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The return of Chwstmas bids us wreathe another chaplet for the brow of Time . Popular rejoicings at this season of the year date from long before the commencement of Christianity . The Roman Saturnalia was celebrated at our Christmas time , when all classes occupied themselves vith mirth and feasting , and sent presents to each other . Masters treated then * slares on an equal footing at first for one day , afterwards for three , andj by command of Caligula , for fire days .
Indeed , the festival really extended beyond eren that term . Capital punishments were Hot permitted while the season of rejoicing continued . Sacrifices to the Gods -were offered , and hymns in honour of Saturn and Bacchus vere chanted . These rejoicings recalled to the minds of the enslaved and unfortunate the fabled golden age ( sung of by the poets ) yrhen the human race were free from the corse of kings , priests , labour-grinding tyrants , disease and misery ; when all were equal and happy . A dream as regards the past ; may it be a reality in the ( not distant ) future .
- At this season of the year the northern nations also caroused , danced , sang , and indulged—in their rude way—in all the kindlinesses of hospitality , mingled with religious rites in honour of their god Thor , ages before they bore the name of " Christian . " To them we owe the yule log ; and as their most favourite beverage was ale , or mead , it was doubtless quaffed at their festivals in no stinted measure . Scott has drawn a lwely picture of the festivities of those barbarians , in the following striking lines : — The savage Bane , At Id , more deep tlie mead did drain ; High on the beech his galley drew
, And feasted all his pirate-crew ; Then in Ms low , and pine-built hall , "Where shields and axes deck'd the wall , They gorged upon the half-dressed steer , — Caroused in seas of sable beer , "While round in brutal jests , were thrown , The half-ground rib and marrow bone ; Or lhtened all , in grim delight "While Scalds yell'd out the joys of fight ; Then forth in frenzy would they hie , "While wildly loose their red locks fly , And . dancing round the blazing pile They made such barbarous mirth the while As best mi ght to the mind recall , The boisterous joys of Odin ' s hall .
The early teachers of the Christian faith , finding it impossible to eradicate the deeprooted love of the people for many of their ancient ceremonies and festivals , sagaciously determined to make the popular customs subserve the interests of the new religion . To transform the Saturnalia into Christmas was not more difficult than the placing of a new Lead on the statue of Jupiter , and christening his dethroned godship ; " St . Peter . " So it has been , so it will be . The institutions of mankind — religious as well as politicalchange with the advance of time .
" From the first introduction of Christianity into these islands , " sajs the Book of Christmas , the period of the ^ Nativity seems to have been kept as a season of festival , and its observances recognised as a matter of state . The Whitenagemots of our Saxon ancestors were held under the solemn sanction and beneficent influence of the time ; and the series of high festivities established by the Anglo-Saxon kings , appear to have been continued with yearly increasing splendour and multiplied ceremonies under the monarchs of the Norman race . From the Court the spirit of revelry descended , by all its thousand arteries , throughout the universal frame of society , "visiting its furthest extremities and most
obscure recesses , and everywhere exhibiting its action , as by so many pulses , upon the traditions , and superstitions , and customs which ¦ were common to all or peculiar to each . The pomp and ceremonial of the Royal observance were imitated in the splendid establishments of the more wealthy nobles , and far more faintly reflected from the diminished state of the petty baron . The revelries of the baronial castle found echoes in the hall of the old manor house , and these were again repeated in the tapestried chamber of the country magistrate , or from the sanded parlour of the village inn : merriment was everywhere a matter of public concernment , and the spirit which assembles men in families now , congregated them by districts then /'
The influence of Christmas in the olden t ime may bs gathered from the following fact , stated b y Mr . Torseb , in his History of England : "During the reign of Orleans , in 1428 , the solemnities and festivities of Christmas gave a short interval of repose . The English lords requested the French commanders that they might have a night of minstrelsy , with trumpets and clarions ; this was granted , and the horrors of war were suspended by melodies that were felt to be delightful . " We must again draw upon the poetry of Scott for a graphic description of
CHRISTMAS IN THE OLDEX TIME . The damsel donned her kirtle sheen ; The hall was dress'd with holly green ; Porth to the wood did merry men go , To gather in the mistletoe . Then opened wide the baron ' s hall To vassal , tenant , serf , and all : Power laid his rod of rule aside , And ceremony doffed her pride . The heir , with roses in his shoes , These nights might village partner choose ; The lord , underogating share , The vulgar game of " post and pair . "
Tho firo with woll-dried logs supplied , Vent roaring up the chimney wide ; The huge hall table ' s oaken face , Scrubbed till it shone , the time to grace , Bore then upon its massive board 2 Co mark to part the ' squire and lord . Then was brought in the lusty brawn , Bv old blue-coated serving man ; Then the < rim boar ' s head frowned on high , Crested with bays and rosemary . "Well can the green-garbed ranger tell , IIow , when , and where , the monster fell ; "What dogsbefore his death lie tore ,
, And all the baitings of the boar . The wassail round , in good brown bowls Garnished with ribbons , blithely trowls ; There the huge sirloin reeked ; hard by Plum porridge stood , and Christmas pie ; Xor failed old Scotland to produce , At each high-tide her savoury goose . Then came the merry masquers in . And carols roared with blithesome din ; If uumelodious was the song , It was a hearty note and strong .
TPhp Ms may , in their mummery , see Traces of ancient mystery ; ¦ White shirts supplied the ' masquerade , And smutted checks the visors made But , 0 ! what masquers , richly dight , Can boast of bosom half so light ! England was merry England , when Old Christmas broughthis sports again ; 'Twas Christmas broached the mightiest ale , "Twas Christmas told the merriest tale ; A Christmas gambol oft would cheer , The Door man's heart through half the year .
The Puritans endeavoured to prevent the observance of Christmas , and the Parliament passed an ordinance that no service should be performed in the churches on the 2 oth ot J Jester , commonly called Christmas-day , and that markets should be held on this day . In Canterbury about a dozen shopkeepers attempted to comply with this ordinance , but the people insisted that they should close their shop % and as theyrefused to do so , the populace wasted their goods , and a serious not was the consequence . „ , * The Christmas festivities of the present generation are too well known to need description ; we will , however , presently note flie origin of some of the customs which have descended to us from the days of old Come we at once to a few poetical leaves and flowers we have selected for our Gablasd . THE BRIGHT HOURS OF 3 EEM 0 RY . - BY FBAXCES BROWN . The brig ht hours of mem ' ry ! o £ , who can look ¦ rS cui ^ his path ! through the desert of years , track , - : ~' J ' ' ' - ''" .
Some far isle of verdure , whose dew is not tears ; Some spot to whose greenness his steps would return , Could they bear back the spirit that once they had borne , ' Or find it the region that once it has been ? The lights of the past may be feeble and few , And seen through the mist when life ' s morsia ? was gray , And pleasures and hopes which they brought to
our view Like the mists of that morn may have melted away ; But still their bright track , which remains in the soul , : 3 fo shadows can cover , no tears can efface ; Around it life's billows and tempests may roll , But they leave it still clear for the pilgrim to trace . Perchance 'twas an hour when the triumph of youth Arose o ' er its labours , and honours achieved , — Perchance when the vows of affection and truth Were fervently uttered and fondly believed : Or far in the distance of childhood it lies Where dim , as the oloud-covered-mountauw have groTn The scenes that sarrouud it , but still in our
eyes-It seems like one $ ot where a sunbeam hath shone . The bright hours of mem ' ry—how oft in our dreams They bring us the glory of long summer days , The joy of the spring-time ' s first blossoms and beams , And the laughter that rang by the winter hearth's blaze 2 And , oh ; there are hearts , though by fate long estranged , And eyes that can lighten our journey no more ,
That come in those visions , still true and unchanged , With the light , and the love , and the gladness of yore ! Bright , bright shines the beaoon of hope from afar , — And strong is the faith of our youth to pursue The path of its promise , till dim grows the star . And faint grows our steps in the wilderness too—But ne ' er of her treasure can Mem ' ry be reft , And dark roust the days of his pilgrimage be Who finds not one hour , in his retrospect , left , Like a full ark of joy on the desolate sea !
The following poems , from the pen of Thomas Hood , have not before appeared in this journal : —
THOSE EYES THAT WERE SO BRIGHT LOVE . Those eyes that were so bright , love , Have now a dimmer shine ; But what they ' ve lost in light , lbve , Was what they ( gave to mine . And still those orbs reflect , love , The beams of former hours ; That ripened all my joys , my love , And tinted all my flower * . Those locks were brown to see , lore , That now are turn'd to grey ; But the years were spent with me , love ,
That stole their hue away . Thy locks no longer share , love , The golden glow of noon ; But I ' ve seen the world look fair , my love ' When silvered by the moon . That brow was fair to see , love , That looks so shaded now ; But for mo it bore the care , love , That spoilt a bonny brow . And though no longer there , love The gloss it had of yore ; Still memory looks and dotes , my love , Where Hope admired before .
A TOAST . Come ! a health ! and it ' s not to be slighted with sips , A cold pulse , or a spirit supine ; All the blood in my heart seems to rush to my lips , To commingle its flow with the wine ! Bring a cup , of the purest and solidest ware , But a little antique in its shape : And the juice it shall be the most racy and rare , All the bloom with the age of the grape ! Even such is the love I would celebrate now , At once young , and mature , and in prime-Like the tree of the orange that bears on its bough The bud , blossom , and fruit at one time 2 Then with three , as is due , let the honours be paid , "Whilst I give with my hand , heart , and head" Here ' s to her , the fond mother , dear partner , kind friend , Who first taught me to love , woo and wed !"
From Punch ' s Almanack , just published , we quote a few specimens of the not very brilliant wit of the Fleet-street hunchback : — To Game Preservers .. —On the 14 th of February give your gamekeepers a holiday ; for , on this day , the feathered tribes pair , so that the poachers will not be able to destroy a angle bird . To Find the value of a Friend . —Ask him to put his name to a Bill . To Find the Value of Kme . —Travel by a Bayswater Omnibus .
To Find the Value of Eau-de-Cologne . —Walk , into Smithfield Market . To Find the Value of Patience . —Consult Bradshaw ' s Guide to ascertain the tune of starting of a Railway Train . How to learn the Horn ' s Age . —When , like a goodnatured spinster , she makes light of it . A Bed without a Bedstead . —The bed of the Sacramento . The Californian Arms . —Bowie knives , rifles , and revolving pistols proper , with Yankees rampant gules , on a field or . To Restore Stale Bread . —Request the cook ' s " cousin , " the charwoman , and the policeman to bring it back again . Hint to the Benevolent . —The persous most in Want of baths and washhouscs are those who have no coppers .
SHORT RCIXS FOR CALCULATION To Find the Value of a Dozen Articles . —Send them to a Magazine , and double the sum offered by the proprietor . Another Way . —Send them to the butterman , who will not only fix their value , but their weight , at per pound . To Find the Value of a Found at any price . —Try to borrow one when you are desperately hard up . To Railway Travellers . —The best adhesive label yon can use for your luggage is to stick it to yourself . To Find which way the Cat Jumps . —You may always tell which way the cat jumps by finding " cook ' s cousin " with a quantity of cold meat in his possession . The cat that has been jumping has usually very fine whiskers , and might often be taken for a policeman in disguise . An Obvious Truism .- If there ware no beasts there would be no Smithfield .
Animals admitted to the Opera . —Puppies and white kids . A Hint to Ladies n > i& Grey Hair . —Never say " Dye . " The Jfeman Question . —Why are the Pope and his people unlikely to agree ? Because they differ on Cardinal point 3 . A Sew Reading of an old Request to John ff Cornell . — " Shut up your ( agi ) tator trap . " Good IVishtsfor Christmas . —May the overnights face over the punchbowl bear the morning ' s reflexion in the looking-glass . Man ' s last Friend is the Tax-gatherer . —His wife may leave him , his family disown him , his children run away from him , his best friend and worst acquaintances avoid him , but the Tax-gatherer follows him wherever he goes , even to the grave . It
must be most flattering to an Englishman ' s pride , that , poor as he may be , he has always one friend that takes care of him , and who will call without the smallest ceremony and share his last penny loaf . Solitude and selfishness cannot exist in England , for no man can live independent of the Tax-gatherer . His existence is a partnership drawn up for life , between the government and himself , in ffhich the former takes what it likes , and the latter gives more than lie likes . In short , every Englishman may be said to possess two shadows—his own genuine , true-born , shadow , and the . government representation shadow ; but there is this difference between the two , that , whereas hia own shadow merely walks after him . the government shadow walks into him if it is not paid the moment it runs after him . One of Tom Moore ' s jovial songs may fittingly find place in our
Garland—DRIXK OF THIS CUP . Drink of this cup—you'll find there ' s a spell in Its ev ' ry drop ' gainst the ills of mortality ; Talk of tlie cordial that sparkled for Helen , Her cup was a fiction , but this is reality . Would you forge the dark world we are in , Only taste of the bubble that gleams on the top of it ; But would you rise above earth , till akin To immortals themselves , you must drain every drop of it . Send round the cup , &e .
Xever was philter form d with such power To charm and bewilder as this we arc quaffing Its magic began when in autumn ' s rich hour , As a harvest of gold in the fields it stood laughing . ¦ ¦ ¦ There , having , by nature ' s enchantment , been fill'd
With the balm and the bloom of her kindliest 1 weather , / This wonderful juice from its core was diBtiU'd , To enliven such hearts as are here brought together ' . Then drink of the cup , &e . And though , perhaps—but breathe it to no one-Like caldrons the witch 'brews at midnight so awful , In secret this philter was first taught to flow on , Yes , ' tis not less potent for being unlawful . What though it may taste of the smoke of that flame ,
Which in silence extracted its virtue forbidden ; Fill up—there ' s a fire in some hearts I co # d name Which may work too its charm , though now lawless and hidden . So drink of this cup , &c . We pfooced to notice the origin and past history of a few of the still surviving CHRISTMAS CCSTOMS . Evergreens . —It is notorious that from the earliest timeB the evergreen plants or some of them , were used at the celebration of this festival , but it is a
mistake to suppose that tho practice had a purely Christian ori gin ; it was common both in Jewish and Pagan times , and indeed it is so natural an expression of joy and gratulation , that we wonder not to find it of universal adoption . With the ancients generally the productions of the- vegetable and floral -world were held to be emblems of joy . The laurel was certainly used by the Romans . The mistletoe is mentioned by Virgil , and tho respect paid to it by the Druids is well known . This practice has descended to us in all its positive vigour .
The Yule Log . —In the olden times the yule log was lighted with a brand saved from the previous year , and the ceremony was rather an imposing one . It was to be introduced with music , according to the direction of Ilerrick—Come , bring with a noise , My merry , merry boys , The Christmas log to the firing ; . While my good dame , 8 he Bids you all be free , And drink to your he * t ' a deshfng .
It was deemed an evil omen if the log ceased to burn during the evening . The " Waits . "—A short time previous to Christmas our nocturnal repose is disturbed by the somewhat inconsiderate hospitality of the " waits , " who , with what they p lease to call music , contrive to " make night hideeus . " These visitors arc doubtless the successors of the ancient minstrels , but most shockingly supply their places . The ori gin of the word is of high antiquity , and can bo distinctly traced to the time of Edward III .
Washington Irving , in his Sketch Book , giving an account of a Yorkshire Christmas , says : I had scarcely got into bed , when a strain of music seemed to break forth in the air just below the window . I listened , Jind found it proceeded from a band , which I concluded to be the Waits from some neighbouring village . They went round the house , playing under the windows . The sounds , as they receded , became more soft and aerial , and seemed to accord with quiet and moonlight . I listened and listened , the ; became more and more tender and remote ; and as they gradually died away , my head fell upon my pillow , and I fell asleep .
Christmas Carols . —The reformed church introduced carols instead of the latin hymns which had formerly been chanted on the same joyous occasion ; and modern carols have been provided in great profusions ; but it must bo confessed , as most of them were composed under the influence of the gloomy spirit of Puritanism , they are more like dirges than songs of joy . Carols are still sung in London , and in other
large towns , printed on sheets , and adorned with wood-cuts , which for the most part may be considered as cltcf d ' wuvrcs of the genus of ugliness They are in fact equalled by nothing of which the mind can form any conception , except the wretched murder of h . wmony which is committed by the vendors . —We recollect hearing of a gentleman who gave an itinerant musician half-a-orown to take his music out of hearing , and wo are half of opinion that the monoy bestowed upon these carol singers is given with the same benevolent intention
^ Those who may wish to know more of ancient customs and practices having relation to the festival of Christmas , will do well to consult Bonn ' s admirable edition of Brand ' s Popular Antiquities . A good deal of interesting information will also be found in a cheap compilation published by Slater , entitled Christmas : its History and Antiquity . The lovers of good-fellowship and harmony will not hesitate to give welcome to
A WORD FOR CHRISTMAS . Is there a lip unwont to smile , An eye that fails to beam A'chook on which no warmer glow Doth like a sun-ray gleam , When but the name of " Christmas falls In music on the ear , Awakening in its echoes thoughts And memories that appear Like shadows summoned at the call Of some all-potent seer I
If such there be , how little he Of life ' s best joys can know ; How cold and drear must , yeavby year , Time ' s waves unvarying flow . I would not bear the soul he bears , Or live his creed to own , ThougH Fortune ' ssmiles were mine , and Fame Charmed with her blandest tone , So closely have my heart ' s first loves Unto old Christmas grown . That carnival of fresh delight-Delight uncloyed by time-Season of harmony com plete As its own echoing chime . When hand grasps hand in firm embrace , And lip meets lip in truth , When wrinkled brows unbend , and seem
Once more like brows of youth , And full contentment fills the placo Of griefs and sorrows ruth . A spell is in the shining leaves And clust ' ring berries red , That gives more zest to feast and song—To feet a lighter tread ; - A spell that by its magic makes AH worth ' s distinction end , And bidding high and low alike Before one altar bend , Points with the trusting hand of Faith To him—the mutual friend .
Then here ' s a shout for Christmas time—A loud , long-echoing shout , — Thcro should not he a falt ' ring voice , When tones of joy rin < r out . Shout , shout we from tue vessel ' s deck , And answer from the shore , — What , though the grave is close at hand And life is nearly o ' er , Each Christmas , though perhaps the last , Should welcomed be the more . Miss Clara Seyton , whose name is well known to the lovers of vocal music , gave twice last week , and once this week—on Tuesday last- < a Literary aud Musical Entertainment , at the Western Literary aud Scientific Institution , Leicester Square . Tho programme of the evening embraced an immense variety of in xiwith
topics conneon the Jives and works of the descri ptive poets aud minstrels of Hungary , Denmark , Germany , and England . The performance more than realised our expectations . The extent of Miss Seyton ' s information concerning the great range of subjects on which she descanted , struck us as trul y astonishing . As a speaker , her voice and manner are both admirable . Her eloquent observations on the recent struggle in Hungary elicited enthusiastic applause . That portion of her address had , however , one faultits brevity . As a singer she is at once both sweet and powerful , and leaves nothing to be desired . This much by way of introduction to one of the Hungarian songs—a translation , of course—encored by Miss Seyton ' s audience on Tuesday evening last : —•
THE EJYITATIOX TO THE DANCE ( A popular Ma gyar Melody . ) Lads , come hasten to the ball—See the lassies waiting all ; Shake your feet , and join the line : See , the maidens bring tlie wine—Oh ! life is strung with pearls ! Hark ! the spurs are tinkling sweet , Czimas echo on the feet , Feet and hands move joyousl y—Oh ! the dance is full of glee , And life is strung with pearls .
Where the smiling maidens be , There the happy youths we see ; Up and down , in waving row , With Tartarian steps they go . Oh ! life is strung with pearls . Mortal , thou whose spring is past , Join the dance , though ' twere the last ; Bask thee in its genial heat , Warm thy heart and shako thy feet , . - .. For life is full of pearls .
Come , be Joyous while you may ; Hence with sorrbw , let s be gay . These arc moments made for gladness , Kindle mirth and banish sadness . Oh ! life is full of pearls . So , lads , come hasten to tho ball-See the lassies waiting all ; Hear the minstrel's measure sound-Thus should life ' s bright houvs be cvown'd . Let ' s string our life with pearls . We understand that Miss Seyton is about to visit Bristol and other provincial cities ; after which , on her return to Town , she will repeat her Entertainment to Metropolitan audiences . She well merits success , and b y tho patronage of those who love vocal music , aud admire the gallant Hungarians , she can hardly fail of achieving that desirable consummation .
Lastly , not least , we give the following spirited , dem ocratic , and , altogether , admirable SOSG . BY EDWIN GILt . Pill , fill to the brave ifci » -l tho free , Who have struggled in Liberty ' s cause ; Drink , drink in a bumper with me , Destruction to tyranny ' s laws . Tho' Freedom lies wounded and bleeding , Staunch hearts never think of receding , But strong in the right , Will rush to the fight , The scaffold and hulk never heeding .
Then fill to the brave , Ac . Here ' s a health to Kossuth , the brave , And to Hungary ' s gallant band , Who spurned the base yoke of the slave , And struck for ttieir own fatherland . Tho' treason , awhile , is victorious , And the vengeance of despots notorious , Hungary shall be , The pride of the free , % And the name of her sonB e ' er be glorious Then fill to the brave . < fco .
Pill up te Mazzini ' s proud name , And honour fair Italy ' s cause ; Future ages shall trumpet his fame , And enjoy his magnanimous laws . Tho' a home the Patriot ' s seeking , And priestcraft its vengeance is wreaking , Scorn for ever shall cling , To the "President king , " For the blood of martyrs still reeking . Then fill to the brave , Ac . Drink , drink— " The brave of ' Forty-nine , " ( No matter what climate or creed , ) Whose virtues for ever will shine , Like beacons to Freemen in need . Raise , raise the goblet aloft with me , To the brightest stars of chivalry . To both high and low , Who defied tho foe , And fought and bled , that man might be free Then fill to the brave . &o .
Freedom in dungeons may languish , And vile fetters encircle her form ; Her wounds she may mourn o ' er in anguish , And low bend to the o ' erwhelming storm But her spirit , immortal , beameth ; Its rays ia the dark hour gleamcth ; And tho cause of right Shall baffle the might Of tho despot , when little ho dreameth . Then fill to the brave , &c .
*^" SUNSHINE AND SHADOW ; A TALE OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY . BT THOMAS MARTIN WnEKUSR , Late Secretary to th » National Charter Association a > d National Land Company . Chapter XXXV . Yestubhirn recusants of right—and , worse , Daring apologists for wrong—know ye How bitter ' tis to earn a nation ' s curse That execration wrung from misery 1 Go—learn it from the millions who rehearse The foul deeds which sum up your infamy ; Go—read it on the tombs which mark the grave Of myriads whom you could but would not save
That curse is stamped upon the haggard face Of starving multitudes throughout the land ; E ' en in the countenance of babes you trace The mark , as though impressed with demon hand ! Britannia ' s self is pale at the disgrace Which taints the annals of her native strand And History turns her mournful face aside , The gushing fountains of her grief to hide . God ! do th y thunders sleep , while England moans Beneath this Whiggish sway ? Shall mortal dare Thus to make men anticipate tbe groans , The pains , tho agonies of hell ? or where Is vengeance to ue looked for ? Must the bones Of those who died of hunger be laid bare , And brought as damning evidence to show Who were the authors of this fearful woe ?
Oh ! that tho great arch-orator , * whose t ongue Made Yerres tremble , could return again , To vent on ye the indignation wrung From every honest heart ; to taint—to stain—And to besmear your names , ere they bo flung Forth on the moral dungheaps that remain Throughout all ages , to perpetuate Those dread examples which vro oxecrato 1 They starving stand upon the land Wrought fruitful by their hands alone ; Around them , halls mado rich and grand By them—who have for bread a stone .
Shall the producers have this shavo Of the rich produce of their toil ? Shall the consumers never bear The labour , yet devour the spoil ? Behold the plight of men by whom For rights of property have birth ! What uo their prior rights become , Whose duties give the soil itB worth ? They ask enough to house and feed , From hand to mouth , their babes and wives ; No hoard of all the wealth they breed For tho weak age of toil-worn lives . Frantis Worthy
The National Assembly , after propounding apian of organisation more suitable to the genius of th «' French than the English people , a plan w hich needed discipline almost military in its strictness , and a good faith in the honour of our brethren , more famed , in this instance , for its breach than its observance , dissolved itself ; and tho easy , comfortable , overy-day world , after being for months terrified with dreams and omens of revolution , were at length allowed to slumber in quiet , whilst tho government filled tho public ear with loud huzzas upon the victory they had gained , and the Press and the Legislature vied with each other in commendinc the wisdom of the Executive , and the loyalty of the people , which had averted the impending evil of
revolution from our heads ; but their triumph was premature , they had scattered the elements of revolution , not destroyed thorn . The sons of Erin had looked with no careless eye upon the proceedings in London ; they received with enthusiasm Ernest Jones and Samuel Kydd , who waited upon them , requesting their co-operation with the Assembly , and elected several delegates to attend the meeting of that body , but owing to the dissensions repecting tho legality of its sittings , only one Michael Doheny , ( whose adventures in connexion with tho late rebellion would form a romance in itself , ) ever attended , and the leaders seeing no chance of a powerful diversion in England in their favour , trusted to native ranks and native swords , and
embarked in a noble but hopeless struggle , —a Struggle in which priestcraft dominated over patriotism , and treachery and ignorance marred tho efforts of enthusiasm and intelligence ; a struggle in which the dastardly Whigs , outvieing in infamy even tho Tories of old , by blood money and spy ism of the most nefarious description , succeeded in entrapping their destined victims , and then , may burning curses ever blight their names , brought tho same agency to bear ou . the Chartists of tho Metropolis . It was at this period that Arthur Morton was delegated by a few ardent spirits to make a tour of the country and collect a transcript of the state of public feeling more especially in the north of England ; during this tour he visited the several estates of tho National
Land Company , and became more than ever impressed with a love of the natural over tho artificial state of society ; the interests of his mission prevented his making a long stay at any of these happy retreats—these verdant oases in the surrounding agricultural desert , —but the elegance of the Cottages , and the beauty of their respective situations , made a lasting impression up ' en his mind , coming as he did fresh from the turbulent scenes which the Metropolis then displayed , nevertheless ho could not but observe with regret that the slime of the serpent had penetrated even to these abodes of bliss ; society had become so thoroughl y vitiated by the lone ; dominant power of wealth , that it was impossible even there to contend successfully aeainst it . unless favoured with
move capital than fell to the share of most of the inhabitants of these fairy abodes ; and the majority of the occupants bad been so trained in the vicious customs of looking to a capitalist for their Sunday ' s meal , that it needed both mental and physical energy to withstand tho evils they had to encounter . With a mind filled with these reflections he quitted these peaceful abodes , which will ever remain a monument of the power of the masses to do much , even under adverse circumstances , towards achieving their own emancipation ; when lie contrasted their situation with that of the surrounding agricultural peasantry , ho thought that , even with all their privations , he could bo happy and . contented with such a lot , so forcibly did their adyantages shine by . contrast . He saw the . peasaiitin his ; . . •« Cicero . - . ,. : ,
master ' s fields consuming life and strength in the ungrateful task of turning up the clods of jealous mother earth , who will yield her treasures only to unremitting toil , and at the close of the day , a dry black crust was his only recompense , the rich harvests ho produced , the noble animals he fattened , were not for him , they were reserved for the table of his employer , who worked not , hut consumed in luxury tho rssults of hi < labour . Ho saw him with downcast head and stooping gait , too much oppressed , too poverty stricken , and too certain of his ultimate fate ever to think on the beauties of nature , or listen with delight to the melody by which he was surrounded . What to him are the charms of scenery , the delight of hill and valley .
wood and stream , tower and waterfall , they are only one universal blank , representing his master's acres , from which by hard toil he can scarce extract his six , ei ght , or ten shillings per week ; onc-six , th of which goes to find him a home—if a wretched hovel less comfortable than his master ' s pigsty deserves that name—his life is one dull round of tedium , enlivened only by the village alehouse , when so favoured , as to be able to enter its threshold ; domestic love and enjoyment are not for him , they reside not with penury and wretchedness ; his lot is " , indeed , ono of toil , softened oijty by ignorance and apathy , for hope to him is uirenown ; wake him not from his trance , attempt not to educate him , for you will only increase his misery ; let him rest in
peace , a memento of the brutish state to which thoughtless loyalty , prie . 'tly rule , and want of education can reduce a human being . And yet , whore is the man who should bo so happy as tho peasant ? Nature is no niggard of her bounties , she is ever young , beautiful , and gnnerous—poetry and loveliness dwell in her domains , and cannot he separated therefrom ; It is the eye , the intellect , tho unbroken spirit , that alone is wanting in the labourer , to enablo hiiti to understand and appreciate her beauties ; the most blessed of beings should be that man , who possessing a mind , enriched witli knowledge , cultivates hia own little domain , anil Becures happiness and liberty to himself and family , by the exeijcise of hia strength applied to Nature ' s
garden , protected from want by his own industry , independent of the power of capital , working whon the sun of Heaven cheers his labour , reposing when Nature dictates repose , surrounded by all that is calm , serene and beautiful , he would , indeed , bo a man ; living in tho essence Of poetry , yet mixing sufficiently with the world and his fellow labowers to shield him from inanity , ho would , indeed , be a noet—ay , and a philosopher—for too far removed trom tho bustling world to be subdued by its glare , yet sufficiently influenced by it , to watch with emotion its ever varying phases , he could calmly reflect on its features , and analyse their worth and defects . And Arthur saw that all this , and much more , might be attained by tho members on these estates , provided their first difficulties were overcome ; he saw
in them the leaven that was , to infuse light and activity into the benighted population , by which they were surrounded , and ultimately become the regenerators of our agricultural population ; and so bright did the prospect appear , that he sighed in bitterness of spirit , even tit the supposition of it 3 failure ; he feared it would throw back tho cause of social progress for years , for ho well knew the avidity with which its opponents , ever on the watch to misrepresent , would seiz » upon such an event and turn it to their own vile purposes ; perhaps the view he took was too desponding ; but misfortune upon misfortune had been so heaped upon him , that he feared to look with too sanguine an eye , lest his disappointment should be the more severe .
Impressed with these feelings , he wended his way to the busy hives of industry in the North ; how he succeeded in his mission it is not for us to tell ; the events are too recent , and the prominent actors too well known , for the subject to be now broached , suffice it to say that everywhere ho found misery and distress , trade languishing , artisans starving , indolence rioting , Industry pining ; everywhere the seods of inci pient revolution wore rising ; but in such profuse disorder , that , if a struggle came , it needed no seer to foretell tho inevitable result . Of all the struggles that Time hath yet witnessed , that will bo the most dire where a monied and landed aristocitacy are combined against tho people . Between a people roused into wrath and a desDot .
tlie contest is soon decided ; but in a co « ntry like Britain , where capital and its interests penetrato into every fibre of the social frame—in a country like Britain , where the aristocracy have shared their privileges with the bulk of the middle classes ; where talent in every class ( provided it is subservient enough to the powers that be ) can penetrate oven into the highest offices in the state ; a country where all who do not not labour enrich themselves by keeping the labourer dependent and votelcss ; in such a country where all are so interested in t ! . o stako , the struggle will be one of life and death ; ay ,. and even should the people prove physically victorious , the combat will but then have commenced , for the enemy has been so loriff in tlie ascendant that he lws a fortified enmp " in every guild , an army in every abuse , sentinels and guards , even in the heart of the army of prop-ess ; but so long have wo bowed to wealth and influence , that there is traitor even in every man ' s heart , and when tlie
struggle comes-and come it must—the least vacillation , the least treachery—misnamed mercy and moderation—will at once break down tho barriers , winch have shut out oppression ; and tho hot blood , which has been so freely lavished , the privations , which have been so heroically endured , will have been shed and endured in vain , another cycle of oppression will commence , and the hopes of bleeding , tortured humanity will again have been blighted . Oh ! that the veritable democrats of England may read ari ght tho lessons of the past , that the example of prostrate France may not be given in vain , but may the slaughter and banish- , mentofher glorious sons ultimatel y eventuate in achieving a world-wide freedom ; then will their misery not have been endured in vain , for the fire of their persecution will have become the beacon light , to show the shoals and sandbanks on which they have foundered , and guide us in triumph to the rocks of liberty , equality , and fraternitv . Heaven speed tho day . ( Te he continued . )
Giunt jrsncR whenever the demand is made , ov tho moment that wrong is apparent ; do not mimic the f : \ lso "charity" of modern hypocrisy , liy ottering misnamed spiritual consolation to a poor creature when he wants broad ! tamper not with tho foelings of the hungry by a plotter of words to fill the stomach ! grant him justice he will : is = k no charity I "Dei does say , that way down in Georgia , they makes poor ni pa work twenty-five hours < : bbery day . how , loone hea , I ' se been told that ( lay Imsn'd got no more nor twenty-four hours , an' I want 3 you , Mr . Johosing , to splanify to ilis chile , how they make ' em work twenty-five hours ? " " Go . Hy mighty , what ignoramus nii'ga you i * , Scipio ; why , way down dare , they make poor niggn get up one hour afore day—doesn ' t that mako ' cm twenty-five ?" Scipio was convinced .
Phoxetic Po ' EiuT .-lhe following is lumi to beat for depth of pathos and soul-stirring snntimont ;—" . Hero Ties and Kakcsand Bier I sell And ( listers stoo'd and in . the shell . And fride wuns tow for them that chows , And with dispatch black butesaml shews !" Fashion ih a superfine germ of idiocy ; it win only bo tolerated by rational beings , out of ' purfi oompassion for tho frailty of fools ! we do not moan neatness when wo repudiate fashion . To be nwtt and cleanly in our garb , attentive to ouv neighbour , and kindly in our general commerce with mankind , aro only tho dictates of common sense . Miss M . a youne lady of considerable
attractions , chanced to be seated at a iJiiuii . T-party next a gentleman remarkablo for tho brilliancy df . his wit , who had long made one of hrr train of admirers . The conversation turning upon tlie uncertainty ofhuniiin life , "Imean to insure mine , " said the young lady archly , " in tho hope . " " In tho nope of what ? B . iiil her admirer ; " a sinjjlo life is hardly worth insuring ; I propose wo should insure our lives togcthci ' i and if you hare no objection , I would prefer tho Allianco . " The present practice of artillery , at moderately long distances , is tenfold more accurate than it wag thivty . fivo years ago—that is to say , that at the distance of which we speak , ten artillery missiles ( shot or shells ) would strike the mark for ono that struck such a mark in 1 S 14 .
To build a single 120-gun ship requires tho timber of seventy-five acres , and of a , century ' s growth ; to build a frigate it would take nearly half us much and for the construction ef even ono of those revenuo vessels whteli arc seen off every seaport , there aro needed no fewer than ISO oak trees , oach of which must have been growing ever sinco tho battle of Cnlloden . " Lutis , " is the Morning Post , says : — " QuOCIt Christina , of Sweden , told Dr . Bnrnut that she was well assurod that tho Roman Catholic Church , was governed by the immediate care and providence of God , for none of tho four popes she had known since she had been at Rome had common sense . " '
An Elective better than an Herkditahv Monarcht . — Pew kings , like Stcphanus liuttoriusi , King of Poland , do measure their actions , ? iot by their own profit , but by the welfare of their own country . T 4 iere is a saying of hia extant , worthv to express the bravery ofhiB disposition : — " I will make tho world , " quoth he , " understand how much a king , chosen for virtue by the consent of ; i nation , is better than hp whom right of succession thrusts upon the shoulders of nn unwilling people . "—5 arclay s Mirror of Hinds , Eiylishcd by Thomat Man , 1033 . A ruBUCAS blowing the froth from a pot of porter -which lie -was bringing to a customer tho gentleman struck him . Boniface eagerly asked why he struck him ? " Why , " replied tho gentle , man " I only returned blow for blow . "
A p ooh Irishman offered an old saucepan for sale . His children gathered around him , aud inquired why he parted with it . " Ah ! my honeys , " answered he , " I would not bo afther parting with it , but for a little money to buy something to put in it * A cienhemax calling for some beer at another gentloman ' s table , finding it very bad , gavo it to tho servant without driuking . " What ¦ " said the master of the house "don't you liko the beer ?" It is not to be found found fault with , " answered the other , "for we should never speak ill of the dtctd . "
Quick wits bo commonl y apt to take , unapt to keep ; more quick to enter speedily , than ablo to merce far ; even liko overshavp tools whose edges be very soon turned . — Roger Ascham ' s Sehoohnatta ' . Good Heavens 1—what a si ght ' . —to sue them fcedine together in public , upon the public viands , and talking of public subjects for the benefit of the public . It is a pity that they aro not immortal but I hope that they will flourish as a corporation , and that pension will beget pension to the end of the chapter . —John I'hilpot Cwran . At Prestos quarter nessions , last week , an overseer deposed that thcro was no church or chapel hi
west-uy . JNotico to levy a rate was posted at the wheelwright ' s shop ; tho parish meetings were held at a public houso ; the parishioners hall no clergyman ; and the people got married " anywlier»—wherever they pleased . " Tub wraTun serioB of accidents bv explosion , arising from tha stupid practice of taliino lighted candles to see where the gas is escaping , has already begun . It is to be hoped that our contemporaries will prevent their frequent recurrence by pointing out tlie danger as well as absurdity , of such a practice , and advising trusting to the nose , instead of the eye . —Builder ¦
The Eoxvtians assumed as their symbol an ox the Jews , the letter tnu ; the Athenians , an owl the Romans , an eagle ; the Goths , a bear ; the h ranks , a lion ; ant ) tho Saxons , a horse . Nature ' s Plestt turned isro Want by Max . — There , are few countries which , if well cultivated yowld not support double tho number of their inhabitants ; and yet fewer whero one-third part ot the people are not extremel y stinted , even in the necessaries of life . —Dean Sivift . The Port Natal gives an account of the doings of somo mighty hunter * : — "In our last wo omitted
to notico tho return of Captain Faddy , Royal Artillery , and his companions , from tho two months hunting expedition in the interior . From tho following catalogue of trophies , it will be seen that the excursion \ m teen one . of no ordinary character , either as regards the degree of excitement and sport , or the amount in substantial value of the game . The list , including a goodly arrav of no contemptible antagonists , is as follows •—137 * elephnnts , 42 buffaloes , 30 elands , 17 rhinosceroscs , I ion , 8 koodoo . s , 1 hippopotamus , 7 wild boars 1 leopard , 3 brindled gnoos , 10 riet bucks , 4 hartbeests , and 1 wolf . "
" Don t you understand me , Jim , " thundered the old man . " Why , you must be quite a fool " " True , I am very iimr one " meekly replied Jim . A CoxaTANT frequenter at the city feasts having grown enormously fat , it was proposed to write on his back , (< Widened at the expense of the Corporation . " Eating "IIumblk Pie . "—A correspondent of that most useful publication , " Notes aud Queries " gives the following as the ori gin of this expressive phraso : — "Humblo pie" was mado out of the ' umbles' or . entrails of the deer , a dish of the second table , inferior , of course , to the venison pastry which smoked upon the dais , aud therefore not inexpressive of that humiliation which the term ' eating humWe pio' now painful describes . The ' umbles' of tho deer aro the perquisites of the gamekeeper . "
Who should not go to Australia . —The Moming Herald , of Syndncy , New South Wales , June 5 th , admonishes mechanics , clerks , Ac , that tlmve is no need of them in Australia . " It cannot be too often repeated , that the only persons required ill the colony are those who are willing to ( lOVOte themselves to agricultural and pastoral pursuits . To induce those to como out who are only adapted for a town life , is a fraud upon the land-fund , and ffrow cruelty to the unfortunate individuals themselves . "
The Yaskee Comic Muse . —What can be more beautiful than the following outbreak of passion , addressed to tho fascinating Miss Howe , of Saratoga Springs : — " When weary I are I smoke my cigar ; And as the smoke vises , And gets into my cyescs , I think of thce , dearest , And feel queer of the queerest !" Thh Family Herald Min ts Meat Pcddixo — Crumble fine a stale savoy cake , or stale crumb of
bread ; mix well together a cup and a half of either of these , with one cupful of mincc-meat . Butter a mould well , and fill it with tins mixture , and a custard prepared witk one quart of milk and six or eight eggs . If bread crumbs are used , then it is necessary to add about six ounces of sugar to the quart of custard , otherwise none is required . Cover it with buttered paper , and steam it . When done , servo with brandy sauce . " Did I not give you a flogging the other day !" aaid . a schoolmaster to a trembling urchin . —*' Yes sir , " , answered tlie boy . " "Well , what does the Scripture say upon tbe subject ?"— " I don ' t kno'v sir , " said the other , " except it is in that passage which says , " It is more blessed to give than to rccnivo "
¦ The msii of animals which feed cxcursivelv is allowed to have a hi gher flavour than that of those which are coopsd up ; May there not be the samo difference between men who read . is their tasto prompts , and men who aro confined in cells and col luges to stated tasks ?¦ Sevrstu Dragoon Guards , —A young man , now serving as a private soldier in this regiment , has lately como into possession of landed property in Ireland ( p the value of £ J 2 , 00 Q per annum , in a ddition to u large amount of cash . lie becomes of age in . a few months , when he will quit the profession of arms for the quietude of civil life . : . Nice Boaud Waues . —The Admiralty Board has £ 136 , 303 a war . —Punch ' s Almanack . . .
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An Entree at am , Hazards .-We find the following story in the Unit ; " Tho presence of the President of the Republic at the Hotel de Ville and the splendours of the ball to be given to him , inspired a M . B , teacher of the Italian language to the daughter of a representative , with a violent desire to be present at the iete . Ho requested the father of his pupil to procure him a ticket , but that gentleman said that , as each invitation was personal , it was impossible for him to do so . The Italian , however , resolved to go to the ball . Accordingly , on Monday , he dressed himself in his best and went towards the Hotel de Ville . Ilavin " entered a cafe on tho Place do Grove for a demi tassc , ho requested permission to leave his hat , which wis granted . lie then went bareheaded to
the entrance of tha hotel , and , stating that ho was one of the domestics , was admitted without difficulty . Seeing a plateau of pastry , he took it , marched boldly into the nalom , and presented it to tho guests . But in so doing he paid such extraordinary attention to tlie beauty of the ladies , and was so dazzled by the splendour that surrounded him , that it soon became evident ho was not a real waiter . lie was questioned , ami as tlie account be gave of himself was not satisfactory , his tray was taken from him , and he was unceremoniousl y shown to'the door . Undiscouraged , however , by this misadventure , he resolved again to try his luck , and , in a moment of confusion , succeeded in again slipping into the hotel . This time he resolved to devote his attention to the liquids , and seizing a
tray laden with glasses of punch , carried it , as bold as brass into tho principal salon . He had , however , only made a few stops when he , to his great mortification , ran against a tall gentleman dressed in the very" height of fashion , and the shock caused the punch to drench the tall gentleman in a way which he found the reverse of agreeable . In his fury the . tall gentleman roughly rebuked the clumsy waiter , and the man of the punch tray stammered forth the best excuses ho could find . This caused a circle to be formed , but it was soon dispersed by one of the chefs of the service coming up , and recognising the protended waiter as luvvin <> been already expelled , caused him to be ignomhu ously kicked out . Still , strange to say ,- the Italian teacher was not daunted , and ho again dotermintd on effecting an entrance . Having souch t his hat .
he waited until a number of guests arrived , when he slipped in among them , and by putting his bat over his lace so as to avoid the glance of the domestics , again contrived to reach the salons , lie bow walked about with as much assurance as any of the invited guests , but after a few minutes had the deplorable misfortune to be recognised . This time he was handed over to the police in an adjacent apartment . Convinced from his pertinacity in entering tho hotel so repeatedly that Ue must be a pickpocket , they searched him , and had their suspicions confirmed in finding on him an empty purse , and £ 50 in Money . lie was sent to the Prefecture of Police , where lie passed the ni ght , and it was not until several highly respectable persons had borne testimony to his character that he was released .
Moxster Iron Warehouse . —A most commodious iron warehouse is now in the course of construction by Messrs . Cato , Miller , and Co . It is intended for exportation to California . The whole building , which is sixty feet in length by forty feet in width , is constructed on a framework of wood and iron , and entirely sheeted , side as well as roof , with pa ted corrugated galvanised iron . The extreme height of the warehouse , by internal measurement , is thirtysix feet at' the gables , and about twenty-six feet four inches at the eaves , and is divided into three stories : the ' -first of which is eleven feet in height , the second nine feet , and tho third eight feet . Though every attention has been paid to strength , it is . somewhat remarkable that the weight of the "ffholo will little exceed thirty tons .
December 22 , 1849 . THE ^ NORTHERN STAR .
Northern Star (1837-1852), Dec. 22, 1849, page unpag, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/vm2-ncseproduct1553/page/3/