On this page
- Departments (2)
T O T H E LANDL O RD S O F IREL A ND. I.BTTEB in.
Note: This text has been automatically extracted via Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software. The text has not been manually corrected and should not be relied on to be an accurate representation of the item.
Note: This text has been automatically extracted via Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software. The text has not been manually corrected and should not be relied on to be an accurate representation of the item.
Additionally, when viewing full transcripts, extracted text may not be in the same order as the original document.
33 y £ ob 2 > 5 asd GEKiLzatES , —As it is my intenton to devote this letter exclusively to a consideration < f the labourers * ease ; I feel myself compelled to refer to the argument ! now in use , and retted opon- by the antagwrisi political parties . In aider as Bineh as posAb to unto the introduction of polities , I £ bH msreJr Etxto the piufu—d etgeet Of the ptsMn and tie saseea wnisfc , l > f tbeir ascendancy , they hold out as the political thing to be contended lot by the people .
Yon an both agreed Umb ope * tbe principle , or r » Uj « upon ihe object , which It to bettor the condition of the irarteEg classes ; the rnvntfafitaring dm declaring ttut you are the impedii&aata in the wajot social happiness ; while yon charge yonx opponents with false pretences , a desire to plunder job jand teus&rp polities ! paver , -irraiotffc cffieriBg to the people it the manu-£ itturer » do , ereo a pleasing fiction , soca as " cheap food , " to feed tbe imagination of tbe starring . Your position being good , your cry is : Kl are very ^ pU ; jet -well e&cogb alone . "
Jfow , my Lords and Gentlemen , it is my intention * ai Assessor , faithfully to ditdiwf * jnydaty between jm as rival * for power . la tbe first place then , the xnsnaiaetnrers bold out something to ths people , l&hoBgb it la a delusion v while you , sturdy and obstinate ^ jour newty-acqtdred power tare not eTen yet in the fjjrrsnth boor , offered anything substantial as a set-off Jgiinst tbe manufacturers * sfasdtrw- Yon hope to ward olf their encroachments by ParBameatary majorities , wM&s they expect to tiaQ yonr granaries with a legion
sf rtarrinf berime *" , whose pwkww , by tbe stoppage « f tb « ir aW > , they hope to inflame to an extent tmas-JJilsiie ^ the Toiee of reason , nncontrbQlable by the | £ aMtt *« & tfctb Janata , s * d invkwibte , < mol thai imnrrVil ntrrnfth ' ntfl their m&sters'implied consent , to sN all la » » et at sought to a certain point , that point being the exact one where their own object shall i « B been achieved . To these indusamenta for reTenge add the hope of impunity and toe heavy stake of life at death , and weigh then against yoor political nzajolitr , sad yonr scale vria kick the team !
MyLardiaad 6 eatlemen , thns I prepare yon fora State of public mind over which reason argument and jpflTxmttft eanhave bo control , eTen for a moment ; when judgement and common sense shall be overcome by Bscessity and want . I tell you that your social abuses bare led to 4 ie anticipation of such a moment . I look to firslcaasas rather than to results , and inasmuch as 2 wosld altogether acquit a drunken man of the crime ct wiifol murder , who in the moment of intoxication 4 tad deprived his fellow mas of life , while ths act
# oald nevertheless increase my aversion to a vice them-Ai ^ ence in which had led to the result ; so with you ; while' I sisesrely deplore the shocking results to which tbe uncontrolled power of manufactures has led , nevertheless , I oaraofc banish from hit mind the fact , that your monopoly ~ hss been the cause of those results Sad you given to natural labour wholesome labour and hffuftfcfuj labour , the full reward of its real value , the wasaheattasa never would have been able to drag fcV markets of the world with the produce of cheap tafcosr , isade ' clteap dj expulsion from the land . _
2 » ow , Ubs la soy position . Ifo labour to the individ $ nri » b » ttrerisso beneficial as that which he can expend npoB the land , and no labour to the labourer is so ssremxmenting as that over the produce of -which he has no casfcrool , and of the value of which he has not the entire , —aye , the entire . I ever have , and ever wiH contend for the freeman's right to the untouched ¦ fwte of the produce of bis labour . Of course , I a $ H&iiba £ fa those instances where men of less spe-^ aUirre , * ad more indolent habits than their neigh-- | j $ tn am satisfied t * work for masters , that in such « ues , the capitalist is fully , justly , and honourably
entakd to remuneration for risk and speculation ; wMle iy ohject'in to take care that the remimerition is not iu £ e too exorbitantly profitable by the destitution of jfh $ working man , who has but the alternative of working at the existence point or of starving ; thisl would - iegulate by the establishment of a wholesome labourmart , where all who are willing might expend their Ubonr » Ed enjoy it * fun profii ; and ij that general ifr » TtrtgM tKa labour el State working for others "ffonld - ^ B&tW ^ L '; .-• the great qwetios , indeed tbe only question , for tSe
labourer to eooader then is , whether or not those who c&r " eheap 'bitad * es a means of alleviating the distress ol the people , are sincere ; and if Eineere in their ofy'cct , tbsa to consider whether in point of fact the prefect , if sneeessful , wou ]^ operate as a permanent atopple to periodical want , would eftabli&b a £ xsd aoa satisfactory Btandard , woold lessen the A ^ p ^ a-Seccy of the labourer , and would aake his * chief pride to consist in the modest cohorts of his conditioiL ** . ¦
I lesxe you oat cf the question , as you off ^ r no apology for your monopoly , and hold out no remedy for ill correction . Now , if I can prove that tie total abolition of all nstrietkia- upon foreign corn , " tender ejristir , *; cirrsmtiimctt . " -would hut cre&te a greater dependency of tbe laboarer upon his employer , and remove him , H possible , a step funaer from ail tcntrol o 7 sr hia prodncp ; sad if 1 can proTe that our cten cuxLutrj posaesses nicsre thaa ample means for ifiWo ' -iialiY and
speedily accomplishing that wbich the manufacturers and landlords both profes 3 to b « their oLject , namely , toiscrease the comforts of the people ; I say if I can prove this , aEd that yoa are the injpedrinsats to the ¦ l WOCipI : ^ m-nt % t each a -wholesome sta ' e of tbiDgS ; I ay if 1 can prove this , even to y vurstlTes , vill ycu txii , alter notice and perseveraiiee , justly merit any pnnslabcnt which may renilt from an assault of the mki&led passions cf the elsrring multitude , to -whose Heal patient conviBeing and jutt appeals yea hare so LstgxeBoiced deaf ?
My lardi and GanUemen , -with so Eueh of a preface b > thu ay third Istier , I shal now proceed to open the aascfiay events , sad my only fee or reward shall be 1 iR hope of seeing joa , and them , aad all those who are Hoy a ; variance , living as the members of the teiflj ol one great Father of all , each tiisSnguisbbd wording to bis real merit , and honoured accermng to In deserts . Alas ! what a task I have un lertaksa , when in the «* S 8 t the gnat difficulty of recocdiing to my views the class-legislatOT who eaplojs two thousand persons ,
« nd who makes £ 7 , 800 per aanum cf every ihreepesce , fiched from the labour cf each , stares me in the face Vtlnt fesra would taunt me if I was a tiniid man , " » hea I reflect upon the political power uf those parties whose monopoly of man ' s rights I hope to destroy . What mast be my fate when I feel cosficeed that tiiat *» 5 a « f thiogg , at which 1 have previously insted , will k * swe to cvmie , and whtn , in the bustle and turmoil , * D that I have done or endeavoured to do , will be ¦ ade to appear to the starving psople , by ih ^ li hard te eo mBaadi ^ tasi-masters , as the immediate cause rf ifceir pressing wants .
5 iy Lord * bad Gentlemen , Iamnoteitherunnucdfulof yoRrpowC j or of tbe manner in which it has ever been ** d , frta a » Kmeof Tiberius Gracchus down to the pre-• attbae , to oppress and destroyall who would makeyoor ^* e » arailable to your own and the cation ' s wants . "Stny safeguard is ia the better state of public opinion —6 » ttie simplicity of my project—in the facility of &&& % it into practical operation , and in the disinfc ^ stel motive 3 which 1 have in proi . auading it I ao ** heGCTe tint yen could now , as the B ^ ican Senate ** Of old , set op a Drusus , as a false landmark to ^ ^ the people ' s attention from what is justly their * ° *» by eiering them meie than I do , and much more " ¦ J ° n pappet woulA iEtend you i » perform . Ton
w « aoi the same interest in disposing of me that **» oEgaw 3 iy hadia disposing of the Gracciu ; and for wi reusm—tJaey led a Wind flock , while I am but ** «* many shepherd * , with whose voice , whose ^ arin e * i andwboae every moveaaent , a Sock , ob" •*?« aad themselTtskeealy upon tbe watch , are well 2 ** * i- The Gra « ehii were both brutally mnr-^** ttd theb remaini inrelted ; bat yet were their *^ » . in part , subsequently carried . And bow , * * W you dispcae of at , I &otdA bnt make zoom for ^* w d » Of otbjBM who , without % like knowledge of ***}*«* . wo * ld direct public opinion to * tbe attain-^* of that which , after possession , the people ^<* not so well know how to turn to the best ad-^*> Se , and they would consequently look for more .
* olject thremgh Bfe has been to make my readers ^ SSaod erery -word I write , aad see the feasitQitJ < jf ^^ oy j > foj « ± this I stttmpt even at ths hsaard of « ** thoaght ' ediccs . I am not a mere hirfd irriter , ¦» axe ths bad LtLtsnaa , lays the hiah-iit ' . tlfcd p&ck
upon the scent , and than allows them to ran down tbe game according to their fancy ; I follow the pack , ride well up to them , so as to make my hit before a long check has destroyed the scent , and compelled me to ran a * head * apon & mere caanca oTrecoverTng the game . I watch you every doable and traverse , and go the whole ground after you , aad thus make ray followers acquainted with yonr every turn . My Lords and Gentlemen , I shall now consider what a hundred % cres of ground subdivided into ten farms of ten acres each , is capable of delng : bow many it would maintain , the description of maintainance , and the surpiBf , after having supplied the famOy , which it would leave for traffic is the manufacturing and commercial market I shall , according to promise , take the rudest calculations ; and , firstly , as to the gross produce .
One and half acres of potatoes , half an acre of fallow , one sere of lay ( sward ) oats , two seres of wheat , half an acts of meadow , quarter of an acre of flax with clover , one rood of kitchen garden , one ditto of vetches , spring and summer ; and four acres of pasture . Produce for family ' s consumption , for one year ; " ( family consisttBg of a man , his wife , and hfir&ildrenj ; sixty stones of wheat ; fifty stones of oatmeal ; five hundred stones of potatoes ; twenty stones of bacon ; vegetables ; half the milk of a cow ; with poultry , eggs , and honey .
Let as now take it per week . More than a stone of -wheat flouT ; a stone of oatmeal ; ten stones of potatoes . Por forty-five weeks deducting seven for Lent , ( a time when Catholics abstain from meat ) two pound of bacon en Sundays , &f ondayB and Tuesdays , every week in the year ; three quarts of new milk per day , twenty-one quarts per week , thus estimating a co-sr * a milk at ttrelTe quarts a day for the summer season , and allowing one quarter of her milk in summer and the other quarter to be used in butUr daring winter ; but I take all as milk . Value of produce after the above amount for consumption shall have been deducted : — £ s . d . Nine bags of wheat , at twenty stone the bag ,
at £ 1 5 s . the bag — 11 5 0 Produce of . a cow and half , valued at £ 8 per cow ^ 12 0 0 Five barrels of oats , at fourteen stone the barrel , at 18 s . the barrel , or less than 9 d-ptr stone ..... 2 10 0 Profit on four bacon pigs , fed from May to March , and boughtat nine monthb oJd j £ 3 . 10 s . eacb - l « • Profit on four sheep , fatted after shearing , 19 s . a head 2 0 6 Eggs , poultry , linen ( or spnn flax ) 5 0 0 Those amounts , added , make .. * £ l % 15 0 From which deduct : — Bent and rates „ .. „ , 11 0 Laii by for girls' portion and casualties perannum .. 7 15 0 Total 23 15 0 which deducted from the £ 42 15 s . leaves £ 24 to be annually expended in the manufacturing and commercial market . Lst U 3 now take the aggregate of what ten farms , thus managed , can do &s compared with the same ten farms in the occupation of one tenant By the subdivision , they support in afflaance , comfort , and abundance , Beventy persons . They produce for sale , after consumption , ninety bags of wheat ; one hundred hundred weight of bacon ; thirty hundred weigntof butter ; forty fat sheep ; fifty barrels ot oa . u , at fourteen stones to the barrel ; eggs , poultry , Sax , or lictn , £ 50 worth .
~ Let its see what it does bsjl&es . It givw tbe family four fleeces , at five pounds of wool per fleecetwenty pounds of wool ; and the produce of two roods of flax for winter employment and clothing . Now take the one huudred acres held by one tenant and you have the following produce foe sale , after the scanty- existence of forty-two pzrsons ;—Wheat fifty bags ; instead of ninety bags ; Iratter sixteen hundred weight , instead of thirty hundred weight ; oat « twenty barrels , instead of fifty barrels ; bacon twenty hundred weight , instead of one hundred hundredweight ; flax , or linen , eggs , and poultry , nothing , instead of £ 50 worth ; sheep none , instead of forty . Cash saved aad left for expenditure , after payment cf rent , rates , and expanses of one huudred acres , £ 10 1 0 s . Od . ; instead of £ 317 15 s . » d .
My Lords and GentlemeH , 12 this rough draft of profit and I 053 , you will . Firstly , look to the fact that I get rid of forty useless horses , and lot them substitute only twenty-eight individuals , the difference between the forty-two " kept alive" upan the large farm and the seventy kept fat and well upon the small farms . Secondly , that instead of having by the small farms seventy acres of bad grass land sacriSced to thirty acres ( if bad tillage , thsre is & sacrifice of only forty acres ; there being sixty , instead ot thirty , in foil producing jtilt , fey ths substitution of spade culture for the plough and this sacrifice of forty acres is owing to a want of sufficient popu ' aUou to cultivate all to the highest " state of perfection .
Tou will require from me proof as to the capability of produc ng what 1 have stated from the ten acres . In the first plica , then , let m ? just tell you that I have strictly kept to plain digging ; that according to culturs J have taken the very lowest average ; while according to prices , I have taken much below the average for every thing , according to any seven years ol the last forty . I allow six bags of wheat to the acre . I allow ISO ! stones of potatoes to one and a half acres , or 1 S 00 stones per acre . I allow four acres of gras 3 , two roods of vetches , half aa acre of meaiow , half an acre after grass , with what tht house affords , for t wo cows and four sheep ; I
allow bran , garden stuff , soue milk , and 1 . 3 * 0 stone 0 / potatoes , for five pigs for nine months . I allow only what I am now receiving myself for dairy cowb , £ 8 a-head , while the labourer wouid make much more of them . I do not take too much oat of the ground , but on the contrary , 1 keep it in proper heart ; while tbe man , without mentioning any of his family who might b « capable of helping him , wou'd cot be on « half of his time employed in the task I have set him ; and yet I leave him . £ 31 15 s . per annum , after the best Of good living , clothing , and lodging , instead of £ 8 , as at
present , eat of which be mast eke t , subsistence ; and right lucky and well pleased is he if he can even get tbe chance . As to the nusttre , which is the principal thing , I firstly bring his arm 3 , which is the real essence of manure , —ths oxygen , —into operation ; and , besides that , I leave him three aeres of straw , half an acre of mevlow , two cows , four Bheep , five pigs , poultry , and garden-rubbish to nuuura one and a half acres of potatoe ground , which you will surely think enough , baring cheered Mr . Sharman Crawford when he allotted to two unfortunate Uttte pigs tie herculean task of manuring an acre !
As I do not write £ 0 much with tbe hope of convincing you , as for the purpose of convincing my own clients , I purpose in my next letter to take a more extensive view of this anbject ; while , for the present , I BbaQ answer some of the most recent absurdities of hired writers . I have read , and I assure 700 I forget just sow in what paper , the assinine remarks * f some Btattan , who laughs at the notioi of all tbe wheat-producing land
in the united empire , ) which be estimates at twenty millions , ) being capable of supplying twenty six millions with bread ; while I bare shewn that ten millions of acres would support seven miUians in ifflnpn < v » , and leave a sufficiency of bread , batter , baeon , oatmeal , poultry , eggs , honey , flue , with four millions of sheep annually , for more than twenty millions more fed at the same rite ; that is , more than a sufficiency of all these things for more than twenty-seven millions of people . " -
My Lords and Gentlemen , is It not now pl » io that the bad state of things is preserved by the political patronage ¦ which the usurpation of political power by the xtieapplicatioa of land has given to you and youi
order , and which has been acquiesced in by tbe sew order of political economists , who , as I have shows , derive an income ot nearly £ 4 , 000 * year from tbe employment of every l , » 00 slaves ? and bowever youaou the steam lords may affect a humane object , ( which , by tbe way , I repudiate , as I look for fall aad complete justice , and every particle ef their just rights , for my clients ); but however yon may attempt to convince the people that justice and their good is your object , and bowerer you may shove tbe saddle from back to back , believe me that those who bear ths burden now know , and know full well , that the object of each Is to plunder as much as they can from the unrepresented . My Lords and Gentlemen , it is a bard word , but think of the provocation .
My Lords and Gentlemen , while we find tbe three great parties in the state thus struggling as deadly foes , just think of trying to lock up the treason ^ of Providence , in order that you may pretenre a mere artificial state of pre-eminence over your fellow man , and think of the foolish manufacturers , who have gambled so long in blood , now hoping to persuade a people made miserable by , tbeir recklessness , that their ctrvg * gle i » all for the said people's benefit . '"¦>« - Sat do we not observe tbe striking anomaly all through ear system , of never looking to home , while the eyes of all _ are eternally directed to other countries for what we could better , more freshly , more conveniently , more profitably , more abundantly , and more comfortably supply from under our own nosea ? Hence , injyour House of clerks and " powder monkeys , " you have ministers of war , cf colonies and of trade , but no minister of agriculture . You have a minister of allspice , nutmegs , mace , ginger , pepper , raisins , almonds ,
dried currants , cinnamon , oranges and Naple biscuits ; but no iniDister of wheat and pork , and beef and butter ; and , in trnth , I venture to say that Mr . Labouchere would torn up his nose most disdainfully if asked how many stall-fed beasts woold make a sufficiency of manure for an acre of potatoe ground , or if asked how many men it would require to cut the seed and plant and dig the potatoes ; but , believe me , that a knowledge of these things is the knowledge which , ere long , will be most prized .
Jly L » rds and Gentlemen , there is another anomaly which never strikes you . It is , that agriculture 1 Ireland should have tot its governor , a general , a kind of military chieftiin—a kind of Don ^ uixotte , with his squire Sancho Panai in the Cabinet , who knows nothing about agriculture , the country , the people , their manners or their customs ; who cores nothing about agriculture ; whose whole time is taken up in the adjustment of party squabbles , political disagreements , consideration of military , police , and magisterial affairs ; and changed too with each administration . He is a men political tool
and in nine cases out of ten , a most egregious fool ! either a military fop , flying about the country ia peacock ' s feathers courting his party , or a quiet-going old gentleman , fearful of doing right lest he may be suspected of doing -wrong ; and in bis endeavour to please every body , pleasing no body , and losing his character into the bargain . Such is your political chieftain : while the greatest recommendation which your agents can have , it a stealed heart . That man only isfiftjd / er the collection of rack-rents who can lock upon the leg * act of taking the bed from under tbe tick woman and the last cow from tbe little children , as divested of all moral turpitude .
You will , no doubt , ra . y that I am « ea 51 ng with the exceptions . I say that I am not ; that oft tfte contrary , good landlords are the exceptions , and they are comparatively few ; and when they are-to bejonnd . where is * fa * man more hoBoortd , bOmtit jUt 4 nee ^ ma i . im ^ b $ world ? My Lords and Gentlemen , being connected with , and sometimes managing large estates ; having farmed a large quantity of ground ; being a barrister , in very extensive practice , and much consulted by tenants , labourers , and landlords ; having been a Member of Parliament for three yean for the great county of Cork , and
havf&g , through life , given the most serious attention to tbe state of Ireland , I have no hesitation in stating , that the whole of Ireland ' s wrongs , her poverty , bet degradation , tbe insecurity of property , tbe hatred of the aristocracy , and contempt for the laws , are consequences more of yonr misrule , than of any politioal or religious animosity which the people entertain towards Tories or Protestants . The Tories are Protestants , and the landlords are , for the most part , Protestants , and therefore is all crime , and justly , charged upon Toryism and Protestantism .
My Lords and Gentlemen , you may consider it a " great bore" to be compelled to make any such arrange , meats as will suit tbe present times , but the question is , whether jou will put up with a choice of evilswhetheryoa will undertake the " bore "' of collecting more rent from a greater Dumber , or be " bored"by geing without any rent . You complain that the people are dirty , while you deprive them of the means of being cleanly . You complain that they are ignorant , while you withhold from them the means of educating themselves . You complain that they are vicious , -while you oblige them to have TtcourBe to deception and invention to defend themselves against y » ur oppression .
My Lords and Gentlemen , once more I caution yoa against the foolish notion that an English political question cannot affect Irish property . I tell you that poverty , like water , will find its level ; and I also tell you tb . it the most risiog and pow erful political interest is that of the English manufacturers , whom yoa will find to jour cost , to be excellent engineers , and which you will admit when they . have reduced you , afte > payment of debts and mortgagees , to the very same condition that the hand-loom weavers are now In .
Jly Lords and Gentlemen , I further caution you against the vain hope of preserving monopoly by your political majority ; that , believe me , will ba your great-& 3 t weakness ; it will , I fear , but add to yonr difficulties , by emboldening you in your misrule . Pray don't split on that rock ! for believe-ibe-, that the day is gone never more to return , when -the minds of Englishmen , Irishmen , and Scotchmen , can be held in subjection by Parliamentary majorities , standing armies , police , and a proflicute press .
I bar * dons one min ' a share in producing the present state of things . I hare accomplished two grand objects , which through life I have kept in view . I have taught the poor not to be afraid of the rich , and not to be ashamed of themselves . I have , in my own person , given to the whole of society a completely new tun ; so much so that I have accomplished that which I believe vanity , self-interest , and pride prevented all say predecessors from attempting . I have taught the people to do without ms ; and in this I witness my great protection .
My Lords and Gentlemen , it is not only necessary , but it is a duty to forwarn yoa of the present state of political feeling . You are in greater ignorance than the English band-loom weavers . You read newspapers which pander to your prejudices , and live upon your gullibility . Don't rely upon taem ; they are rotten te the cots . Do not take it for granted , because the Tory prints assert it , that there is any re-action in tbe publi * mind in favour of Toryism . Its very resucitation from tbe grave has roused tbe slumbering hatred of all good men against it . It most bold power by tbe musket ;
it most preserve your monopoly by the sword and the gibbet If we are allowed to meat by day , we can beat it in daylight ; and If we ax * drivan to tbe old alternative for meeting Whig oppreaaioa , way we most needs have teeoarse , onee man , to torchlight meetings ; and I presume the Whig proclama tion has died a * natural death . However , be assured , that meet we will ; and , if attacked , fight we will according to the very best of our abQittee . My Lords and Gentlemen , I bare now pointed out the social change which alone can effect that which ycu and year rivals profess to be your object , the bettering of the people ' s condition ; bat do not
• oppose that I am foolish enough to imagine that eitber would Burrender their hold , the one of political patronage and the other er lakour-ploader ^ to ¦ ave the world from flame * No , you woold not ! A- ak you , then , why I take ao mnch ttonble . I take it to open out a question to the people of England , as regards Ireland , of which they are in attar aad complete ignorance , and In which ignorance tbe press , as ignorant as themselves , would .
from necessity , allow them to remain . I take it to prove that tbe interests of the Irish and the English peasant are inseparable an * Identical . I take it f « r the purpose of letting yoa understand that while I oppose a repeal of the Corn Laws , from a conviction that the obange would greatly damage my clients , that I do not do so , by any means , with an intention of allowing you to starve the people as landlords , or to shoot the labourers at pleasure as politicians .
I feel assured that the press cannot answer me . Just allow me to pat yoa in possession of one fact I certainly undwstand more about Irish agriculture than all tbe Editors of English newspapers pat together ; and jetw ^ H you not find one single extract taken fro m one ofH&y letters , if I write a hundred ; while if «< nne fool of a half-witted political economist began to write a series of letters to you upon tree trade , geology , chemistry , hydrostatics , navigation , application of steam to hatching goose eggs , Ireland's capabilities of rivalling England in manufactures , if she would only allow Poland or Russia to send her her supper ,
and make clothes for the foreigners j all these things would be noticed , and commented upon , and why ? Because they answer the political end of a political party , while my letters only answer the people ' s end , and are therefore sard not to answer your purpose or the purpose of the manufacturer . The manufacturers want to get hold of your estates , in fact , to cut them off from production ; you want to preserve them , while you hope to resist the manufacturers politically ; and I want to step in between both , and raise the value of land , of produce , and of labour , at one and the same time .
Now , then , I have shown you a very simple process by which you may-accomplish all these objects . You most make the workman , to a certain extent , his own producer , ipnsnnier , and manufacturer . You thereby relieve the manufacturing market of a large portion of its surplus population , while you create for the remainder an increased consuming community for the manufacturer ' s goods . Why do you bake yonr own bread , kill your own beaste , and brew your own beer ? Because , by so doing , you have it best and cheapest Why , then , not allow ovary poor man to do likewise ?
I have . shown you that so far from twenty million acres not producing wheat enough for twenty millions of people , that ten millions would produce wheat , and pork or bacon , butter , oatmeal , mutton , honey , eggs , and poultry enough for more than thirty millions of people ; and I am prepared to go further , and to prove that five millions of acres held by one million heads of families , at the rate of five acres each instead of ten , is capable of producing neatly as much as the ten
millions held by the same heads of families . Now , what does that prove ? Why , simply the great value of Jaboar as compared toaarface , and tbe capabilities of the soil ; and that tbe less you allow to remain in grass the better . Just think that for four acres of grass , half an acre of meadow , and half an acre ot vetches , I can ; allow but £ 12 a-year in tbe keep ot two cows ; while for the remaining fivs acres , I allow the Whole support Of seren persons , and a surplus of £ 30 15 a . annually .
This then is my position . I assert that five millions Of acres of land is capable of maintaining one million tKai # BKittb *** ho of fevan to «* oh family ; and bear & miaO , tfcat i allow sTx milUoaa out of tho seven to remain completely idle . I have not taken a day ' s work of any of the sons ot daughters into my calculation ; and I further assert that the process required would not occupy each man one-half of the year , while at the It west average the land would produce a sufficiency of bread , oatmeal , butter , bacon , eggs , poultry , and
several other things , for more than twenty-five millions of inhabitants . You know little or nothing of spade culture . I do ; I have tried it extensively , and I have shown its effects upon bad land to the Professor of Political Economy , Dr . Longfleld , and to many very excellent gentlemen farmers , and they were astounded at the produce . In speaking of Dr . Long . fisld , late Professor of Political Economy , and now Law Professor of Trinity College , I most aay that he ia the only one of the art I ever met in my life who could apply what may be bsneScial of the theory to practice .
My Lords and Gentlemen , having embarked in a subject which I find requires more space than I had imagined for doing it and myself and my clients justice , and being , therefore , compelled to leave much unexplained which might be beneficially communicated , I have come to tbe resolution of dedicating to you a book , in which shall be set forth the " Rights of the Agriculturist . " My Lords and Gentlemen , the more I consider this great , this mighty , and all-important subject , the more convinced am I of the value of the acquirement of a
landed provision for the people . Now don't mistake me , as Mr . Justice Littledale did , or affected to do , when be infamously , falsely , and illegally told the Grand Jury , at Warwick , that tbe Chartists desired to take the land from the present occupants and appropriate it to their own uses . Once for all , I tell you that I do not intend any such thing ; that the Chartists do not intend any such thing ; while , at the same time , I am free to confess , that a pertinacious resistance to a jost claim not unf / equently terminates in a demand for more than would bave been graciously acceptsd , if granted courteously ; wisely , and in time .
I have weighed my subject and looked cautiously Into it , before I introduced to public notice , for the people's serious consideration , oue of tha gravest questions ever submitted to them . It is a subject upon which few , very few , are informed ; and upon which the manufacturers of news are ignorant as Bcetians . They make the same use of land that they make of churches , tithes , taxes , trade , commerce , and manufactures ; that U to say , they osa it each for their respective party purposes , just as it politically suits them .
1 should bare been mad bad I hid this subject before a manufacturing and commercial people , while living in comfort upon forced trade and fictitious money , and before I had prepared their minds for its entertainment . I have , in this letter , informed you of what , fer many years , has been my object in giving up peace , happiness , fortune , and liberty , for turmoil , uneasiness , discomfort , loss , and a dungeon . My object Is to obviate the dependance of the labourer upon bis employer ; and my means , indeed the only means ef effecting that , la by establishing some certain market fot labour , wherein the full value m » y be ascertained ; for the working out of which , land is the only means , inasmuch as every man has for that trade both labour and capital in his anas ' , which be bas not for any other .
Herein , then , lay my greatest difficulty . I was well aware that a boused , emaciated , Worn-OUt people , accustomed to a bested atmosphere and a manafactiufag life , and wholly ignmnt of the land its blessings and its capabilities , could not be brought all at once to entertain a question which appeared uninteresting and foreign to their interest . I have now , however , shewn to thoee who would still remain ' in the hell-boles , that although they n « ve > saw » green field , yet , that the landed market , if it were opened for those who would anil themielreaof it , would havo ' the effxet of
establishing » standard whereb / every labourer - * wages would be regulated . For instance : suppose that A , an agricultural labourer , can support a wife and five children in comfort , by one-naif of bis own labour , and lay op £ 32 a-year , or spend it in the fancy market ; in such 8 > cue , tbe market being also open for B , ( who may prefer remaining at his own business , ) will prevent a master from , being able to get his ( B . 's ) labour under the value established in the market : thus is B , the operative , who never sees a field , served equally as well as A who cultivates the fields .
My Lords and Gentlemen , believe me that no human being has a more thorough contempt for a mere politician than I bave , whether he be Whig , Tory , Radical ; or Chartist , except he baa some great social object in view . Lock up the land to-morrow , and I would not give yon twopence for the Charter the next day , because you would have deprived it of its jewel . The Charter can never give the people any control over the land of those countries to which their attention is directed ; neither should it ; but it can give them control over it at home , so far as to relieve them from a hand-tomouth dependance upon all who make unjust profit by their labour .
I hare no doukt that in my progress I shall make many enemies ; but all who know me are aware of the hopelessness of an attempt to turn me from any course that I once undertake . I may be before the public mind ; and if so , I shall wait till it cornea up to me : but a single backward step I will not take . I am moderate in my demand , because it lessens no man ' s store , while it gives plenty to all . I am sincere in my undertaking , and I am resolved to procure the greatest amount of happiness for all , or if needs be to perish nobly in theattemipt . ¦ v ; . ' My Lords and Gentlemen , I have now told y * ubow to build a wall of hearts around your persons , and ot bone around yciir estates . Yoa must make the people part and parcel of the nation , or they will cease to nave any interest in the-well-being of the country .
And now , in order to show you tbe critical applicability of tbe state of Rome in the days of Tiberius Geacchus , to the present state of this country , arising out of precisely the same causes ( the monopoly of the land by a wealthy oligarchy ) , I shall conclude with tlit ) following extract from a speech of TIBERIUS Gracchus . Read it , my Lords and Gentlemen , and study it rather than tbe airy metaphysical nothings of Sir Robert Peel , as delivered to hiscoastitusnts , and which are called clever by a political press . Tiberius said : "The wild beasts of Italy have their caves to retire to ; but the brave men who spill their blood in
her cause have nothing left but air and light Without booses , without any settled habitation , they wander from place to placa with their wives and children ; and their Generals do but mock them , when , at tbe head of their armies , they exhort them to fight for their sepulchres and domestic Gods ; for , among such numbers , perhaps there is not a Koraau who has an altar that belonged to his ancestors , or a sepulchre in whioh their ashes rest . The private soldiers fight and die to advance the wealth and luxury of tbe great ; and they are called masters of the world , while they have uot a foot of ground in their possession . "
Now , my Lords and Gentlemen , barring the "Hght and air " which the English slaves do net enjoy , do you not recognise the strict analogy between tbe Romans in the days of Tiberius , and the English in the days of your misrule J I am , my Lords and Gentlemen , Your obedient And very humble servant , feargus O'Connor . July 20 th , 1841 .
( £ f ) aritgt SnteUt ' sence .
BUTTON . —The Bilstou Chartists held their usuai meeting in the open air , at the Bail Court . Thongli tbe evening was showery and unfavourable , yet it was numerously attended , and the greatest attention was paid to Mr . Candy ' s lecture , who , in a most" able manner , expounded the principles ef democracy and the science- of Government to tha great satisfaction of his hearers . Our Association is now one hundred and twenty-s » ven in ntfctnbefeihip . ! isg& ^ DARLASTON . —A Poetic Meeting was hera / on Momtay evening , at the Bull Stakes , Mr . Dudley in the chair , who , after a few brief remarks , introduced Mr , 21 . Candy , Chartis 6 lecturer tor the mining districts . His nddrefia was upon monopolies , and their evils ; labour , and its rights . He began by showing the evils
that had arisen in society through tbe effects of class legislation and an irresponsible Government , who had euacted laws beneficial to the few , but deStructve to the many ; that the effects of monopoly , witbT all its baneful influences , may be traced through all the departments of the Government , from the highest aristocrat in power to the lowest jack in office ; their aim , their study , and sole object was to plnnder and rob the productive classes , and to coerce and keep them down by an overbearing power of soldiory , police , yeomanry , hired spies , the minions , and tools , and despicable agents of a treacherous and deceitful Government , plundering aristocratic idlera , an over-gorged ,
hypocritical , avaricious , colorant State Church , the trio of which was bo united In their villany , whether Whig or Tory it was immaterial to the working man , him and his interests was crucified between the two , so that they may attain their unholy desires at the expenco of the peoples weal . He fully exposed their monopolies ; and then beautifully entsred into thet detail of labour , iu Tights , and its legitimate reward . He was heard with great attention by a vast assemblage of some thousands . The immense area , right in the centre of the town , was literally crammed ; and no doubt the seeds sown by Mr . Candj will bring forth fruit an hundred fold to the good cause .
Mr . Candy is engaged for six weeks longer ; and we earnestly hope that all true Chartists -wilt use every exertion to contribute , in the various localities of Wolverhamptoo , Bilston , Darlaston . and Wednesbury , to the Committee , and persons appeinted to receive monies on behalf of the lecturers' fund . CITY OF LONDON . —A special general meeting of the shareholders of the Scientific and Political Institute , 55 , Old Bailey , was held on Sunday morning last , July 18 th , when rules for their future guidance was agreed upon , and a managing committee for the succeeding quarter was elected . It was announced by the former committee that out of fifty shareholders twenty-four regularly took the Northern Star weekly , besides a good sale of the National Vindica ( or &M
ether invaluable vehicles of sound political principles , and the profits arising from which go towards defraying the general expences of the above Institute . The public can obtain them also from ten to twelve o ' clock every Sunday morning at the above place : and when free of expence the Hall will be ope-ned to them for political information . In the evening of the same day , Mr . Watkins preached ( the above room being licensed for the same ) a very excellent Chartist sermon , which gave general satisfaction to a most numerous aad respectable congregation . Next Sunday evening , the 25 th inst , Mr . James Savage , another known Chartist , is expected to preaca ; and ou the Monday evening following , a social concert will take place to defray the expences of the London general election committee in the above Institute .
DERBY . —Mr . Bairetow delivered two lectures in the Market Place on Sunday night . Tho lecturer occupied about three quarters of an hour in depicting the condition of the working millions , and tho so-atyled higher classes of society . He was listened to with the deepest attention , and at the conclusion stated that on the next evening he would point out the course the people ought to take now that the Tories are in power . On Monday evening , Mr . Bairstow spoke tor two hours and a quarter , and his arguments were clear and convincing . At the conclusion , a vote of thanka was passed unanimously to the lecturer , and the meeting broke up , a great many persons declaring it was the best lecture ever delivered in the Market PJace . The Whiga and sham-Radicals are going to hold a private meeting , for tho purpose of forming a Society , haviug for its objects Household Suffrage and 4 haB * Uot . Let them beware ; the . real Chartists of Derby are not to ba duped with their clap-trap measures . - '¦ : ; - ' *
CHESTEB FIELD AND BROMPTON . —At the weakly meeting of the Chartists , held on Monday evening last , the following inembers were chosen to serve on tbe General Council for the next three months : —Messrs . J . Kycroft , A . Betesford , W . Barkes , J . Wigley , K . M'Laltan , E . Broomhead , J . WflUams , sub-Treasurer , W . Martin , sub-Secretary . Tbe resolution of Mr . O'Connor Ia hU letter to Mr . Sinclair of Gateshead , was carried unanimously , after which , the meeting separated . HECKI&ONJDWXiBUB . At a meeting held on
Monday last , a vote of thanks wsa proposed and cat * ried to the electors for their prudence and decision in remaining at horns with their wives and families , and keeping away from the polling booths of both Whig and Tory . A heart-stirring and animating address was given by one of our own body . The Radicals were much commended fur their consistency ia going to the nomination unpaid , and , in some cases , at Use risk of losing their employment , while the slaves of the factions went , under the influence of their masters for one shilling each and a waggon ride , to rivet tho chains of skwery ,.
v ^ 2 £ W m / Q _ / Jf * - ^~ 3 ' . BTOUN .-Tfae VoWeml SrfSg ^ sWiltiOT Of this place held tbeir usual weekly meeting on Ssodajr evening last , Mr . Woodward in the chair , who , in neat speech , replete with argument and good stnse , showed very clearly the evils of the present defective system of election , and said that nothing short of the principles contained in the People ' s charter eould really benefit the producers of -wealth . Mr . Bropby next fld ( fre « sed the meeting oa the Importance of the principle of Universal Suffrage ; he showed wba * tbe people bad to expect from the faction about to come into power , and what they hai received from tbe base , treacherous Whig faction , who preached op liberality at the time they were prosecuting the producers of
wealth ; and reform and retrenchment when they were forging sew fetterr for the people , and wasting in profligacy the public money oa spies and policemen to stifle the voice of the people . Mr . Wood , in a very comprehensive speech , arged the secessity ot u » ion among the working elaasea 61 Ireland ; he said , xb » words " No Popery and Onagekn '' ought t » be buried , and that the man who would endeavour to agitate these opinions was an enemy to the peace and prosperity of Ireland .. Patrick O'Hfggins , Eaq . * next addressed tbe meeting . He said he woatd be glad , at all times , to have an opportunity of addressing *> orderly a meeting as that before him , -which -was m credit to those wno condueted it . He drew a vivid picture of the manner in which tbe people of Ireland have been deceived by the paid- and place-hnnfln * ' patriots , " and showed the impracticability of the
present Repeal scheme , which was a mere clap-trap to answer the ends of a party . He declared himself to be a Chartist and Repealer , and pledged himself that the Chartists of England were more earnest in . ( he Repeal cause than any of the brawlers at the Com Exchange , He gave some , very strikfng prooa of the perfidy of some of those would-be-thoaght " pafeiota , " wnicn called forth toe disapprobation et V pet « m preaent , but Mr . O'Higglns told him that he -was not now obliged to keep , secrete , and that he could prove what he had then asserted . Mr . O'Higglns was much applauded during bis speech , and strong marks of astonishment Were given by the meeting at the exposure he gave the supporters of liberality . A ^ rote of thank was given to the chairman , and tbe meeting separated , all highly AsHfcbtcd with tha ptospeete mow btfow them in Ireland . . . - , ,. ¦ .
BELFAST . —The Chartists of thfej « 8 tt 8 held their usual weekly meeting on the 13 th in 8 * iht , when there was a good laubter . A committee df'&s ); persons' were appointed to look after a larger room , a » the one they meet in at present ia too small . They Intend , as soon as they can procure a large room , to admit the public , and invite discussion upon the principles of tbe Charter . Letters were read from several individuals in England and Scotland , which elicited the approBaJtion of all present Several new members were enrolled . Chartism is making a steady advance in the North-of Ireland , and the gpare papers of Eogtiah and Scotch friends are solicited .
HALIFAX . —Mr . J . Watson , ' of Koighley , delivered a rery animated address in the Charter Institution of this place , on the evening of Mendny last . Thero / mt was crowded toexcessi , and the borne troths which is delivered told Mrell upon his audience , and caused many to respond to the truth of his statements . He was-rapturously cheered throughout the whole of his discourse at the conclusion of which several rounds of applause were given for the " cage * lion , " the Northern Star , the other Chartist victims , and to the lecturer ; after which several persona came forward and enrolled themselves is the association . A very spirited subscription h ' as been entered into for a new banner to honour the liberation of our great champion , F . O'Connor , Es < i ., on which a splendid whole length likeness of that gentleman will appear . Tne females are vieing wtyn and emulating the men in this patriotic undertaking' .
NEWCASTLE . —The Newcastle Chartists held their weekly meeting , on Monday right / Mr . Crothers in the chair . The Secretary read tbe minutes of last meeting which were adopted ; he likewise read several letters , including one which lie received from Cotd * £ Thompson , in which he states it to be the firm belief of an eminent Parliamentary council that Mr . Bronterre O'Brien was legally elected for Newcastle , &c &c The following resolutions were then carried unanimously : — Mr . Fraser moved and Mr . Bruce seconded , " That this committee return hearty thanks to Coi r Thompson , of Blackheath , near London , for bis Jclod-. off * r to render us assistance ia establishing the point ot Mr . O'Brian ? * election , and that the Secretary be instructed to reply to CoL Thompson ' * letter . '' Movtid by Mr . Braes , seconded by Mr . Fainloogh , "That an address be
issued by the friend * of justice throughout the empire , through the Star , requesting their eo-operation in raising the necessary fuiuis for claiming that seat for James Bronterre O'Brien , Eaq ., ' in the Commons * House of Parliament , to which he was duly and truly elected by the suffrages vt the borough of Newcastle-apon-Tyne , and that Messrs . John Mason and James Sinclair-be appointed to draw out that address . " Mr . Moflatt moved , and Mr . Fainlough . seconded , "That James Sinclair be appointed snlb'trewurer for Mr . O'Brim's Petition Fund . " Me Brace moved , and Mr . Hall seconded , " That a committee be appointed to audit tEe Election Fund accounts , previous to the balancesheet being made out , and that Messrs ^ Frazet and Brace , with . , Mangbwn . asai&io ^ ij ^ ift *** th * t . comtuiUee , bW that the i ) alauc ^ aiieetbe r 8 W » Uo theiftyiAernStar for instrtion . ' ' ¦ - ' . '_ , * ,
ETJNDEttI . AND .--On Sunday afternoon , at the Lite Boat House , Mr . Geo . Btnns delivered aa excellentaddress to a large audience . Lecture bt Mr . Habneiv-On Friday . Jast , this indefatigable , honest ,, and talented missionary in the cause of freedom , visited Sunderlaiid , after aa absence cf nearly two years . This long absence , together with the talent acd manifest zaal of Mr . Hartley , excited a strong and general desire to have a lecture from him ; accordingly , the Arcade Room , the largest in tho town , was engaged for him , and on Friday evening , by the hour appointed for the lecture , it was crammed from eud to end . On the appearance ef Mr . Harney he was greeted with most enthusiastic cheering . He was accompanied by Mr " .
WilliamB , who briefly introduced Mr . H . to the meeting , when Mr . Harney rose , and waa received by loud and continued cheering , which having subsided , Mr . Harney appropriately thanked the meeting for the reception they had given him and complimented the Chartists of Sundertend upon the uoblc position they' had maintained a * the , late borough election . Mr . H . then dashed into the subject of his lecture , beginning by exhibiting arapid , clear , sJashing aud destructive review of the caroer of the Whig 3 , since their acceptance of effice in . 1832 , to th < i period of their iguoin \ niou 3 defeat in 1841 ; proving that they had been one . at the most , if not ( he most treacherous , profligate , and tyrannical administrations , that had ever affected this
unfortunate country . He then searchingly analysed ' the pretences upon which they had dissolved Parliament and exposed the utter inefficiency of the ministerial schema of Commercial Reform , to remove the evils that now afflict us . With reference to the means by which the national expenditure might be brought down to the national income , or the tax receipts of the exchequer , be squared with the Ministerial expenditure , he gave eome valuable instructions to Lord Mo ^ th and the Wkiga . He asked how it was that , accepting effice with a surplus revenue , they bad left it with an annual and increasing deficiency , and by continually increasing tbe debt j and showed that tt was by their pystsm of . foreign and domestic policy : by their intermeddling and
peddling interference in Spain , and Egypt , and , Turkey ; by their tyranny and plunder in India ; their robbery of the Canadian exchequer , and despotic rule in Canada ; and , lastly , by their opium , war in China ; while at home thoy > quandered the public treasure , iu establishing a town and rural police fores ; iathe erection of gaols , station-hon « es , a , nd model pi-ieons ; the employment of spies , traitors , and informers ; the prosecution , imprisonment , and iyrannoua treatment of their country's patriots , &c . lie said , if ^ j » y- wereJionest , they would retrace their steps , and begin the work of retrenchment by reducing tbeir own salaries to UU extent corresponding with the redaction which the working men have had to . sustain . Mr . H . then
passed on to examine what the Tones , who declaimed these things , would do to remedy the evil , and proved , from the -history of that bloody and brutal faction , that they were no better than the Whigs . He advised the people to take their affairs iuto their own haudff , to 6 tand by their own prinoiples , * iid advance their own cause—encouraging them , by exhibiting the rapid progress which Chartism had made ; its present important position , and cheering prospects . He then concluded a long , interesting , and useful address , amidst great applause . Mr . B ' lDns briefly proposed the thanks of the meeting to lir .. I ! aniey , which was earned by acclamation , aad , Mr . H . having acknowledged toe howWr , the meeting concluded . .
Chaiitist Discussiok Class . —On Saiar&qr evening la&t , the members of the Chartist Discussion Class , meeting at Mr . Orwin ' s , New Hopper-street , Bisbopwearmoufch , discussed the following quesfaoa : — ? ' Aro the principles Of the Charter baeed upon truth t" At the commencement of business , Mr . Slater was unanimoHs fy called to tie chair . -He called upon Mr . Anderson , the proposer < to introduce the question , which Mr . A . did in a ne *| andappropriaie speecn . He was followed by Messrs . Dobbie , Taylor , and othew , who , fay the talent de layed , proved the utility el such discussion . After an
ST - . _ . _ . ™ _* . aft ¦ j ^_ r ^'_ ^_ — - — »_ ., ' . ^ . _ ^ animated and instructive debate , the disenwon was closed by Mr . Anderson . We wiouid most strongly recommend our brother Chariista living in that neighbourhood to avail thenwelves of the advantages oi this class ; for not only is the system of discuising political subjects calculated to deepen their knowledge of them , but the general eondnct oi' this class , the spirit of unity that baa ever distinguished them , their liberal aid to the cause , and their untiring zoal , entitles the members of it to honoarable notice . We say this without disparaging theservices rendered by other classes in the town .
SSSGEXi ^? . — -On Monday evening , Mr . Jackson gavo a lecture on the principles of Chartism , and another * - 'U Tuesday evening on the benefits of teetotali .= m , both of which were numerously attended , and were listened to with the greatest satisfaction .
T O T H E Landl O Rd S O F Irel A Nd. I.Btteb In.
T O T H E LANDL O RD S O F IREL A ND . I . BTTEB in .
YOL . IT . yo . 193 . SATURDAY , JULY 34 , 1841 . fBlc >^ SSgfP ^^^' "
, AND LEEDS GENERAL ADVERTBE 1 .
Northern Star (1837-1852), July 24, 1841, page unpag, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/vm2-ncseproduct559/page/1/