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WHO MADE THE POOR ! Who made the poor 1 5 ot He whose throne is heaven , God : by whom earth was given , And all that therein is , seed , herb , and tree ; ^ jjd f owl that cleave the air , and fish that swim the sea ; « n ( l teait that range the field to man for food ; Sot God the great and good , Whose bounty ' s scattered o ' er The earth like grain on garner ' d floors-He did not make the poor !
But God made man . Who tude the planets roll , And formed the wond ' roas plan That girds the eternal pole Of Heaven , with world ' s illuming space ; He who to each assigned a place , Gave man a reasoning soul , ^ adtade him st and on this terrestrial ball gublim e s own fonn—erect , and lord of all , Some traitora to their kind , Whose tongues almost persuade That night were day—have bent their mind God gave them , to degrade Their equals lower than the brute , And threaten those who dare dispute Their power , with dungeon gloom ; let , like a spirit from the tomb , The voice of X 3 ture rises still ,
And while one good man lingers here , "Jet as it hath , it ever will ; And they who dread it shall revere The sound of its eternal truth , As in the earliness of youth Ere Avarice lured the soul astray , Or mad Ambition led the way Through path 3 , whose rnggedness increase To dome 3 that never sheltered Peace . Yes , yes , it shall be so ; The tyrant and the slave la mutual hate , shall cease to go
On grappling to the grave . Mind , wakening o er the world , Uplifts the mental dart Which , sudden as the lightning hurled , Strikes to the trembling heart Of pale oppression—deeper far Than all the brands and bolts of war . Let Reason give the word , Be that by millions spoken ; What , though the soldier grasp his sword But as a weapon broken ? 'Twould idle in his hand remain—Pare bloodless battles Mind must gain .
Man hath been taught to bow To Gunning ' s traitorous sway ; But'tis not a 3 it hath been . Now Behold the sturdy toiler ' s brow—There beams a calmer ray Of purer intellectual fire , Than lit the aspect of his sire ; A prouder glance that seems to say , " The worse , our mental bounds are riven , And soon shall dawn the glorious day , We shall resume the sifts of Heaves . " For well he knows a sceptered King , Or coronetted Lord To be a vain , unwanted thing .
Less worshipped than abhorred—To be the enemy of toil , All locost , like a thing of spoil ' ; And passing by the guarded door , Where stalks the well-lashed sentinel , Ueed not be told " Who made the Poor ;" The fears of those within who dwell , If'twere sot known , the tale would tell The day will come , it must advance ; Bat not at point of sword or lance , 'Mid pealing shot nor spreading flame And deeds of dread teo dark to name-Intelligence shall in it 3 might ,
And not in vain assert the right Of labour b y its toil to live , Enjoying more than tyrants give . Labour creates the wealth it craves , Enweaves the cradle 3 , shapes the graves ; Erecte the palace , rears the tomb Where despots live or lie in gloom . God ' * handmaid Labour yet shall learn , All power usurped by Pride to spurn ; To wish and have , to wUl and make Oppression yield for Justice sake : She asks but that : her ceaseless cry ,
In hut or hall , on heath or moor , Is Justice—ere her clildren die Through want—from those who made the Poor . . C . Cole .
London Labour and the London Poor . By HEXETilATHEW . RoS . L , H ., HL To the intrepid , honest , and able author of these papers we are indebted for the idea , and partly for the realisation , of one of the greatest and most important ideas ever given to the public . Political economists and statisticians are so commonly led astray by deceptive " averages , " that however correct their
postulates may be , their conclusions no more square fr ith actual facts than those of the ingenious Professors in the College of Laputa—they ought to be correct , but are not We hailed the inquiry into the state of" Labour and the Poor , " by the Morning Chronicle , as the commencement of a new era in journalism , providing that inquiry was faithfully and impartially carried out . It proposed to supply what was one of the great wants of the age—an accurate anatomy of society ; to depict the actual condition of the labouring classes—the
sources from whence they drew their living- — the modes in which then * earnings were expended—the general circumstances by which they were surrounded—and the reacting influence of these conditions on their minds , habits , dispositions , andphysicial -well-ljemg . JKever was there a more important or imperative task undertaken—we will not say by any journalist , but by any government . To prosecute it successfully , required not merely the command of large funds by those who instituted the investigation , but what was far more valuable , and more difficult to obtainintellectual and moral qualities on the part of those engaged in it , which arerarely met with in combination .
Of the gentlemen who embarked m this inquiry , Mr . Mayhew , from the commencement , showed himself possessed in a high degree of the peculiar combination of faculties requisite for the task . He had the educated eye and quick perception , which enabled him to grasp the whole of any single group of facts , their relative position and bearing to other groups—the faculty of patiently analysing these facts in detail , and tracing them to their aource , and , above all , of , as it were , Baguerrot yping the mental and moral phenomena of Labour Life in the very words of the Parties themselves . It was his letters which
excited the true and genuine sympathy of the public with the Buffering and toiling misses—a sympathy which evinced itsalf in an earnest , if not philosophical manner , by the pouring in of Subscri ptions , to be applied to at least the temporary relief of thoia whose toils , whose poverty andtnisery he BOgraphicauyportrayed The other " Commissioners" were able men , uut throughout their productions there was evidentl y a pervading bias in favour of the fashionable generalism , and received canons of Political Economy . They w ent about their wor k far more with a view to make facts
square with pregoae conclusions than to state facts exactly as they found them , and leave social philosophers to build up a sound sociejar ian system out of these facts afterwards , ¦ ' ¦ his tendency wa 3 especially observable in their early lettera . Subsequently the excitement aad admiration created by the lively , life"ke and striking pictures of the condition of the labouring classes , presented in Mr . MayheVs otters , led his colleagues in the manufacturing * nd agricultural districts to copy his example , and let the people speak for themselves . This Ta 3 , however , done under careful limitations , and the tendency in favour of capital and ^ "gs as they are , was always sufficiently ^ parent
^ fr- ilayhew , on the contrary , began withj tot prepossession or prejudice—he recorded £ phenomena that presented themselves to 1113 observation , simply and truthfully ; but , ere long , -what ha saw and beard , produced on an honest , but warm-hearted man , their natural effects . It has been to ns not the least rentable thing connected with this remarks ^ inv esti gation , that a gentleman like Mr . i ^ yaew , whose previous associations and
habits S were so unlikel y to « lead him to auch conclusions , Bhould have been driven by the force of facts and his own investigations , to the adoption of precisel y the same socio-economical creed as that held by the most thoughtful and intelligent of the working classes themselves . The result we all know . Honesty of purpose , and strict adherence to the maxim" Tell the truth and shame the devil , " are not the qualities which most certainly conduce to honour and emolument in the region of orthodox journalism . Air . Mayhew was too truthful . He did not act on the advice of Burns to his young friend : — ? ± 2 ! iSFWr . to ^
Aye , free off hand ye ' re story tell , When wi a bosom crony : But yet keep something to yersel Ye'll scarcely tell to ony . He told all—and , alas ! that all , somehow or other , came into collision with the worship of the golden calf and the gospel of the Economists—and the consequence was , being an infidel to these " sacred" things , he was made a martyr . The Morning Chronicle did not wantimpartialtruth-telling " Commissioners , " but clever sharp fellows , who could see just as much as was convenient , and , when necessary , " run with the hare and hold with the hounds . " We have allowed Mr . Mayhew , in a previous number of the Star , to tell for himself the
circumstances under which he left that paper , and we now heartil y welcome the fir at three numbers of his new work , in which he presents faithfully and ably the results of his researches into the "Mysteries of London Life . " The first section of the inhabitants treated of by him , is that designated by him "The street folk ;'' and as far as he has yet proceeded , the new series contains . an account of the numerous and varied occupations , recreations , and ( habits of the class usually termed coster-mongers , which is not more valuable for its accuracy than it is surprising in its revelations of the actual life of this nomadic
tribe in the midst of our dense and settled city population . We may Bay , however , to those who have read the letters in the Chronicle , that Mr . Mayhew ' s new periodical is by no means a repr int of these letters . The valuable material he collected in the course of his inquiries is here systematised , classified , and presented in all its follneBS , breadth , and variety , under appropriate headings , and . in a thoroughly artistic style . This , while it does not detract from the merely popular interest of
the work , adds largely to its value as one of reference and for literary purposes . The engravings from Daguerrotypes , by Beard , are wonderfully minute , and yet forcible ; though whether it is owing to the sun by whom the portraits are painted in the first instance , or to some other cause , we know not , but the costermongera depicted to us have rather a holiday look about them , which does not exactly agree with our recollections of the class as a whole .
The low price at which this important work is published—its bearing on all the great questions of social progress—and the thrilling interest which readers of every class in society must feel in the revelations it makes , will , we hope , combine to give it the enlarged circulation it deserves . It excella the most imaginative romance in the strangeness of its incidents ; while the question it raises will , for the next generation or two , occupy the best energies and highest faculties of our greatest
statesmen . Premising that Mr . Mayhew estimates the number of costermongers in London at 80 , 000 persons , and informs us they are all Chartists , a fact of which we have considerable doubt , we shall give one quotation , because it is appropriate to the present holiday season ;—
VIC . GALLEBT . On a good attractive night , the rush of costers to the threepenny gallery of the Coburg ( better known as " tfce Tie " } is peculiar and almost awful . The long zig-zag staircase that leads to the paybox is crowded to suffocation , at least an hour before the theatre is opened ; but on the occasion of a piece with a good murder in it , the crowd will frequently collect as early as three o clock hi the afternoon . Lads stand upon the broad wooden banisters about 50 feet from the ground , and jump on each others' backs , ( Tr adopt any expedient they can think of to obtain a good place . The walls of the well staircase having a
remarkably fine echo , and the wooden floor of the steps serving as a sounding board , the shouting whistling , and quarrelling of the impatient young costers is increased tenfold . If , as sometimes happens , a song with a chorus is started , the ears positively ache with the din , and when the chant has finished it seems as though a sudden silence had fallen on the people . To the centre of the road , and all round the door , the mob is in a ferment of excitement , and no sooner is the money-taker at his post than the most frightful rush takes place , every
one heaving with his shoulder at the back of the person immediately in front of him . The girls shriek , men shout , and a nervquafear is felt lest the massive staircase should fall in with the weight of the throng , as it lately did with the most terrible results . If a bat tumbles from the top of the staircase , a hundred hands snatch at it has it descendg . When it is caught a voice roars above the tumult , f All right , Bill , I ' ve got it "—for they all seem to know one another— " Keep us a pitch and I'll brin ? it . "
To any one ¦ unaccustomed to be pressed flat it would be impossible to enter with the mob . To see the sightin the gallery it is better to wait until the first piece is over , the ham-sandwi « h men and pigtrotter women will give you notice when the time is come , for with the first clatter of the descending footsteps they commence their criea . There are few grown up men that go to the " Tic" gallery . The generality of the visitors are lads from about twelve to three-and-twenty ,
and thongh a few black-faced sweeps or whiter brown duatmen may be among the throng , the gallery audience consists mainly of costermongers . Toung girls , too are very plentiful , only one third of whom now take their babies , owing to the new regulation of charging half-price for infants . At the foot of the staircase stands a group of boys begging for the return checks , which they sell again for l \ d . or Id , according to the lateness of the hour .
At each step up the well-staircase the warmth and stench increase , until by the time one reaches the gallery doorway , a furnace-heat rushes out through the entrance that seems to force you backwards , whilst the odour positively prevents jespiration . The mob on the landing , standing on tiptoe and closely wedged together , resists any civil attempt at gaining a glimpse of the stage , and yet a coster lad will rush up , elbow his way into the orowd , then jump up on to the shoulders of those before him , and suddenly disappear into the body of the gallery . The gallery at " the Tic" is one of the largest in London . It will hold from 1 , 500 to 2 , 000 people , and runs back to so great a distance , that the end of it is lost in shadow , excepting where the little gas-jets , against the wall , light up the twe or three faceB around them . When the gallery is well
packed , it is usual to see piles of boys on eaoh others shoulders at the back ; while on the partition boards , dividing off the slips , lads will pitch themselves despite the spikes . As yoH look up the vast slanting mass of "heads from the upper boxes , each one appears on the move . The huge black heap , dotted with faces , and spotted with white shirt sleeves , almost pains the eye to look at , and should a clapping of handB commence , the twinkling nearly blinds you . It is the fashion with the mob to take off their coats ; and the cross-brace 3 on the backs of some , and the bare shoulders peeping out of the ragged shirts of others , are the only variety to be found . The bonnets of the "ladies" are hung over the iron railing in front , their numbers nearly hiding the panels , and one of the amusements of the lads in the back seats
consists in pitching orange peel or nutshells into them , a good aim being rewarded with a shout of laughter . When the orchestra begins playing , before " the gods" hare settled into their seats ,-it is impossible to hear a note of music . The puffed-out cheeks ot the trumpeters , and the raised drum-sticks tell you that the overture has commenced , but no tune is to be heard . An occasional burst of the full band heine caoeht by gushes , as if a high wind were
ra"ing Becogmiions . take place every moment , anil " Bill Smith" is called to in a loud voice from one side , and a shout in answer from the other asks "What ' s up ? " Or family secrets are revealed , and " Bob Triller ' - ' is asked where " Sal" is , and replies amid a roar of laughter , that she is " a-larn-1 D | y-aSb ? S youngster , who has come in late , jumps up over the shoulders at the . door . and doub-IkVhimself into a Ml , rolls down over the heads uTiront . leaving a trail of commotion , for each one SttVpaJBeB ^ B » aWow s > ttii 9 feUo \ r . Presently
frffiJsSVhUHP' 5 v then e ™ y oneri *« SoF ^ s — = 8 "Skice » « n / Urtai ? A andthen the cries of morS ; than ° ever : a-r ! " ™ " **• seutimLT ' ^ 11617 H nofc t 0 be moved ° y touchin g 22 t £ X \» ? \ efev vi fiorous e « rcise to any 5 SSSL W » . The Child of the Storm ' s " " teath £ - a * 8 he wouId 8 hare her father ' s aeatu or imprisonment as her duty , " had no effect Tha 1 , ? 0 m red wi the split , in the hornpipe . The shnU whistling and brayvos that followed the tar s performance showed how htehlvifc wa « w » . ^^ t , ^ ,, ,
isned , and one god" went so far as to ask "how it was done . The comic actor kicking a dozen m ? Of « f I n nts pconJd , but the grand banquet of the Czar of all the Russias only produced merriment and a request thafc he would " give them a bit was made directl y the Emperor took the willow-patterned plate in his hand . All affecting ^ situations were sure to be interrupted by cries ? Lvft *** ;" , f ni the lady be ?? J 4 f <» *» . fa . i 8 Alfe 7 as told t 0 " 8 P eak UP old gal ; " though 5 ? " n ^ f / '' duramestic g dreamer » ( Is Kca y \ t ? ld the &eneral of a 11 the Cossack forces not to be a fool , " the uproar of approbation grew greater than ever-and when the lady turned « L ; n \ ? 1 r n cuffs » and seizing fo « r Russian soldiers shook them successivel y by the collar , then the enthusiasm knew no bounds , and the cries of Bray-vo Tmcent ! Go it my tulip ! " resounded from every throat . _ Air . AtM * f . r »* M * ilia « n 1 lH » J- _ - ¦ —
, - ° —•» •»« s » "cij auuience ao not seem to « , /;„ * , - ? f' . One P ° or "We Id "hooted ?„! m i ngtone - that ne couldn't see , " and be thrown ^ ver . " 701063 demanded " that h ° should Whilst the pieces are going on , brown , flat botties are frequentl y raised tf the mouth , ' and between the acts a man with a tin can , glittering in the gas-light , goes round crying , " Fort-a-a-a-r ! who s f 0 r port-a-a-a-r . » As the heat incased the faces grew bright red , every bonnet was taken off , and ladies could be seen wiping the perspiration from their cheeks with the p £ y W perspiratlon . i , « i ? S ? . twee . n the pieces wil 1 be all 0 * . » d should the interval appear too long , some one will shout out-refemng to the curtain- " Pull up that there winder blind ! " or they will call to the orchestra , saying , "Nowthen vou catirufc-scranm's i
irft s have a ha-purth of liveliness . " Neither will they suffer a play to proceed until they have a good view of the stage , and « Higher the blue , " is constantl y shouted , when the sky is too low , or Light up the moon , " when the transparency is rather dim . The dances and comic songs , between the pieces , are liked better than anything else . A highland fling is certain to be repeated , and a stamping of feet will accompany the tune , and a shrill whistling , keep time through the entire performance . . But the grand hit of the evening is always when a song is sung to which the entire gallery can ioin m chorus . Then a deep silence prevails all through the stanzas . Should any burst in before his time , a shout of " orda-a-r" is raised , and the intruder put down by a thousand indi gnant cries . At the
proper time , however , the throats of the mob burst forth in all their strength . The most deafening noise breaks out suddenly , while the cat-calls keep up the tune , and an imitation of a dozen Mr . Punches squeak out the words . Some actors at the minortlieatresmake a gceatpoint of this , and in the bill upon the night ofmy visit , under the title of There a a good time coming , boys , " there was printed , "assisted by the most numerous and effective chorus in the metropolis "—meaning the whole of the gallery . The singer himself started the mob , saying , "Now then , the . Exeter Hall touch if you please gentlemen , " and beat time with his hand , parodying M . Jullien with his baton . An " angcore " on suoh occasions i 3 always demanded , anddispite a few murmers of "change to Duck-legged Dick" invariably insisted upon .
Taifs Edinburgh Magazine . January , 1851 . London : Simpkin , Marshall , and Co , The opening article in this number is entitled to the careful perusal of all who wish to understand the essential difference between Continental and English Government . It is an examination of the "Bureaucracy and Military Systems of France and Germany , " based on Mr . Laing ' a recent va luable book on "the Social and Political State of the European People in 1848 and 1849 . " The writer says , bureaucracy is one of those peculiar features which pre-eminently distinguish the social structure of continental countries . " Mr . Laing , " he adds , —
Calls it funclionarism , which is perhapg , a better name . This is a difference which , even more than that connected with the partition of the soil , pervades the daily and domestic life of the nation , and modifies its whole aspect as presented to the eye of the passing stranger . In England the civil servants of the Government are few , unconnected , and unobtrusive ; on the Continent , they are innumerable , omnipresent , and constitute a separate , organised , and powerful class . In England they confine themselves to absolute necessary functions ; on the Continent they interfere in every transaction and event of life . In England , as a general rule , a man is only reminded of their existence by the annual visit of the tax-gatherer , unless , indeed , he has to appeal to the law
, or has rendered himself amenable to it ; on tho Continent scarcely a day passes , scarcely an operation can be concluded , without coming" into contact or collision with one or other of their number . Many of the duties performed by officials on the Continent are here performed by elected parish or munioipal functionaries ; many are left to individual discretion ; many more are not performed at all . With us a man ' s free will is limited only by his neighbour ' s free will , or his neighbour ' s rights ; in France and Austria it can be exercised only subject to Government permission previously obtained . Restriction is the exception here , it is the rule there . Throughout the Continent a citizen cannot engage in business , build a houseor take a journey ,
, without leave ; and leave is onl y obtained through an established routine of tedious and annoying formalities . " In France , Switzerland , Belgium , and the constitutional States of Germany , " says Jlr . Laing , " people call themselves free , because they enjoy more or leas of the forms of representative government , and have more or Ies 3 political liberty ; but they have no more civil liberty , and no more sense or feeling of it , than when they had no constitutions at all . They live , act , and have their being under a system of interference in every man ' s movements and doings , precisely as in Austria , Prussia , and States without any constitutions or political liberty . * * The reality of civil liberty in the free use of time , industry , and capital , and in
the free aotion of the individual , is unknown to the continental man . It is amusing to hear a German or a Frenchman discussing constitutional forms of government , universal suffrage , the qualifications of representatives , the equal rights of citizens ; and , when he has settled all these points to his satisfaction , in a theory which proves very clearly that we enjoy no real liberty in England , and do not understand its first principles , to ask him to take a jaunt with you to Tours or Marseilles , Cologne or Leipsic . 1 , ' says he , ' I must run to the bureau for our passports . I must get them signed by the proper authorities , countersigned by other proper authorities , vukd by the proper authorities in every town we atop at on our journey , in order to prevent trouble with the police ; and I must get this done before the bureaux are shut for the day , or we shall
have to wait till to-morrow . ' To be free and independent in the sense that the common man in England is free and independent , seems not to be a want in the mind of the continental man , even of fortune and education . The English traveller in France or Germany who has gone himself to the Hotel de Tille , or the passport office , to have his passport vhltd and Bigned , instead of leaving it to his valet de place , and who has seen tho crowd of tradesmen , country dealers , travelling artisans , and peasants from the neighbouring villages , who have been at the fair , standing for hours to have their papers examined and signed , will return with a pretty distinct idea of the difference between political and civil freedom , between the mind , spirit , character , and social state of tha English , and of the continental people . "
The working of this system , in ita various phases , is very ably analysed by the writer , though we are not quite certain that both he and Mr . Laing are somewhat one-sided in their estimate of it . Seeing so clearly as they do all its defects and mischievous results , they have unconsciously forgotten what might be urged on the other side . It would , we think , not be a very difficult matter foranadvocateof /« nctionaritm to gather a host of facts , relative to the sanitary , social , domestic , and moral operation of our local and municipal system of self-government , which would make a formidable show in favour of the other side . On the whole , however , we agree with . the following statement of the essential difference and comparative results of the two sys terns : —
The different-ideas which lie at the root of the two systems may be thus stated : a certain amount of wisdom is required for the conduct of affairs , and the management of associated life . This requisite wisdom is supposed by fiinctionarism to reside in the rulers , and by municipality to reside in the people . In England and America we assume t that ey « ry man understand * hia o * u interest , and
MM rulers ? The funL m trarfd ^ d eduoated cla 9 » of L ScfaSiSn the ordin < Wa of individual . or ,. ... _
alarmTn | t tinH evident tha - tthis "sumption has an fn ^ 5 tend ency to realise and justif y itself Tho beXtTt 11 is , Pr ™ d Wii SSi orlate a state of ButiRf C tl f J 8 always re * arded as ln ssSfe ^^ nst ^ m ^ sssssssiti IHS-rr- ^ S S : S # ^ a » SS HiI wfsS i f P f ? struggle onward to ° ensible fnvaKle ^ ^' ^ in ^ r 8 t Place - * ^ , ! + i atlonal ed » cation which is carried on Ja ofte SreS 3 ° ^ e ^ ' SdbS nation ot these errors , is entirely lost under thn bureaucratic svstem La . in fh * iJ ^ A -V . a " S ! 0 U
Kffifi ? ^ being * ^ " *^ * TP ' le 5 « JSF ? rced u P ° n them from without , will sell i ! £ S % , r 11 ada Pted to their * 2 S , 5 have f « , S ? gahold on their affecti 0118 - The incapacity ZoA lf -S ° vern «> ent which bureaucracy has engen-ST ^ S ?*^** nati ons ™ ^ ongly ftv nJ iI- S They - w off their sovereigns , they proclaimed republics , or substituted other d nS [^ bU i they Vf n ° . abUity t 0 O'g a ' » e new flZfrt fc they could not eC [ K « wipate themselves £ ? ,, !>! M ° l civil functionaries , because they were unable to dispense with them ; and thus , one by one they gradually fell back under the old [ regime Whereas in California , peopled by a SfiiFS ^ TF ant 3 ' Wild in tbeirtempe rs lawless m their habits , greedy for gold , thirsty for suddenopulence , without chiefs , without euidanc *
w unons control , the innate and ineffaceable genius IK ° T i a& accu 9 tomed to govern and to guide themselves , has enabled them , with an almost miraculous rapidity , to educe order out of the chaos , and to establish something like a civilised and legal community , without the smallest assis-ZTJ ? int erference on the part of the central authority . InEngland , were our complicated go . vernmont of King , Lords , and Commons , swlpt away to-morrow , we could Boon re-organise the ruling hierarch y , perhaps on a better footing than before , because every town , and almost every
vilrage , coma anora us most of the materials and ? /« 2 J ft e ? Peri , nce required . But , in 1848 and 1849 , all the collective wisdom of the bureaucratic countries of Germany and France , with a clear field before them , were able to strike out little that was sensible , and nothing that was now . One thing is , however , abundantly evident —that bureaucracy creates a class numerous and powerful , which , though nominally the servants of the nation , become , to a great extent , its masters . It is perfectl y alarming to think of the
swarm of official locusts , who eat up the substance , and interfere with the business of the people ; and there being little doubt that much of the system is kept up exclusively for their benefit , the difficulty of changing it will be proportionall y great . We have an example at hand which will strike all parties who have made a run across the Channel for a few days' ramble in France . The passport system is an unmitigated nuisance—a source of official extortion for no
possible public purpose ; and yet , when the Government lately endeavoured to abolish it , the functionaries were too powerful for them . The nuisance still exists in all the plenitude of its abomination . A glance at the comparative number of functionaries on the continent and in this country , will explain why this has occurred : — In Prussia we have no means of ascertaining the truth . In Austria , with a population of thirty-six millions , they are stated at 120 , 000 . In France , also , with a population of thirty-six millions , they
are variously given by different authorities , according as these take in only the regular and permanent paid officials , or add to these the unpaid , the occasionally paid , and the retired ; but the lowest estimate exceeds 350 , 000 . We believe the following will be nearl y an exact list of the actual employes under each department , who are paid in some shape or other , leaving out . the pensioners and the municipal authorities . It is taken from a recent report to the Legislative Assembly : — Ministry of the Interior 344 , 000 „ of Justice ............. ; nioo
, „ Worship and Instruction ...... 50 , 000 „ Public Works , Commerce , and Agriculture 10 , 000 „ Foreign Affairs 632 „ War and Marine 43 , 033 „ Finance , . CustoniB , & Excise 76 , 000
.. ,. 535 , 365 Compare this enormous army of paid omcials with the modest government provision in Great Britain , which has a population of thirty millions . In 1835 the whole civil service of the State was conducted by 23 , 578 persons ; and since that period , we believe , the number has rather diminished than increased . # exposition of " . The Military Organisation of France and Germany , and its social
consequences , ' will amply repay perusal ; and although we do not come to the same general conclusions as the writer , -we cannot but commend thi 3 instructive paper to the thoughtful consideration of all , who are desirous of studying social science , by the light of the experience derived from varied and differing social institutions . From a sketch entitled " Places I have Seen , " we take the following brief glance at the present condition of the late Daniel O' Conner ' s residence : —
Darrynane nestles in a thick wood which springs luxuriantly up , sheltered from the Atlautic by a stalwart arm of the mountain , which encircles and seems to clasp it to its rugged bosom . A medow of the most vivid green lies in front of the building , and stretches down towards a bright strip of sandy beach ( a beautiful object oh a rook-bound coast ) , which shoots out towards the little inland on which stand the fragments ot the abbey . The mountains close round the bay on the land side , and the fantastic forms of Scara and Hog Island seem to guard it to seaward like two gigantic sentin » ls .
• 'The last jintleman" [ car-driver , interlocutor ] " as I druv to Derrynane before the Liberator died —rest his soule ' . —was a mi ghty grate inimy of the Liberator up in Dublin ; only he came down hero to see him on some law business . ' Don't take the horse out , ' says he , I'll ounly bo stopping a quarther of an hour . ' ' Very well , sir , ' says I . Well , sir , the Liberator wouldn't hear of it : first he must see the hounds , or he couldn't talk to him
at all ; and thin he must see a hunt , aud shure he couldn't do that till the nexth day ? and thin there was Misther Maurice ' s yacht , the same ye see yender ; and thin , beyunt and above all , there was the champain and the clar't as muBt be dlirunk . And so , to make short work of it , bedad he stopped there three days , an myself with him ; an sure it was little himself and the Liberator were inimies afther ^ that . Ah » sir i there ' s a change since those
A chaBgfc va&u * & < The very bridge over which the mighty of the land , by genius , learning , birth , and wealth , flocked to the presence of him who was then mightiest among them , over which the bare-footed post-boy , with his tin horn dangling from his nek , bore those missives , dated "Darrynane Abbey , " which shook . the kingdom from Cape Clear to Fair Head—that very bridge is broken down , and lies in fragmenti in the bed of the stream it spanned .
" Webster ' s Duchess of Main , " is a genial and admirably-told prose version of the tragedy , which has recently been revived at Sadler ' s Wells , and carries the sympathies and the interest of the reader along with it throughout . " What is it all about , " treats of the Papal question in a deprecatory and depreciatory tone , ' declares that there is no ground whatever for the : alarm and indignation which has been so universally expressed ; and concludes thus : —
Dr . Wiseman s documents are no ntw manifestations ot the nature of Popery , and his appointments confer upon it no new power . Still more-and here again we approach the root of all the mischief done out-of-doors , and rumoured as likely to be done in the Cabinet and Legislature—you ought not , and you cannot legislate against influences . We °£ i ^ ° t—it is persecution : if we , as Liberals thin £ : Romanism has'a despotic tendency , Tories tninK Protestant dissent has a democratic tendency ; and if legislation , or attempts at it , had a iJW whero would be the end ? We cannotail History shows in letters of blood that these things are too subtle'for laws and penalties : to the present case , to forbid the names would be paltryto forbid the thing would be persecution ; but V » th are practically imporo&te , The c heck » a vm I *
bad influences is the application of good ones . We say with Milton , " Let Truth and Falsehood grap * pie " and perish all force and " protection" as puerilities and poltrooneries . A similar view is enforced in " A Speech of Oliver Cromwell , in opening Parliament , '' in which the mauuev both of Cavlylo and the Great Protector is happily imitated . The other articles are of average merit and interest . .
DItURY-LAN E THEATRE . JS i !; ee ?? ' r absence Mr - Walter Lacy has returned to tho London stage . He made his rcntrle on Saturday evening latt , atDrury-lane Theal £ ; A k ° cbaracter o [ Wildrake in tho Love Chase , which ho had never before sustained in London , lhe novelty of a new part was not necessary as a stimulus to the many admirers of Mr . Walter Ley ' s acting . He had left behind him a reputaffl being one of the very few geutaml y Jghb comedians of whom we can boast , while he had also shown , in some few characters , a large amount of histrionic aptitude , and no little originality in his
conception and grasp of characters . We need scarcely say that Mr . W . Lacy received a warm and cheering welcome . His Wildrako is a highly intelligent and humorous embodiment of the owunt fancy of Sheridan Knowles ' s muae . The sheepish Shyness and the love-taught cunning are artistically blended , not forced into violent contrast . The great scene where he frightens Constance out of coquetry , by announcing his intended marriage , was a striking instance or this artistic intelligence . Mr . Lacy is not an actor content to raise a vul « ar laugh at tho expense of the consistency of the character he is for the time embodying . Of Mrs . Nisbett s Neighbour Constance what can we say that has not been said a thousand times by a thousand
admirers ? It is one of the richest , raciest , and most buoyant outbursts of unforced , flowing humour of which cur stage can boast . Who that has ever heard her joyous , ringing laugh , as she chuckles over her tormented cousin but feels the same sensation of springing pleasure as when last he was under its magical influence ? Mrs . Nisbett probably never played this , 'her favourite character , with more elaboration and finish than on this occasion . She seemed on her mettle , and therefore carried her audience in triumph . A now comer , Mrs . Parker , sustained the part of the Widow Green with muoh tact and humour . This is the lady who made a hit in a small part , that of a cynical American Puritan , in Mrs . Mowatt ' s comedy of Fashion , at the Olympic Theatre . The piece was well acted . Miss F . Vining played with much delicacy , dignity and feeling as Lydia .
The new pantomime , entitled Harlequin and Humpty Dumpty , or Rohbin de Bobbin and the First Lord Mayor of Lun ' on , is eminently successful , and the principal pantomimic personages are ably represented by Mr . Duelin ( Harlequin ) , Mdlle . Theodore ( Columbine ) , Mr . J . Duelin ( Pantaloon ) , Signor Parkini ( Sprite ) , and Mr . Seymour ( Clown . ) On Tuesday night Mr . Barratt made his debut in the character of Falstaff , in Henry the Fourth . His physique is decidedly in his favour ; but he is also an actor of intelligence and discrimination , and of no little humour . He was very successful ; and , if his performanee in other characters bo at all equal to his Falstaff , he will prove an acquisition to the stage . The play was well acted and well mounted ; Mr . Yandenhoff sustained the part of Percy , and Mr . Anderson that of the Prince .
. STANDARD THEATHE . This elegant house , which has been greatly enlarged and newly decorated , still continues to attract crowded audiences . The new drama of Pride and Patience commences the evening ' s performances . Mr . Lyon , as Sir Robert Maraton , shows , in a Strong light , the baneful effects ofanceatral pride . Mrs . Honnor , as Lady Marston , gives great effect to a well conceived character ; and the acting of Mr . Cowle , as a returned convict , burning under a sense of treachery and injustice , was true to nature , and well received by the audience . Mr . G . Nelson , as a wily lawyer , and Mr . II . Lewis , as a sharper , made the most of their respective parts . Miss E . Terry and Mrs . Cowle also contributed greatly to the success of the piece , nor must we omit Mr . Gaston , who , as the meddling servant , and the treacherous friend , had a wide scope for his well known abilities .
The performance concluded with a new pantomime , entitled Harlequin Buttercups and Daisies ; or , Great A , Little A , Bouncing B , the Cat ' s in the Cupboard and she can t see . " The plot , trifling and insignificant in itself , by judiciou 3 acting and welltimed hits at the events of the day , kept the audience convulsed with laughter . The scenery and decorations were most magnificent . Mr . . 11 . Saunders , as Harlequin , M . Sitoani , as Silver Sprite , and Messrs . Buck and Doughty , as Clowns , maintained their well-earned fame , and contributed greatly to the hilarity of the audience ; whilst an Elfin band of fifty . children , as Buttercups and Daisies , and their various transformations , gave great delight to the juvenile portion of the audi . ence . The whole concluded with a novel moving Panorama of the principal shops in Shoreditch , and the curtain fell upon a crowded house , amid great applause .
Cholera in Jamaica—The memorials from the merchants and bankers of the City of London praying the government interference for the relief of the sufferers from cholera , m Jamaioa , were on Satiir-& T > v rni ? ° ? v n d throughWr ; Masterman , M . P ., by Mr . J . W . Dover , to the Lords of the UrtL tl % * ' MlP > ' Under Secretary of ¦ Statefor tU Colonies . The latter gave assurances that the subject of the memorials should receive his lmjueiJiaie attention , wm
the sum ES ARB butci P her 3-iki 8 * emmdthat mak * Question . for Dkdah . vg Cu-ns .-Can a msm tKvM th 0 day -time have the "SlmrS !^ iHi--= S 5 tf = t SraSff- 'Asai Didiyoi lvver naw onny boddy go tut knife bor for XP ' SSSP- ^ ZZttSX What European Capital denotes a patient who SSBtSl } 1 ' " 1 ' 1 *" - * 1 *^ ^ V ri i he most unsoc'able things in the world ? -Milestones-you never see two of them together . Why is a vain young lady like a confirmed drunkard ' -Because neither of them are satisfied with a moderate use of the glass .
Matrimonia l buss has been said to be some , thing like butter ; the thinner we spread it the fur * tuer it goes . A student in want of money sold his books and SSABMSS :- ** ' **• - ' \ t ^ /' c w -l 5 ke . silence ' y ° u caTlnot talk ab ° «* Touknow ^ l ' - 11 i 9 llkG mon& y' wten ««* cowed 1 S any eonceale ( 1 ' i * « lialf-dis" H ? Kd T ° I celebrated mu * : ™ n , saidr i- j o , a ery abandoned life " -. " O vps " " replied Scaley , « the whole tenor 7 ^ , ife L& . Rome . —An Irishman said that Rome had Hi * mosUameant government in the world . ^ ou mighl Siceofit Street ' " ° b 0 dy took the' «»«
' lou charge me fifty sequins , " said a Venethn sa'ft , ?? » """ Wtis ssay . aa !''*"' — « J * London CHAMTiEs .-These charities annually TlTin m ° ^ "T Clive of » J"t 3 the amount of ± l , 7 G 4 , 7-33 , of which upwards of £ 1 000 . 00 ft is raised annually by voluntary contributions ; the remainder from funded property , sale of publications , &c . " Figgers vont He , Till they ? " muttered a cockney arithmetician , who had just reeled out of an anti-temperance resort , and was holding on to a lamp-post . . Veil , perhaps they vont . " remarked
I ™ ! ? , erver ; but J see a fi = Ser as vont stand any ' Wht , Saiuh , I am told that when you met your old flame , Mr . J ., the other day , he treated you quite beanshly . "— " Indeed he didn ' t ( blushing ); ha seemed very glad to see me . "— " That is what I mean . I understand he gave you a prodigious hugging . —Sarah screamed and fainted . A late traveller , after examining the murderous furniture with which Gibralter is supplied , says it ' s a marvel to think that soldiers will mount such places for a shilling , and ensigns for four-and-nini'pence a day . By the way , how it strins war of its clm-v tn
apply arithmetic to it—don ' t it ? The Secret op Great Acquisitions . — "The chief art of learning , " says Louke , "is to attempt but little at a time . The widest excursions of the mind are made by short flights frequently repeated ; the most lofty fabrics of science are formed by the continued accumulations of single propositions . " Education . —He that has found a way to keep a child s spirit easy , active , and free ; and yet , at the same time , to restrain him from many things he has a mind to . and to draw him to things that are uneaBj to him j he , I say , who knows how to reconcile these seeming contradictions , ha ? , in my opinion , got the true secret of education . r-Zocfa .
# Fighting in Peace . —Maloney says that Ireland is the only country where people can fight in peace and quietness . In London they jerk you up "with , an act of Parliament , " if you only have a taste of a brush in the back yard . At Donnybrook , on the contrary , you can fight all day , and with as much comfort and respect as if you were going to church . Internal Convulsions of the Earth . —The Neiu / oundfand Times give facts establishing the probability that the whole wlanii is rising out of tho ocean , with a rapidity which threatens , at no distant penou , to materially affect , if not utterly destroy , many of the best harbours on the coast of Newfoundland . A similar upheaving has been noticed in Sweden for nearly a century .
A Hint to Quick Writers . —Locke aays , thafc the tastera man writes the slower others read what he has written . Napoleon could write fourteen pages in a minute ; unfortunately , however , each page consists of eight blots and a splatter . Some of his lines to Maria Louisa appear to have been scattered over the paper by the explosion of a bomb shell , they are so knocked into cocked hats and mashed cockroaches . A Parental Hint . —When an accident occurs , learn whether it was through misfortune , negligence t orwilfulness before you pass sentence . Accidents are frequently of great service , and children often learn more caution and real information from their , occurrence than from fifty lessons . Be it remembered , that the perfection of science is owing to the occurrence and remedy of its early accidents .
A Sign Paintku carried a bill to a lawyer for payment . The lawyer , after examining it , said , " l ) o you expect any painters will go to heaven , if they make such charges as these ? — " I never heard of but one that went , " said the painter , " and he behaved so bad that they determined to turu him out , but there being no lawyer present to draw up a writ of ejectment , he remained . " Secrets . —The Russians have a singular method of extorting disclosures from the prisoners . In their libations is mixed a drug , which has the effect of
rendering them delirious , and in this state they are watched and interrogated , when secrets are divulged . A Lady asked a very silly Scotch nobleman howit happened thatthe Scots who came out of their own country were , generally speaking , men of more abilities than those who remained at ' home ? " Oh , madam , " said he , " the reason is obvious . At every outlet there are persons stationed to examine all who pass , that for the honour of the country no one be permitted to leave it who is not a man of understanding . "— " Then , " said she , " I suppose your lordship was smuggled . "
M ' lle Franck , at the Boston theatre ( U . S . ) , after executing a brilliant pas , was called before tha curtain . She acknowled ged the compliment three times , and at last advanced to the footlights , and addressed her admirers as follows ' . — " Lady et GentiL homme—I av take vara grand plaisirat mose agreeable compliment at your hand . I have no comprehendez le Anglaise moch—by bye I know him bettee —den I was tell you how moche you do me pride . " Tremendous applause , of course .
Irish Roads , —An Englishman having asked a son of Erin if the roads in Ireland were good . Pat replied , " Yes , they are so fine that 1 wonder you do not import some of them into England . Let me see , there ' s the road to love , strewed with roses ; to matrimony , through nettles ; to honour , through . the camp ; to prison , through the law ; and to the undertakers , through physic . "— " Have you any road to preferment ? '' said the Englishman . "Yes , faith , we have ; but that is the dirtiest road in the kingdom . "
Beauit , says Lord Kaimes , " is a dangerous property , tending to corrupt the mind of the wife , though it aoon loses its influence over the husband . A figure agreeable and engaging , which inspires affection without the ebriety of love , is a much safer choice . The graces lose not their influence like beauty . At the end of thirty years , a virtuous woman who makes an agreeable companion , charms her husband more than at first . The comparison ot love to fire holds good in one respect , that the fiercer it burns the sooner it is extinguished . "
CnARMmG Beds . —It is said that a German is constructing a musical bed for the Exhibition . When the occupant presses it , soothing airs will be emitted ; and , thus lulled , " he may sink luxuriously into the arms of sleep . " A Frenchman has invented something more useful , which he calls Un Lit a Reveille Matin , or , in plain English , abed which , awakens the sleeper at any fixed hour at which he m » y wish to rise . By the adaptation of a simple contrivance to clock-work , the bed is made to incline forward , and the sleeper is thrown on his feet , his character for punctuality in his raatinal engagements being ensured at the risk of breaking his nose .
Liabiliiv of CLERKs .-Tho cashier of Mr . Fry , £ j i St John s Wopa-terrace , - lately had one hundred and nineteen sovereigns out of one hundred and twenty abstracted from a bag of silver and gold pom in an omnibus , and his employer summoned him m the Court of Common Pleas to replace the money lost , as was alleged , through negligence . The defence was , that the theft was not attributable to negligence , but to the dexterity of the thief . Tha jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff , taking care to exonerate the unfortunate cashier from the slightest imputation on his character .
Lodoinq-Houss KEBP . ras' Logic—The Lodging * House Keepers of London are beginning to calculate the probable profits of the Great Exhibition season of 1851 , or , in other wojds , they are " counting their chickens before theyare hatched ; " that is to say , before they shell out . Soxncbedy has said that 4 , 000 , 000 of strangers will be poured into London , and as there are nbi more than 1 , 000 , 000 beds to let , the rules of arithmetic call upon us to d ' m < le < one by four , and as four into one won ' t go , we recommend some of the intended visitors , before they leave a comfortable bed at home , to " sleep upon it , " until they hare made sure of a substitute .
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jakuary 4 , 1851 . ' THE NORTHERN STAR tertu a
ASTLEY'S . The performances during the holidays commence with the grand historical drama of Kenilworth . Wo have alread y noticed tbis piece , and can only say that , independent of the plot and dialogue , which are excellent , the drosses , scenery , decorations and properties cannot be surpassed , and are but seldom equalled in any theatre in tho Kingdom . Tho Bcenes in the circle are more than usually attractive ovrina to the introduction of M . Plasche " the great barrel equilibrist" to an English audience , whose daring ascent from the circle to the top of tho stage on a small beer barrel , propelled by his feet along a carriage-way of plank not a foot in breadth ,
w . hich is raised several feet in heigth , and forms a very steep incline , excited intense interest . Some singular gymnastic feats wore exhibited by the Francisco family , which riveted tho attention of the house , and elicited hearty expressions of approbation . Mr . John Brid ges went through an astonishing act of horsemanslii |) as the Bounding springer o the Alps , A dance waB then performed with singular accuracy by two horses , under the guidance of M . Ghelia , and the " Scenes of the Circle " wound up with a variety of dances on horseback , by Misa A Bridges . The entertainments of tha evening were concluded with the new and ori ginal grand , historical , equestrian , Christmas Pantomime , " entitled Harlequin and O'Donaghue ; or , the White Horse of Killarney , which entirely succeeded in attracting the attention of the audience . Dermot Astore , betrethed to Kathleen , is entrapped by an emissary of the evil spirit of Ireland into
drunkenness and gambling . A series of adventures succeed , in which the Fairy Prince of Killarney , ycleped O'Donaghue—a splendid looking personage , whose white horse plays a prominent part—appears as the supernatural champion of temperance , and rescues poor Dermot Astore and Kathleen from all their difficulties , to be changed into Harlequin and Columbine , and the entertainment'closes with a succession ot amusing pantomimic transformations . Among the most ramarkable hits are , the Great Exhibition of 1851—the Sweedish nightingale at New York—and Jim Crow , ( both represented as birds , pursued by American managers , with salt boxes , Bprinkling salt upon their tails , )—the American sea aerpent—clown ' s balloon ascent on a real donkey—Batty ' s menagerie—Haynau at the Bankside brewery , and the bedchamber scene . The pantomime concludes with a grand allegorical tableau . This house is nightly crowded to the ceiling .
QUEEH'S THEATRE . An interesting drama in two acts , written by Miss Mellon , and entitled The Witch of Vesuvius , has been produced this week . This piece possesses more than ordinary merit ; the plot is good , and the language abounds with sparkling wit and thrilling narrative . The principal parts afe well sustained by Mr . E . Green , the Misies F . Hamilton , E . Farrell , C . Gibaon , Rivers , and Mrs . C . Boyce . It would not be good taste on our parts to particularize the acting of the above artistes , whose talents have deservedly gained for them the appellation of favourites . The pantomime , by Mr . C . S . James , of Cinderella , is of the most splendid description . Twenty new and
forgeous scenes have been painted by Mr . C . J . ames the , spirited manager and lessee , and the whole is presented on a costly scale of grandeur . Mr . Ambropk appeared as Harlequin , Mr . Harrison as Clown , Mr . White as Pantaloon , and Miss C . Gibson as Columbine . The acting and singing of Miss E . Farrell , as the Fairy Fiction , and also of Miss Hamilton , who personated the Prince , deserves OBpecial notice . Miss C . Gibson is a most graceful and agilo Columbine , and the evolutions of the corpa de ballet ( her pupils ) were loudly applauded . The pantomime is a decided hit ; the actora endeavoured to outvie each other , and the house , which was crowded in every part , was kept in a continual roar of laughter and delight .
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 4, 1851, page 3, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/vm2-ncseproduct1607/page/3/