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TWBSTY-FIFTH SUlTlOV. Uwtrated by Twenty-rfx Anatomical Engravtagt «n Dra6t«
Crimikal Statistics op Birmingham. — The
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la- * and improved edition , enlarged to 198 pages , price li \ 6 A by post ; direct from the Establishment , 8 s . 6 d . faW HTflLENT FRIEND ; medical work on Hie exhaustion an * physical decay of BiBBvsTem , proteoedby excessive indulgence , the conseqoecKeB of infection , or the abuse of mercury , irith observations or the married state and the disqualifications wWch prevent it ; illustrated by twenty-six coloured eneravlr . es and by tie detail of cases . By R . and L . PEBUY aed Co ., 19 , Berners-street , Oxford-street , Lonaan . " abUshedby * eautiora , and sold by Strange . 21 , Paternoster-row ; Hannej 68 , and 3 anger , 150 , Oxfordttreet - Starie , 28 , Tichb « rne-street , Haymartet ; and Cerdon , 346 , Leadenhall-street , London ; J . and B Bfimes , and Co ., fceithwalk , Edinburgh ; D . Campbell , toja-street , Glasgow ; 3 . Priestly , Lord-street , and T . JJewton , Ctrarch-street , Liverpool ; R . H . Ingram , te * H' ! ace . Manohegr . bepirgt
UNDER ROTAL PATRONAGE . PERFECT FREEDOM FROM COUGH , " Ia Ten Minutes after nse , and a rapid Cure of Asthma and Consumption , and all Disorders » f the Breath and Lungs , is insured by DR , LOCOCK'S PULMONIC WAFERS . The truly wonderful powers of ibis remedy have called forth testimonials from all ranks of society , in all quarters of the world . The following have beea Justreesived : — ANOTHER CURE OF SETEff YEARS' ASTHHA . Vrom Mr Bdwia Sgsire , Corn Market , Loughborougb , March 19 , 1816 . Gentlemen , —A lady ( whose name and address Is below ) called at my ' shop yesterday , and made tke followng itatement respecting tho beneficial effect * produced by your popular medicine . She has been severely afflicted about three moatn
Brave Cohddct op a Bot . —Extract of a letter fromTortola , Virgin Islands : — ' We have had a very gsllant action performed berebja child , Dine years of age , the son of oht President , £ . H . l ) rammocd Hay , Eiq . The child , with a younger brother , had gone do-in to bathe , and when there , he 8 aw » man in the water who had sunk once , bat the little fellow was not , at first , aware h . B could not swim , bat when he perceived the man in danger , and about to siflk s second time , he bravely rnshed into the water , and swam at onoe to bis assistance : tbe
* AMEB THR 0 U 8 H 0 Ur TBB GLOBE , HOLLOWATS PILLS . A CASB oFdHOPSY . Extract « f a Letter from Mr William Gariker , of Hanging Haughton , Uerthamptonshire , dated September ltth , 1847 . To Professor Holleway . Sn , —I before informed yen that my wife had been tapped throe ttmss for the dropsy , but by the blessing of Sod upon your pills , and herperseveranee in taking them , the water has n » w been kept off eighteen months by their Jieans , which is a great mercy ! ( Sigied ) William Qauxhi .
Third Sectioni Law 16 . — " That this invaluable practical knowledge can be acquired solel y through an extensive search after truth , by an accurate , patient ; and unprejudiced inquiry into facts as developed by nature , "
THE RATIONAL MODE OF PERMANENTLY AND PEACEABLY ADJUSTING THE PRESENT DISORDERED STATE OF EUROPE .
REASONS FOR THIS LAW . In consequence of the false fundamental principle on which the human character has been alone formed , and thereby made to be irrational , truth has been more dreaded by the authorities of all nations than all the evils which hare yet afflicted mankind . Even now , it is more dreaded by the old authorities of the world than the most powerful armies that can be brought to oppose them . The system of the world having been based on falsehood , and supported merely by falsehood and brute force ,
both ef which , from necessity , are hourly in * creasing , cannot stand the test of plain , simple , straig htforward truth . From this test the old system of society now shrinks like a coward , or vainly attempts , while supported by numbers , to destroy the advocates of truth , by the s-vord of the ignorant , misled by their earlytaught prejudices . This proceeding has as yet succeeded , and in consequence , all have grievously suffered in one way or another , but all , more or less , in every rank of life , in every age , and in all countries .
But the knowledge of facts has been ever progressive ; these are always opposedjto falsehoed , and now they are arrayed in such numbers in support of truth , that it is impossible falsehood can much longer maintain its power as heretofore over the mental faculties of the human race . Falsehood is the origin of Evil among men—Truth the foundation : of Good . And both may be thus known : — Falsehood is ever inconsistent , and opposed to facts . Truth is always consistent with itself , ani in accordance with every known fact ; and that which will not stand this test cannot be true .
There is no consistency in making man responsible for his original qualities and powers ; for the circumstances in which he may be placed , or for his feelings , convictions , and conduct ; for these necessarily emanate from the faculties created for him at birth , and the circumstances which act upon those faculties from his birth . Every fact declares that he is the being created or manufactured in mind and body by these circumstances , and therefore , that he cannot justly or advantageously be educated or governed as an existence which forms itself , its feelings , convictions , or conduct ; the latter always proceeding from one or other , or both of the former .
The great truth , from ignorance of which society , throughjall its ramifications , now so severely suffers , is , that the evils in all classes over the world are not created by the individuals who suffer from them , or who make others suffer , but are the necessary effects of the false system in which all are entangled ; and from which none can escape , except by the abandonment of the whole system in principle and practice , and by the adoption of an entirely , new system based on another principle—a principle in accordance with all known facts , and which is uniformly consistent with itself and those facts .
It is only by an accurate , patient , and unprejudiced inquiry into facts , fully investigated and pursued to their legitimate consistent results , regardless of the previous ignorance of our irrational ancestors , who have always hitherto been governed by their imagination , based on false conceptions , that truths useful to mankind can be discovered and applied beneficially to practice . In consequence of the characters of all being formed on the most erroneous and absurd
notions respecting human nature , and society itself being constructed on the same false notions , no men have yet been so placed , as to investigate facts in the manner and spirit now recommended . Thus far , it has been made to appear to be the private interest , and for the safety of all , to lend their aid , to support old notions , however false and injurious ; and if they chanced to discover some of the most important truths , on which depend the permanent happiness of the human race , they have not been in a position publicly to declare them
or if they attempted to make them public , they have fallen martyrs to their conscientious feelings . Who , on account of their pri . vate interests , or fear of an ignorant and prei judiced public erroneously instructed from their cradle , can now venture openly to advocate the divine truths , which are given in this universal government , constitution and code of laws ; although the permanent well-doing and happiness of all of the human race are deeply involved in their promalgation and adoption ?
Falsehood , and accumulated and accumulating errors , necessarily emanating from that falsehood , have made moral cowards of all men and women , none of whom now dare to speak the truth as they are obliged to know it by an irresistible feeling of conviction on their own minds . The most obvious , natural , and certain convictions which internally , exist through life , in all who have the faculty to observe and reflect , lie dormant in each unexpressed , and through the whole period of their existence , until they die with them when they cease to exist . It is this moral cowardice in the search after
truth , and fear of declaring it when found , that must be overcome , before there can be any chance for man to be made a consistent , rational , and happy being . The present political and social disorder throughout the civilised world , is the fortunate breaking up of this false , unjust , cruel , and most absurd system , by which , until now , the characters of all have been formed , and by which all nations and people have been so wretchedl y governed . It is now aloue that truth , consistent with itself and in accordance with all facts , can prevent universal anarchy , and otherwise , interminable contests , and give peace and order to the world . Law 17 . — " That man can never attain to a
state of superior and permanent happiness , until he shall be surrounded by those external circumstances only which will train him , from birth ; to feel pure charity and sincere affection toward the whole of his species , to . speak the truth onl y on all occasions , and to regard with a merciful disposition all that has life . ' '
REASONS FOR THIS LAW . Experience , through the entire history of man , proves that he has been the creature of circumstances created before his birth , and in which he has been placed by society from his birth , and a patient search after truth , by investigating facts without previous prejudices , makes it evident that man must ever be the being of the bad , mixed , or good circumstances with which he shall be surrounded from the commencement of his existence in the womb , and after his birth through life .
This is the most important truth ever developed from the commencemen t of the irrational existence of human nature . For this knowledge will hereafter give the full power to society to create an inferior , mixed , or superior character for all of the human race ; and it will soon appear to be the interest of all , that the best character only should be created for every individual . But now a most inferior character is created for all , through a combination of most vicious and injurious circumstances ; of circumstances blindly created and unwisely continued through past ages to the present , when all are severely suffering from this error so fatal to their happiness .
Now , a necessity has arisen for these varied combinations , in different classes and different countries , of vicious and injurious circumstances , to be rationally abandoned , and superseded by those only which are virtuous and superior j and which may be now so easily ,
I . B . W •*¦ ^ " " — ~ — » w » ^ m ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ M economically , and beneficially In troduced by existing governments , in peace , & . nd witli ' wise foresight to insure the safety and . . nappi-, ness of all . ; Instead of governments , as heretofore , plun - dering and murdering the producing classes for no rational object ; and creating inferior , injurious , and vicious circumstances by which to surround them , they will , through this knowledge , discover the injustice and cruelty with the totalwant of wisdom in all such
insans proceedings , and with rational foresight commence new arrangements , with which to execute the essential business of life , that w , to produce and distribute wealth , form character , and govern in a manner very superior to the grossly ignorant and vicious mods by which these proceedings are now carried on in all countries over the world . And to this statement , sad and melancholy as it is , there is not one exception . All nations , hitherto , have had their affairs conducted on the most
false and injurious principles , and hence the deplorable condition in mind and body , in which the multitude in all countries now are . Under the existing wretched system , all are trained in the language of falsehood , and in a conduct of deception , without charity for the feelings , thoughts , or eonduct of those trained and educated to differ from them . While , under a system based on true princi ples , derived direct from nature , a new combination of
good and superior circumstances would arise , simple and easy of construction—circumstances that would ensure a language of universal truth , without motive to express a falsehood in look , word , or action ; and create feelings which would pervade the whole being with pure charity and sincere affection for those taught the most to differ from us , and also create a disposition to be kind and merciful to all that has life ; a character that would , in fact , go far towards creating harmony throughout terrestrial creation .
Law 18 . — " That such superior knowledge and feelings can never be given to man under those institutions of society which have been founded on the ' mistaken notion that each man forms his own feelings and conrlctiong by his will , and , therefore , has merit or demerit , deserves praise or blame , reward or punishment , for them . " REASONS FOR THIS LAW . The existing institutions of society , in consequence of being based on falsehood , can never produce a superior character , or so govern man as to produce general permanent prosperity , or to do justice to human nature either individually or in the aggregate .
It is vain , therefore , to imajjine , that these old institutions , based on falsehood and folly , can be longer forced upon the growing experience of the ago , or maintained when , the foundation on which they have been constructed is undermined , and their injustice and iniquity are made known to the population of the world . It is not the interest of any one living , that these institutions should permanently remain , but it is the interest of all that not one of them
should be prematurely or suddenly destroyed . Due reflection will make it evident society requires for the peace and safety of all its members that these institutions , as well as all the practices of society emanating from them , should be gradually superseded by others that would be permanently beneficial to all , and that would produce no injurious consequences by their introduction or subsequent proceedings . ( To be continued )
NATIONAL ORGANISATION OF TRADES . 10 THE EDITOR OF THE NORTHBRN STAR . Sib , —I hasten at this my earliest opportunity , to tender you my meed of praise for the very farourable notiee which you have given to the address and objeo ( 8 of the trades delegates in the Northern Stab . As oae of the delegates , I took mach interest in the elaboration of the fundamental principles embodied in their addreas , as I believe they go praotloally and systematically to the root of the many evils by whioh labour ie enelvred . I , therefore , purpose , with your permission , to further develope my views upon the land , which ia . the first principle enunciated by the delegates . I look upon the second principle in their
address—namely , Universal » unrage- > a 8 the means to the end , but I am awaT 8 that there is much work to be done befor « the suffrage can be turned to proper aoooust . The public mind requires to b « thoroughly enlightened upon the justice , utility , and benefits to be derived by the community at lame , by making the land national property ; particularly in the agricultural diatrictf , where the evil genius of modern feudalism has entwined itself around the intellect of the rural population , and laid both mind and body prostrate at Its feet . I therefore trust , that when the Association , which is now rapidly progressing , shall become thoroughly established throughout the principal towns , that it will then , with discretion and indomitable energy , conaeerate itself to the
enlightenment of the agricultural population—and that the schoolmaster will everywhere be sent abroad until the young mind of this country be literally besieged with instruction ; bo that when the hour of their political enfranchisement arrives , tbey will be able to thoroughly understand the measures and the men that mast secure their emancipation , and the principles propounded by , , the delegates seem well adapted to that end . There may , perhaps , be a difference of opinion as to the beBt and most speedy manner in which the land may be made to revert to the State ; but if the justice of the principle be admitted , the manner in which that can be best effected will be Bimply a matter for deliberation . However , with your permission , I will here give an outline of what appears te me to be a just and practical mode of restoring tbe land to the people . Either the estates of the landlords may ba made to revert to the
State at their decease , with full compensation to their heirs , or they may , as a body , sell their lands to the State , and be paid by instalments , or the present or any future government may , en the ground of compensation , deoree that it shall be so . Thus , if we suppose the value of an estate to be worth £ 500 , 000 . by paying the present proprietor , or his heirs , £ 20 000 per annum the whole snm would be paid in twenty-five years ; and , taking that as an average , eurely it is quite sufficient to afford the sons of the aristooraoy every facility to plaoe themselves in an honeBt way of living in the world , in . stead of the land pasting by hereditary right into the bands of the eldest sons of our noblemen , and the rest being left to look out for places in the chnroh , army , and navy , or their fortunes to depend upon marrying an alderman ' s daughter or some rich heiress .
The tame scale of payment may be applied to the whole of the land as the landlords die off—or it should be placed under the protection of the State at onoe ; and en the former plan the whole , © r , at IeaBt , the principal portion of it , would revert to the State in less than thirty years . The question may suggest itself to such that have aci considered this subject—where is the money to come from to pay the laadlorda ? I answer at once , from the rent 3 derived from the land , as it reverts to the state . For instance , suppose the average price of land to be £ 10 peraore , an estate worth £ 600 , 000 would contain 13 , 500 acres . Allowing that to be
let at £ 2 per acre , it would yield a revenue of £ 25 000 per annum , which would Isave s aurplus of £ 5 , 000 for revenue purposes , after having paid the landlord his annual instalment of £ 20 , 000 . The same principle nay be applied to the whole of the land at once . In the parliamentary papers , appendix H , Irish Poor Inquiry , part I ., table 2 , the oullivated lands of Great Britain are stated at 31 , 014 , 000 acres—the uncultivated- at 22 , 678 300 acres . The cultivated sores of Ireland ( see 'Public Works Report'for 1835 , page 107 ) are set down at 13 , 125 , 380 acres , whioh , being added to the former , makes the total number of aoiee of cultivated land in the united
kingdom amount to 46139 , 280 . Allow the annual income ef landlords , from all sources , derivablo from the raw material of land , both from the bowels of the earth and its surface , to be £ 150 , 000 , 000 , whieh is fat below the Mark , considering that one < half of that Bum is paid as rents by tenant farmers , and a much greater sum from expired leases of household property , ground rents of unexpired leases , rents for coal , lead , oopper , iron , and other mines , slate , and stone quarries of various descriptions ; fisheries , turbaries , game , and other sources of income . So that if we set the whole of the land of the United Kingdom , both cultivated and uncultivated , down at 70 , 000 000 acres , weBbal
find , atcordiDg to that calculation , that the landloida receive , upon as average , £ 2 3 a , per acre for every acre of land they possess ; and without overcrowding this article with supetflaouB statistics , I have no hesitation in eaying that my talculationa are much below tha mark . It is therefore clear that if the land should gradually revert to the State we should not only be able to meet all liabilities but have a considerable aurplua , whioh would enable us to rednce our custom and exoiae duties , gradually reduce the rents on land , until the whole of it became national property , when custom and excise duties might be totally abolished , and all the rent that would bo required
from tad weild simply be a mere rest tax to meet tha genial exigentiea of the S * at « , as stated rathe address of the delegates . Then , and aec tall then , we s hall hare a real veritableFree-trade , insteadI of the monstrous misnomer called Fr « etradeattoe present time . If the Parliament , in the manner hero proposed , had dealt with the mcuaibered es . £ team Ireland , iistead of * he m » M « in . which Sey will be disposed of by ike provisions of the bill of lW- session , the most saUtary effects m a few wiSVoHld have been produced to that unhap py SStrr' tatmdwtta provisions of that art , the mriwill V « " > mbrtlttiMon of ns . rera and money 22 JE & original territwial arutumoj . Iti i » ImSeible fi V » to say it what »« ner a Parliaafe-jasrswtfwfi
Resent laided tenurw continue * wist . e r of / wafers a genera * uadorslawiiig among S uDon the questioi of thV land-be come to , 23 ttKd thai knowledge to the rural districts , whih" ? oliti « ally speaking , may fewd tt have no existent . Let it everywhere be pw « Jaimed by their firS des ^ nd in their workshops-i . the valley and oTth monnbdn-thal the uaiYWwd right of the JSople * o the Mil ia based upon K ^ SfiLfiSS justice , and the true and miot philipphicaJ mode of dealing with it is to place it under the protection of people , divided into 8 Dy ntunber of electoral dwteiots U set forth intheOhartar-or federalistates , wj cb iVthe same thing ; so that , by an equal distribution of power , the possibility of government P » t'ona « eis prevented-while , atthe same time , a salutary local newer would be possessed by the people to compel
the publiefunctionaries they elected to anoraerar facility and fairplay to tha people , either to cultivate the laid on their own indi » idn » l responsibility , or any number to associate together and cultivate the soil in their associated capaoity . Do that , and the « mim to labour are at onoe ' organised , ' wtoon will do more for the settlement of this question oftte association « r ' Organisation of Labour , than ever can be dene by a thousand years of discussion . It would destroy all contention , beeauw it would establish real liberty . No man haa a right to compel another to enter a community ftgalntt kil will , eves though he who would compel him , takes the correot and meat philosophio view of what is most suitable for human nature . On the other hand , who are they who dare to say to a workman ' Year labour is my property . You must dispose ef it at my P' «* . ™« csatinue towerk for me as my slave , or otherwise you bhi . ll net work . I deny your right to associate with others as a community V
Both of these extremes are tyranny . It appear ; to me that the great queatton first to be nettled is not bo much the Organisatim qf Latew , '»« the organ Bation of the meaBS of labour . The best way , in my opinion , to organise the means te labour—if we look at the question in a national point of view—would be to make the land national property—to afford every facility either for asaooiated or individual labourand the true settlement of the Labour Question would follow , with as muoh oertainty as water finds its level , and as onerrintly as the needle tinds towards the pole . But while the real democracy is divided in itself , aad disputing about abstract dogmas , or contecdicg for the superiority of the association of Labour over individual exertion , and vic-e
twaa , it must be clear that instead of uniting to oreate a system of government under which both principles would be fairly and speedily tested , they are playing the game of their opponents in the meat effeatual manner . I sincerely trust the members of the Trades' Organisation will direct their exertions to the creation of this good and friendly feeling among all real reformers , to oreate an extensive and < mlightened public opinion—in short , to secure , as far as possible , a unanimity of action and sentiment among the people , whether they be Trades' Unionists , CuartintB , or Socialists , « pen thte question of the Land ; and when the full recognition ef that principle is established , it will be found that all disputes will eease as to tbe manner in which they shall employ them&lveB in its onltiv&tion , because east will > e ad fullliberty to test the principle of individualism or association : and it will then be found that
proctioe and experience will settle what has been tbe dispute of ages , and what muit continue to ba disputed in future generations , unless all who are agreed to ( he universal right of the people to tbe soil , adhere unanimously to that point , and leave it to time to settle the question of superiority of a cooperative , or competitive state of society . lea , it is time alone—the sole arbitrator of human affairB— - that must settle this all-important question . But it is the intelligence , the entrgy , the concentrated action of the democracy of Europe that must accelerate its consummation . Tha trades will have to take up this question Booner or later , and 1 implore them to commenee at oneo ; it is the only means by which they can find that protection and reward for their labour , which they have in vain sought to accomplish by TradeB Unions , and all because they have eft untouohed the primary causes by whieh labour is enslaved . Alvjbxd A ; Walton .
Earthquake . —The shook ef the earthquake felt on Saturday , Deo ; 27 , atBois-leDuc ( Netherlands ) , was equally perceptible at O . i , Geffell , Nullaad , Sehyndel , Heerwjk . Dintfler , Eindhoven , and above all at Nistenroode and Werstenbosch , In the latter commune the shock was so strong that stones were shaken from chimneys , and plates and dishes fell out of cupboards . It is remarkable that this phenomenon shortly preceded the considerable change whieh has taken place in the weather . The Auhemschk Covrant informs eb that this shock was felt likwiw at Arnhem . In that tawn it lasted for four seconds , and earned objects hanging from the ceilings of the houses to vibrate . —BrwMh Rvrald .
Gold Mines in Ekombd . —While we have American returns of gold mines in California , we are well pleased to find that at home patties do sot lose sight of the precious metal . It is well known that our metalliferous rocks and lodes yield gold . and . Bilver , although , in most instances , too minute to render them of any commercial value , and generally speaking being found in the gossans . It is now some months since that attention was directed , through our columns , to the produce of gold is Merionethshire ; and although tbe question may be opes no to whether the sovereign is obtained minus or plua the value , yet the fact has been elucidated that the mineral lodes in North WaleB yield geld , a bar of which , weighing 31 b . 7 oz ., has been placed in our
own handt , as the product of the Gwm-hesian Mine , near Dolgelly . The mine is worked for lead , and the lode is represented to as as being 'interlaced' with strings ef gold . Some b ' ix n seven pounds of the precious metal have been obtained , and the ore at bank will we are informed , yield at least 200 oz , of gold . We merely mention the oircumstanoe with the view ofdircoting the attention of our readers who may possess information on a Bubject so important as that mooted—the extraction of gold from our mineral veins . We are well aware that the matter is one ef pounds , shillings , and pence , and having noticed it , we leave it to others to enter into further
detail . —Mimn ; Journal . Immknbb Import op Foreign Grain . —During the last few days the arrivals of grain to this port have been very considerable , and in consequence of the greater part having been bonded , pending the reduction of the dnty to Is . per quarter , which is to take effeot on the 1 st February , 1849 , warehouse room has been difficult to obtain . The following are the quantities now in bond at this port : —Wheat , 30 . 000 qra . , barley , 21 , 000 qrs , ; . oats , 4 . 000 qrs . ; peas , 7 , 000 qrs . ; beans , 12 , 000 qrs . ; rye meal , 800 owt . On Tuesday , the 26 th ultimo , no leas than Bixty vessels from foreign perts reported their cargoes at the Co atom House at this port . —Bull Packet .
Tbb Lobs of ihb Mtnunt . —The following Is aa extraot from a letter , containing a detailed account of the loss of the Mutine . The letter is dated Venice , December 24 th , 1848 . — ' Fearful that ex aggerated reports may -reaoh home , I write by the earliest opportunity to inform you of the wreck of the Mu tine , whioh took place on the 21 st at Palestrina , about ten miles from Venice , in one of the heaviest gales ot wind ( commonly , called 'Boras' in this part of the world ) I ever saw . Fortunately every one has been saved , with the exception of four officers and one marine , vii ., Edward White ( aoting mate ) , drowned in a most gallant attempt to get on shore in the dingy with a line ; H . E . Charlton , ( acting mate , ) dead from exhaustion and intense
oold ; James Burke , ( assistant-surgeon , ) whose death was caused in a similar manner ; James Dowse , ( carpester , ) who fell out of the bowline-knot as they were hauling him on shore , and was drowned ; aBd Edward James , ( private . Royal Marines , ) found frosen to death under the forecastle . How so many were Baved appears to be almost miraculous , after being exposed aearly thirty hours to the most dreadful wsather ; the o « ld being so intense that the aeaa froze on everything as they came on beard . Many are suffering severely lrom their hands and feet being frostbitten * It is impossible to Bpeak too highly o ! the kindness and hospitality evinced by the inhabitants and authorities of Paletstrina , who seized officers and thea as they were landed , and oarried them up into the houses , actually giving ap their ewn bedB .
and supplying them with warm drinks , and , in fact , doing everything their dearest friends oould have done for them . The ship is now lying within twent ? y * rds of the shore , ( having beaten over three auar . ten of a mile of ahoal water , ) with her masts and rudder gone , and back broken . It is expected we shall save the greater part of the things on boari though there is no hope for the ship . The people on board were landed by means of a hawser ru ou to theBhore , with a bowline-knot and hauling-line . t Horses iobihb Fbbkch Rjpub lic .-We under-J » nd that . the government of France has a numbe of agents in this country Burchaaing hones suitable for troopew , Qne wenthiB bought several in this neighbourhood , and forwarded them for inspection with all potable dis » atoh ,- ;» 5 M ; wA jfeprw ,
TO THE PEOPLM OF ENGLAND . LttTKS X . Fellow Countrymen—I am tow to examine the optntion of Mr W . Band's third and Ian remedy for the national calamities reuniting from the worship of " the god ' Cheapness , ' , that , " sb he truly says , ' England has set up . ' I must imagine that the people of all other nations have beeome worshippers of the same idol , and have insaiely abandoned the vise and Christian system of endeavouring , as far as possible , to supply their wants with theiv own productions , exebaiging only their surplus produce for that wbiofc they most required of otker lationi . I imast also ' suppose that M * h Government baa determined U abandon every tax on imports and export * , together with all exoiae and other duties , that interfered , ia any way , between the buyer and the seller .
I am , in fact , to assume , that' free selling , u well as free buying , er Free Trade , fully and fairly car * ried out , ' ia in universal operation ; it being now the avowed object of the people of every nation to make themselves riok by the sale of their productions to other people —» . « ., by their exports— ' common sense having awatied that every interference between ; buyer and seller is madness , and that the only safe and sure method of ' protecting native industry' ia everywhere subjecting it to the keenest foreign
competition . . ¦¦; While those whose duty it is are devising new and better modes of supporting national credit and paying for the expenses of their different gsvernmenta , I am , if I can , to swaertaii the effeots that will follow from anirers Bl competition on' a clear stage , ' where there is ' no favour . ' To discover , if possible , how , by suoh means , profitable and constant employment can be found for all the people . The whele earth i » the Btage on which this tragedy will be performed . The weal or woe of the whole race of mankind ! ¦ the stake in this game !
The contemplation of the immense and universal changes that most , for many yaars , pass over tie prospects and conditions of every clan of people sa 4 nation ia perplexing and diitraotinff . Competition is no longer ourbsd ! He is emanci * pa ted ; and , unrestraiaed , ascends his triumphal car , to propagate throughout the globe the worship of' the cod' Cheapness '' f—to sacrifice life , honour , truth , at his shrine ! Under his banner are ranged tbe greedy ; thirsty , worshippers of waalth , resolved at all hszardg , by cheapening labour everywhere , to enrich themselves ! Emulation and strife—the destroyers of peace and
happiness—are Jet loose upon mankind ! The « niveraal contest for pre-emiaeace is unceasingly main , tained ! Wealth and power are sought for in cheap * ness and exterminating toil ! In that fame , deprea * sion must succeed depression , until the starving point is realised , and tbe ebeapest country wins , when enfeebled by the strife—in maddened feebleness-pantiDg and exhausted , ehe ia crowned ' the workshop of the world . ' But ere that goal is gained , hundreds of millions of property will have bsen destroyed ; millions of human beings will ere then have been sacrificed in the worship of the demon ' cheapness . ' , . .... ....
I will n « t assay to describe the horrou of that field of universal waste and slaughter ; nor will I pretend to name the conqueror : I am content te ask—Who will reap the benefit ol those incalculable losses and innumerable humin saerifiseB ? Will the labsurers be the gminer * in that victory ? Their wages mwi , of necsssity , be reduced to the starvation limit Will the farmer * gain by that conquest ? Their produce must ba at the lowest point . Will the landlords be the reapers in that harvest t Wken ' Cheapness' has done her work , rents will be nominal ! The wages of the artisans , the profits ef the maaufaoturera and the shopkeepers , must , under that pressure , be reduoed to the bankrupt standard !
Fellovr-CoHntrymen—In that war none can gain , save a very few merohanti of enormous wealth , and tho 89 persons who enjoy a fixed money income . But it in scarcely to be imagined that , amid suoh universal devastation , security can be maintained ! What then ? Should nature rebel against the tyranny of ' Chcapneaa , ' those few who fancy that they are 88 cured from every r ' uk would be overwhelmed and sacrificed ia that tmibla reaetion , the natural result of their extortion ! What boots it , then , should England prove the cen « queror f Hor sons would be enfeebled and impoverisaed ! She would become a land of sterile barrenness !
She oould not maintain her ascendancy , both m agrioulture and manufacture . Where , then , weuld be the promised increase in the produce of her fields ? Her soil would be uncultivated , because , from foreign lands , the food of man oould be prooured at a ' cheaper' rate . The surface ef our country vob' 4 be dotted and blackened with manufactories ! And you , my fellow-countrymen , would universally seek employment in nineB , and pits , and furnaoes , and mills , anbject * o the endless changeB wrought by nnoeasbg competition—sew one trade being ' all the go , ' and then another—foroing yon to change you home and orafts , and migrate from district to district as' Cheapness' led the way ! Tou would depend fee food on foreigners , eoasoled by the reflection , * Esgland is tho workshop of the world .
Should England chance to lose the game , how then ? Her wealth would be destroyed , her fields neglected , her mills xni warehouses dismantled I She would be reduced to second childhood—imbecile and weak—an easy prey ta her successful rivalB ! Soon she would be numbered one of their tributaries ' . ' In sober seriousness I ask my fellow-countrymen , Is it wise or safe to enter on a game where gain if desolation , where hw is subjugation ? Have I mistaken the progress and effect * of
rampan * competition r Let it be shown . Words , in my opinion , are too weak to give the full description of the deaths , disorders , losses , a * d derangements that must universally follow when the greedy worshippers of' Cheapness' are let loose upon mankind . Lan ° gvage cannot describe the fall of those mighty and multitudinous interests that will be engaged in mortal confliot for existence when ' free selling aa well as free buying , or Free Trade , fully and fairly carried out / shall have become the law of the whote earth .
In England , as elsewhere , every branch of manufacture and agriculture , with the hundreds of milliona of persona and the thousands of millions oS capital engaged therein , must be subjected to perpetual fluctuation . Each counting house would inv bibe the restless , agonising Bpirit of the Stock Sxohange ! The breasts of employers and shopkeepers would bB tortured and racked between tba perpetual fliokeringB of hope , fear , and despair ! The woikptople oould sever ealculaU their earnings , or the certainty or nature of their employments- * they would necessarily become reckless and improvident—uncertainty and anxiety would drive them ta distrsotion ! In fact , the minds of all would be as 'stretched on tenter hooks '—life would become a burden—the grave , man ' s solo repose . But , ' Is those days shall men seek death , and shall not find it ; andihall desire to die , and death shall flee from them .
Our manufacturing towns—Birmingham , Bradford . Coventry , Glasgow , Hanley , Huddersfield , Leeds ,. Leicester , < Manchester , Northampton , Norwich , Nottingham . Sheffield , Worcester , and othee plaoes , would change their manufactures , inhabitants prices , and wages , at the bidding of their foreign rivals . Those , again , being , in their turn , depressed and changed by the spirit of English mastership , desperately struggling for ascendency ; eaoh , weakened by successive losses , would he driven from tha field of competition , crippled , disabled , ru- ' ned ! At ast , the ' oheapeifc' being the winner , would become the workshop of an impoverished world .
Do you imagine that manufacturers aad tradesmen will cease to operate when Iosssb overbalance profits S Then are yen ignorant of the affects upon the human aind of unrestrained competition . Thereby man ia goaded to madness ; he forgets the tradesman ' s feelings and habits , and uncoesoiously becomes 9 reckless gambler , willing to risk his all upon * thf turn of tbe market . ' Hitherto I have failed to discover the benefits promised as tho result of MrW . Rand ' a third and Iasft remedy . In my next , for want of room la this , I will resume my search .
Meantime , fellow countyrmen , try to solve tail problem . ' Buy at the cheapest market / say out Free-trade wiseacres . Ireland has done so ' bee labour is surely as cheap as Midas himself could w » h to buy it . ' Sell at the dearest market , ' rave out Free-trade philosophers . Ireland has done so Engltmd is her nearest market , and haa been tha dearest * in the world . ' Andyeu will be rioh l » erf our Free-trade prophets . Ireland is poor ! How so 1 Let the Free-traders toll . * »<> WBOi I remain , Fellow-Countrymen , A friend of fair wages and profits all over the world ; Futa , vmm . * ° ° AWW 8 t
A Luckt PuROHASB .-At the recent ealeofthtf effects of the late R » v . Miles Barton , of Hoole , among otVer article ^ aa aakique eheat wai purchased by the Rev . Mr Price , of Longton , to whose resu denoe it was removed . On examining the interiot narrowly , Mr Price was Burprised by finding secreted therein , the sum of £ 240 which had evidently reposed in security for a long series of years . Tha treasure waa immediately returned to the propec parties .
CiuPBBix ' s Cnop-HousB Schbhs . — ' I onoe pro * jected a club ( said Campbell , the poet , to a friend , } on tho moat frugal plan that « ould be devised con eistent withreapeotability . I made a round of the London eating-houses—not as an amateur of eating . but as a student of prandiary statistics . I eaa speak of these place ! as confidently as the Indiag could speak of the Bishop . ' Had he known tha worthy prelate 1 ' 'Oh yes , and liked him vastly . ' But how did you happen te know him f ' I ate a piece ot him—i ' w « mngi Y
statistics of crime in the town during the year 1847 made their appearance about a fortnight since . The returns are classed under six different heads , and from an analysis we find that the first , embracing murder , rape , stabbing , assaultg , and other offences of that character , shows that there were taken into cu 3 tody 485 ; of these , 405 were assault cases , 188 of them being upon the police in the execution of their duty ; and there were discharged by the magistrates 185 ; summarily disposed of , or held to bail , 234 ; actually tried and convicted , 16 only . The offences under the second head embrace such crimes as burglary , house-breaking , robbery , &c .: there
were taken into custody , 53 ; discharged by the magistrates , 11 ; committed for trial , 40 ; convicted , 24 . The third section embraces horse-stealing , embezzlement , fraud , larcenies , &c ., and there were taken into custody , 1 , 596 ; discharged , 882 ; committed for trial , 510 ; convicted , 415 ; out of which number 202 were for simple larcenies only . In the fourth section there were 114 taken into custody for malicious offences against properly , of whom 52 were discharged , and 62 summarily disposed of , or held to bajl . Under the fifth head there are forgeries , uttering of counterfeit coin , - &c . ; 57 were taken into custody , 51 were discharged by the magistrates , 6 committed for trial , and 3 only convicted .
The sixth section embraces drunkenness and other minor offences : there were taken into custody , 1 , 762 ; discharged by the magistrates , 1 , 513 ; 241 were summarily disposed of : there not being a single committal for trial out . of this nearly 1 , 800 persons charged with about a score different kinds of offences . The recapitulation under these heads shows that there were taken into custody in the year for various offences , 4 , 027 ; discharged by the magistrates , 2 , 694 ; summarily disposed of , 753 committed for trial , 580 ; convicted , 458 ; acquitted , 77 ; bills not found , &c , 45 . Of these 4 , 027 persons taken into custody , those returns further show , with respect to their ages , that there were
of—12 years and under , males 158 , females 18 ; 16 years and above 12 , males 492 , females 62 ; 21 years and above 16 , males 726 , females 227 . Of these 4 , 927 offenders , there could neither read nor write , 1 , 832 ; read or read and write imperfectly , 1 , 965 ; read and write well , 197 ; superior education , 33 . On a general review of these statistics , it is found that of the whole number of offenders , Ie 3 <> than one-fifth are females , but that of the crimes of an aggravated character , these bear a proportion of more than one-third . The most
promising gleam of satisfaction gathered from these returns is presented in the comparative one of the last seven years , in which it is shows that , whilst there weie taken into custody in 1840 , 5 , 986 persons , there were in 1847 only 4 , 027 ; and that in the former year there were 512 sentenced and cobvicted , in the latter 458 . The concluding table , which presents peihaps the most iemarfcable result of the whole , embraces a list of about 200 trades which have furnished these 4 , 027 offenders ; from this it appears , that under eight of these heads are to be found more than one-half of the whole amount
of crime in the calendar of the town for the year . There were taken into custody—188 brass-founders , 177 button-makers , 74 carpenters , 76 casters , ' 133 gun-makers , 1 : 284 labourers , 77 shoemakers and binders , 87 no trade—total 2 , 096 . Extraordinary Telegraphic Feat . —President Polk ' s cumbrous Message , containing upwards of 50 , 000 words ( 1 ) , was flashed all the way frem Baltimore to St Louis in twenty-four hours , and this , too , with the minutest punctuation mark in the document . Copies were also dropped , on the way , at York , Harrisburgh , Carlisle , Chambersburgb , Bedford , and Pittsburgh , in Pennsylvania ; Massillon , . Cleveland , Zanesville , Columbus , Dayton , and
Cincinnati , in Ohio ; Madison and Evansville , in Indiana ; Lousville , in Kentucky ; and Saline in Illinois . The gentlemen who accomplished this wonderful mental , mechanical , and electrical feat are Messrs O'Rielly , of the Atlantic and Lake Telegraph Company , and H . J . Rogers of the American Telegraph Company , who wished to prove beyond all cavil thet the lightning line can be made available fer the transmission of large documents as well as for short messages , and we think they have pretty well satisfied the public of their ability to do it . Messrs Reddish and Hougb , of Philadelphia , connected with the O'Rielly line , were detained for the most
important part of the duty to be perfoimed , that of writing the entire document in Baltimore . Their arduous task was begun on Tuesday , ' shortly after the Message came to hand ,, and at a few minutes before two o clock on Wednesday afternoon finished their almost Herculean undertaking—at which hour the si gnature of James K . Polk , and the Washington date , were written as plainly and legibly as the caption had been twenty . four hours previously . The two operators were at work , relieving each other occasionally , during the entire time , with the exception of a couple of hours , when they were interrupted by a sterra at the western end of the line .
Emigra tion . —A youth from Nottingham was found m the streets of Plymouth a few days ago , asking the road to Australia .
Tfll NORTHERN STAR . Janpaey 6 , 1849 .
Twbsty-Fifth Sultlov. Uwtrated By Twenty-Rfx Anatomical Engravtagt «N Dra6t«
TWBSTY-FIFTH SUlTlOV . Uwtrated by Twenty-rfx Anatomical Engravtagt « n Dra 6 t «
Crimikal Statistics Op Birmingham. — The
Crimikal Statistics op Birmingham . —
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 6, 1849, page 2, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/vm2-ncseproduct1504/page/2/