , tbe wheels instantly cut the ice , and the carriage began to sink rapidly . The Emperor , to avoid being drowned by the water which was rushing in , was compelled to get upon the coachbox . From thence he was extricated by one of his ofheers who waded through the water , which was up to his breast , with the Emperor on his shoulders , to the shore .
GREECE . THREATENED AUSTRIAN INTERVENTION . ^^ Correspondence from Athens of the 20 tii ~ u 7 t . states that extraordinary excitement had been ereated by-the publication in the Athenian newspaper , the Elpit , of a document forwarded to the editor from Munich , in which it is asserted that the Court of , Vienna has proposed to the three protecting Powers of Greece , England , Franco , and Russia , to replace the present constitution by a charter similar to that of Bavaria , and to occupy Greece for ten years with an auxiliary corps of 8 , 000 Austrian troops . The publication of this document caused the greatest alarm to the Greek Government , and the Procureur du Roi gave order to seize thia number of the paper at the Post-office , and to suppress its circulation in any shape . The following is said to be the outiine of the scheme proposed by Austria : —
1 . Greece is to have a constitution similar to those of Bavaria and other German states . 2 . That in order to sustain the monarchy , and to stifle , if need be , any revolutionary attempt against the new order of things , a corps of 8 , 000 Austrian troops shall enter Greece and remain there for ten years . With a view to avoid oppressing Greeee fcy additional expenses , Austria will take upon itself to furnish pay , clothing , and provisions to this auxiliary force , receiving from the Greek Treasury nothing beyond the uum appropriated at pieaent to thesHpportof the corps of frontier guards , who are to be disbanded immediately on the arrival of the auxilwry corps . As to the regular army of Greece , it is to be incorporated with the auxiliary troops .
3 . incase circumstancesshould render it necessary to send a reinforcement of troops , such reinforcement shall take place ander an understanding between the Allies and at the expense of the Greek government . The force so supplied shall be sent back as soon as practicable . The Britsh Government is said to have replied to the Cabinet of Vienna in the most positive manner that it would never permit—and especially by means of a foreign armed force—the reversal of all that had been settled by the National Assembly of Greece , and solemnly recognised by England ; adding that , even if it should stand alone amongst the GovernraentB of Europe , it would unchangeably persevere in its resolution .
It is added , that in pursuance of this announcement the English squadron cruising on the Portuguese station , has received orders , with the exception of one division , to sail immediately for the Archipelago , under the command oi Admiral Parker . At the same time , a considerable force is to be concentrated in the Ionian Islands , to be in readiness for action .
TURKEY . Constantinople , IDec . 19 . — It was stated some time back that a revolutionary movement had been got up in the district of Banalunko , in Bosnia , by the chief agency , andjat the instigation of Austria . The instrument used on this occasion was an Albanian of Rike , named Mahraoud , who , with some 500 followers , gave himself up to pillage and acts of brigandage , and for a long while was the terror of the whole provinee , attacking villages , forcibly raising contributions , and mnrdering , indiscriminately , all who resisted him . About the middle of September , he attached and laid a heavy fine on the city ot Trikora , and on the refusal of the inhabitants to accede to his imperious demandshe tortured and
, murdered the several primates and three mollahs . The audacity of this chief finally rose to such a pitch that the immediate attention of the Government was re quired , and Ualil Kiamil Pacha at the head of 3 , 000 Albanian troops , advanced agains t him . The Porte has now received the intelligence that a battle was fought at Dobrina , between the Bosnacs and the troops , in which the former were completely routed , leaving 100 killed , and 300 prisoners | in the hands ; of the Turkish commander . Several , of their most influential chiefs were seized and shot , and the prisoners are now on their way to the capital to be incarcerated in the Bagnio for life . A great number of the fugitives took refuge on the Austrian frontier .
JAPAN . The Americans have been unsuccessful in an attemptjto enter into commercial arrangements with the Government of Japan . Commodore Biddle , in the 80-gun ship Columbus , accompanied by the cervette Vincennes , recently visited Jeddo . The two ships were at once surro . unded by hundreds of armed boats , and not only were they forbid to communicate with the shore , but they were not permitted to communicate with each other . A letter from the President of the United States to the King was taken , andreceived by the officials , who visited the Comniodore to ascertain what he wanted ; but no answer was returned , it being merel y intimated to the strangers that they were to go , and on no account to return .
PROGRESS OF DISCOVERY IN AUSTRALIA . The son of Major Mitchell , who a short time ago started tor the Bolloon River , has succeeded in completing the exploration of the unknown country between New England and Fort Bourke , " The party started from Mr , Pearce ' s station ( Gnoolomata ) in a N . W . direction , and in 30 miles rea ched a country possessing peculiar characteristics ,
considering its position in the midst of an almost i terminable flat . It consisted of gravelly undulation abounding with grass , and watered with smal springs . That at which the party halted was callei Naudo , and had evidently been for centuries a fa vourite camping place for the natives , who , wit ] their usual improvidence , had used it for purpose which rendered it unfit for drinking at the time o our arrival ; but , by completely clearing it out , w obtained some delicious water , the supply being , hov ever rasufficient ior the horses .
. " Q » the morning of the 4 th of November , wher travelling due west , the party came upon five will blacks encamped at a lagoon . They at first made i rush to escape , but were induced to remain by tin interpreter , a Bolloon black , who was familiur witl them and all the tribes in the neighbourhood . ' On the morning of the 6 th November , the part 1 crossed over to the Cul goa , and tract d it upwards ti its origin in the Bolloon . Above that spot the rive was of very great breadth , and the country on its banks of a very fattening description . There wa abundance of barley , grass , grass which , however was thought of secondary importance , as there grei not on it bush or tree upon which cattle did no thrive . A tribe of natives , who , on hearing dia of fire
charges arms , had concealed themselves in the bush , were with difficulty by means of the interpreter , induced to return and receive their fish and nets , which were found on the river bank . They wer Much alarmed , having nover seen white men , and had decorated themselves with green boughs , symbols of peaceful intentions . ' The habits of all the natives of his river are of the most disgusting character , involving a refinement upon cannibalism absolutely sickening . Suffice it to say , that this tribe of blacks carried with them two bodies , from which they had extracted and consumed what is termed the adipose matter . When a party dies , a stage is immediately erected , consisting ef a sheet of bark , drilled with holes , like a
sieve , fixed upon three posts . The body is placed upon this , and an opossum cloak being closely wrapped round the upper portion of it . small fim are kept burning at the two ends of the stage , and one underneath it . A large' coulamau' receives the matter thus extracted by the heat , and the . tribes close touud and greedily consume , and rsib their person , with this horrible extract . After this the bones and skin are closely wrapped in an opossum cloak , aud then rolled in a sheet ot freshly stripped bark . The whole , coved with net-work , is then carried about by the tribe for a considerable time , and is ultimatel y deposited in some hollow log , Numbers of these stages are to be found on Bolloon , and high up the Mooni Cr /^ k .
" On the 7 th November the party proceeded a considerable distance np the river , the character ol the country becoming hourly more striking . They encamped at a noble reach called ' Tootrdi ' . ' . * ™ ho natives again encamped with the party an !!!' . i * orossinglirom the opposite bank , there aeemed t p be the greatest alarm lewt any of their toSh ? ^ T ™ ' of wl » ch they have five , should taken tn Jl ateT > and the most religious care was were J ^ n lZTJ 1 f ? , occurrence . Three men L ab u ; danoSnd \ Z y !?? " $ T ? " The information Ste ^' ^ ^ ' ^' the various aborigines he had fciS ' - ? u el [ f T ! to show that two white men haJ ' wS u-f ^ f Bolloon , and one on the Birie ; but baSS ^ iftto return , he reached Mr . Pearce * 3 com' ) e" « d 13 th November , having beenSnftn ? If ^ ft ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
" It then became necessary for Mr . Mitchell ?* survey the located portions of the Borwin riV er ° setting the bounariesof the runs , Ac , for a distance of nearly 300 miles , downwards , until he arrived at Monanna , a station of Mr . Nelson Lawsbn ' s . Here he found the first hill he had seen for many hundred miles ; and from the top of it he perceived two others , distant about 40 miles , E . S . E , with tabulated summits , which he recognised as Oxley ' s Table Land , andjthus became aware of his not being moro thara 70 miles from Fort Bourke ; and certain of the identity of the Darling and Barwin rivers , he mounted his men upon fresh horses , and made Fort Bourke the second day . At the first halting-place he was attacked by the blacks , who hovered about durine th » whole night , but no accident occurred . 1 he Forte he found almost entirely burnt down , but the temporary stock-yard , erected by Major Mitchell in . 7 m ' wa 8 a ' raost as secure as when erected . The next day Mr . Mitchell returned to Mobanna .
THE WAR IN THE RIO DE LA PLATA . IIorbible Atrocities . —Accounts have been received from Mount V des Jo the 11 th of Oetober . That city is still beseiged by the ruffian Oribe , who is , as usual , signalising himself by the commission of the most fiendish atrocities toward the unhappy prisoners who happen to fall into his hands , We give the following samples : — Lieutenant Cara « a , an officer who has served umler General Oribe throughout the desolating wars of the Ar . gentUe provinces , ( on which Orihe was sent by Rosas as the novitiate to the invaiioii of his native countrr . ) van
amongst the pruoncra taken by Rivera in Mercedes , in June last . He w » s carried to Martin Garcia , whence , after some time , he made hit escape and proceeded to Oribe ' s camp at the Cerrito , having then two brothers serving in the army , on « of them married . His mind hsd been for a long time bont on abandoning Orlbe ' g service , but fears for the fate of hta family prevented his attempting to do so until he should be able to rescue them also . He and they have at length succeeded ; and it is from tnese men , who for years have served in Oiibe ' s army , that the declaration of barbarous executions , witnessed By themselves , has proceeded .
Colonel Enestroza , made prisonerafter the fatal battle of Arroyo Grande , with promise of his life being spared , was executed by order ol tbe victorious general . His hands were cut off by the wrists , the skin peeled from his skull , his throat cut , he was castrated , and , finally , maneas ( fetters for horses' legs ) made of the skin of his body . Two sergeants , Sanchez and Yarza , were taken pri . soncrs on the same occasion , under the promise of their lives b « ing spared . They were executed and their bodies were mutilated . Two officers , Costa and ArrUmendl , were made prisoners , and were the only ones whose names were known to Carasa of the infinite number who were so sacrificed ; they underwent the same inhuman death and mutilation . A lady of Montevideo , Donna Teresa de T— , was assassinated at Oribe's camp , on pretence of her attempting to seduce men to abandon his cause .
A Bmillian subject , who was forced to serve , was ssiaedinthe act of escaping ; his throat wascu ' , and his body mutilated . An Italian , taken wounded at Tres Cruces ( near Montevideo ) b y Don Jorge Carreras , was trailed at the heels of theUttur ' s horse , his throat cut , his legs and hands se . vered , he was castrated and flayed , his heart torn out , roasted and eaten . Accounts arrived yesterday from MaWonndo , confirming a report of the last few days , that another blano , butchery had taken place in that department . Colonel Fortunato Silva and 20 of his comrades have been murdered in cold blood by Oribe ' s party , commanded by Barrios .
IRELAND . STATB OF THE COUJJTRT . The aceeunt" continue to be of the same gloomy and distressing character as those we have had the sad and painful duty of publishing for many months past . We confine our selection to a tew of the most extreme cases of destitution , disease and death . Skibbereen , Dec . 30—Since my former vi-it to this locality , I find that the circumstances of the people have materially altered % the worse . Provisions are daily increasing in price and scarcity , flour being 4 s . a stone , and Indian meal 2 s . 4 d ., bread of the coarsest descri p tion 2 Jd . per lb ., and , to add to the difficulty of obtaining it " , a new regulation has been entered into by the Board of Worksby
, which the poor creatures on the road are to receive but sixpence a day subsistence money , until the road on which they are employed is completed . On yesterday evening , after arriving in town , I waited on the dispensary physician , Dr . Donovan , and , while in his house , witnessed scenes that would appal the stoutest heart . The door of the hoHse was literally besieged with persons demanding relief , sonio requiring tood to satisfy their immediate necessities , while others were clamorous for medical relief for some members of their family , who were in a dying state from diseases brought on by want and priva-| tions of every description . Some few days ago the doctor was waited upon by a man from Windmillhill , who requested him 'to visit his step-daughter , who was unwell . He complied , and when he went
he found tl . e girl stretched on a miserable sop of straw , alonside a corpse which was green from prutrescence , and her hands wrapped in ratis . lie asked her if she had fits , aa he feared she might have fallen into the fire while in that state , and burned herself , when she replied that she had not , but that sho was lying for two days alongside the corpse , and that shu found it so cold she had got up to warm herself , but being weak she fell on the fire , and before she could rise , her hands were burned as he saw them . But this melancholy business did not end here , for the unhappy step-father had to take his wife on his back to the Abbey graveyard , where he left her stretched on a tomb-stone , not having sufficient strength to dig a grave for her , and she was buried next day by a poor labouring man
who accidentally passed by . The step-lather returned to his miserable home , and being determined that his step-daughter at least should be attended to , lie also took her on his back , and left her at the door of the Fever Hospital , when she was taken in and died in half an hour after her reception . These are not isolated cases of distress , for the whole town and surrounding country teems with similar examples of the awfully wretched condition of the people . According to arrangement , I this morning waited on the Rev . Mr . Fitzpatrick , who kindly promised to take me through the habitations of some of thoso poor creatures . On arriving at his house , it was with the utmost difficulty I obtained admission , through the cron-d of destitute men , women , and children who beaet the door . The Rov . Mr .
Fitzpatrick having called one of the most miserable looking out of the crowd , he tottered into the hall , where he stated he had two children , and was just recovered from fever . Upon inquiry I found that he and three others had been confined to the same bed , that the other three died , and that he himself while in a raging fever had left his bed to solicit relief for his family . I then visited about fifty houses on Windmill-hill , Chapel-lane , High-street , Distillery-lane , and that neighbourhood , and to the hour of my death I will never forget the misery I there witnessed . In the first house , or rather hovel , I entered , there were two persons , one of whom was sick , and two others had already died from the want of sustenance . They had neither furniture vac clothing , the whole having been parted with to meet
the era 'ings of hunger . In the house next door feur persons had already died from hunger , and there : was every likelihood that the remainder of the family would be shortly carried off . Wc-next proceeded to a house in Cbapel-strett , and on entering the . , door the first objects tbat attracted car attention were 3 children in a state of complete nudity , nean-a small turf fire , with three or four wemen neatly in as wretched a condition , while oo a table lay the corpse of what had been an able-bodied man , -who , on enquiry , we are informed had been oinploy «< l under the Board of Works , and had died from hardshi p and cold , not having clothes t » cover him from the iaclemency of the wcatlwr . On th » Windmill-Uill there ave 23 small houses , and since Ihe first ot December eighteen , deaths took place in them , from
mew ttunger . In the town of Skibbereen alone 70 deaths took place since the commencement of the mouth from hunger also . In passing through the streets 1 remarked that all the dogs had disappeared which , the poor people were so fond of having about their houses , and on making inquiry as to what had become of them , the people said they died of starvation—but from the reluctant manner in which they answered the question , I would almost infer that , horrible as the supposition may be , they had mado use of them as an article ot food . But if tho mortality is great in the town and neighbourhood , it is equally so in the workhouse , if not to a more fearful extent . There are 074 persons at present in that building , of whom 302 are in the hospital , and 185 deaths took place there from the first to the 28 th of December . Dr . Donnovan , in a letter to tho Cork Reporter , under the heading " Diary of a Dispensary Phy-
sician , ' after describing the scenes of misery which ho witnonscd . at the dispensary on tbe 28 th ult and corroborating the above account from the reporter of that paper , says : — " J now will wind up my diary of the 26 th with the stastics of disease in Bridgetown : in a single lane in this town there are 86 cses of fever , out of a popu ation of about three hundred persons . Before conoludinz , I mast , however , give my preface to my diary of tbe 2 fth . I was told this day by tha police that a man bad been for days unburied in a hnnse on the Windmill ; there ono of the mo < t re * volting scenes I ever witnessed was before me . In a nook in this miserable cabin lay , upon a wad of straw , a green and ghastly corpse that had been f or five days dead , nnd that was already emitting tho intolerable exhalations of putrefaction . At the eotof this decomposing body lay a girl groaning with pain , and by its side wa 9 a boy frantic in fever . The wife of the deceased sat upon the filthy floor stupified from want and affliction . I asked lier in the name of feaven , why she did not get her husband buried ? Her answer was , she had no coffin , I inquired whv
&he did not go out to look for one ? Decency would notallow her , for she was naked : the few rags that she na « alter the fever had rotted off , and she hoped that cothn would be her next dress . The children have recove ' rill » dtOtheFever IIo 3 D ' ' and are no * nf , nl ! n 8 c tate 5 » eommon , and tbe rapid increase n «« m n mort » ' « ty . are described as most deplorable ami h eiirtreneine afflioth ! g : ! l ! C ° Unties tlle account 8 are € < l " allt mp n ° n " ? , GALWAT r Stato oftne Chvldagh Fisher . men . —On i hunday last the soup-kitchen , which has ° ' rel ^[ of destitute poor of Clnd . bgh . was mw i When ' e snu P was prepared the Veiy Rev . Mr . Folan- and the Rev . Mr . Rurii di < tribnted a sample of the potas-a with a biscuit , to each of a few
orphans . These immediately nave the word through l ? j ' wllen ' nundre ( ls of > Poor creatures rushed m with mu » s , Ac , in their hands , to put in their claim . The rev . gentlemen nave it gratuitously to All w ' uo applied . The wretched ppople don't know how to labour at anything but their fishing avocations ; and such has ' been their misery that thoir net ? , spillat-rfs , clothing , bedding , in fact ' every article that could be either sold or pledged , are all parted with ; so that they have no other resource but to starve , unless a generous public len >! a helping hand in the present emercer , cv : am ) until it Imscen
whether the government may n"t be induced to do something to place them in a condition , now that tha fishing season has arrived , to fellow their onlinary pursuits . _ There is a vastminnof wealth and employment in the bay and deeprea fishery in this district—we believe to a greater extent than in » ny on the coast of Ireland—yet not one sineli exertion is made in behalf of acoiony of about 3 500 persons exclusively dependent on fishing pursuits for the means nf livelihood , and thousands nf whom must inevitably perish _ unless promptly placed in a way for « fh ' eiently following their ordinary avocations —Galway Vindicator .
Oocntt of Kkkrt . —TfiAi . int . —No less than eight sudden deaths have orcurred wi'hin the last week in this district ; half of which have been attributed to the effect * of destitution . —Trake Chronicle . County of Suno —Slioo , Ja » . 2 . —The condition M the people is becoming , every hour , more deplonvb . e . The mortality has fearfully increased in the locality of Sligo , and this increase is solely attributable to a want of a sufficiency of food . We are , indeed , but at the beginning of the horrors ; the lam ! is untillerl , the peasantry have not means to sow the seed , nor time to devote to that purpose , the home supply of grain is fast diminishing ; the snpply brought from foreign eountri' s is wholly inadequate to meet tha demand , the price of food is hourly increasing , and uuging from the aspect of things , we have not one ,
but many years of famine before us . —Sligo Champion . Statr of tjik North-west of Ireland . —The Z < wdonderry Journal states that the destitution which prev » ils throughout the whole of the north-west district is deplorable in the extreme . There is scarcely a parisliwhick there are not hundreds of families who are in writhing in the agonies of famine . Tho same unvarying tile of unmitigated misery is repeated by Jail tbe journals of the district—those of Ballyshannon ^ Enniskillen , Armagh , and Omagh . Even in this city there occur , as the members of the Relief Committee can attest , the most harrowing wew-s . aris ' ni * from want of food . The whole district , in shnrt—though it may not include a Skib * bereen or a Castlehar—appears to be suffering fully as much as those which are further south .
OUTBREAK IN UILKKKNY . The Kilkenny Journal contains the following ac » count of a formidable disturbance at the workhouse . Kilkbshv , Jas 2 .- Riots at the Poorhousk . —On Thursday , during the sitting of the board , some very Rerinus disturbances , and which threatened to have a fatal result , tnokplace at the pborhouse . The crush was so great at the time the extems were being admitted to dinner , that one woman was very seriously injured , and wa 3 only saved from being crushed to death by Alderman Smithwiek and some , others of the siuardians . At five o ' clock a large number of men , about three or four hundred , most of whom were labourers , and persons not entitled to relief , assembled at the gate , and clamorously demanded
admission . They were told that they could receive no dinner , as the hour was past , but the sate having been opened to allow egress to some women who had been delivering milk , they rushed in in a body , but were prevented from entering the frontdoor until it was secured . Four shots were , thereupon , fired within the poorhouse ground ; tno head constable hastened to the spot from whence the smoke proceeded , but dul not succeed in seizing the perpetrators , though he saw one man escape over the wall . During ; this interval the mob succeeded in forcing open the door of the porter ' s lod » f , and subsequently that of the dining lull , but were prevented from pro * ceedin ? further by the gallant resistanco of the master , armed witk a stick—of the porterarmed
, with a bayonet—nnd , much to their credit , of some of the pauper inmates of the house . Intelligence of this having been brought to head constable Lynn , ho hastened in , and the combined force , notwithstanding a violent shower of stones , which continued without intermission for some minutes , charged the mob , and put them to the route at the point of the sword , bayonet , and shillelagh , forcing them over the inner yard walls , and finally succeeded in expelling them from the premises , and securing the outer gate . A tremendous volley of stones was then poured in from the road by the mob , and they left , vociferating that they would sack the town . Coming down John
Street , they called at some houses , but we have not heard of any damage done . At Mr . Dnnphy ' s , in High Street , they called a halt , and clamoured for broad , but , as we understand , were deterred from violence by the sight of Mr . Dunphy ' s blunderbuss . Mr . Winslow was soon on the spot , " with the police force ; but before his arrival the mob had dispersed . On the previous night a similar mob made a violent entry into the poorhouse , and succeeded in forcing dinner . To make this matter the more outrageous , they were people principally in employment , and not fit objects for gratuitous relief , for all tbe holders of tickets had regularlv been feed each day .
The number ofinmntes in the house last Saturday week was 1 , 428 Discharged during the w-.-ek , CO ; died , 9 ; admitted during the same period , 176 . There were in the hospital 250 , of which upwards of 100 were fever eases . This number admitted this day was 100 ; rejected 10 . The amount of rent paid in during the week was £ 20 Is . 4 d . ; remaining uncollected . £ 962 13 s . 4 . 1 .: balance in bank puss-book against the house , £ 37 0 j . W .
COUNT ! OF LKITR 1 M . Deaths from Starvation . —We had no idea , prior to the last ten days , of tho destitute situation of the county of Leitrim . The poor elns < r- < , ci-ncrally sneaking , are in such a slate of destitution , that death every day seizes its victim . In some few ca < es—comparatively very few—inquests lmve been held . On the 18 th instant , an inquest was huld on the remains of Thomas Kiernan , who resided near Leitrim . Verdict— "Died for wi \» t i > f nunrishment . " It was deposed tlmt the man had not eaten
food from the 14 th , except a little stirabout . On the 10 th ult . an inquest waa held near Drumsna , on the tv > dy of James Byrne . It appeared that the deceased had only once tasted food for the last three days . Our correspondent adds , thnkHlie pcnpls who are living in remote place * nve now so Vnmilbriacil with hunger , disease , And death , that within a few hours after dissolution the bodies are quietly Jqwsited in the grave-vanls . A great many fanners in the county of ILeitrim are said to have ; i good stock of potatoes in reserve for seed . — Itcjfy / hamon Herald .
DBWMiD tor Fiur-. \ rms . —Wp , r «; fl ? t to sUttt that , tho demand tor fire-arms is increasing throughout this county . Tho regular vendor * of these coveted implements of destruction are ua « ble to keep pace with the influx of custom , ami auctioneers find it an easy matter to disuose of wixvle chests at a fair or market . Last week a travelog hawker appeared in the market ot tiroinore vtiiih a cartli > ail n ( guns , blunderbusses , pistols of varwas sizes , bullet av < nilds » andcaps , with all the necessary nmterinls for slaughter , whioh ho soon disposed ef tJ the lower orders of the people , among whom tho competition ran high as tho sale of the attractive toys drew near a close . The gun merchants in this town state that they find it exceedingly iHth ' cult to keep up a regular supply of the various articles in the trailo . — fyrone Constitution . 8 PRKAD OF DISBASF . _ _
Fever"is rapidly extending it * ravages even in the metropolis . The Cork-Btreet hospital , one of the largest establishmenta of its kind in Ireland , is literally crammed with patients , to such a degree of inconvenience , indeed , that the governors have given directions to havo temporary buildings—if shods . or tents can bo so called—prepared for the reception of the numorous patients for whom there is no accommodation within doors . Tho stale of the Meath and Richmond hospitals is equally deplorable , and the accounts from all parts of the country represent disease and destitution proceeding at an equal pace .
¦ % &- Oar next number will contain the commencement of some most astoundisg revelations of the crimes of the infamous Austrian despotism . —^
Glasgow is at present inundated with destitute Irish families , who are daily arriving under an impression that there is work for them on eome railway .
foajABY 9 , 1847 . THE N ' ORTHERN STAR . ^^^ F ^~ : " ' . ' "" ' ' ' ' — ' * ¦ ¦ i — i i i ¦ - » .... -.. ——— ¦ MTTIMwm m W
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 9, 1847, page 7, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/vm2-ncseproduct1400/page/7/