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Thames 8 THE JUEAPEB. jSAJUKUAt,
TRADE OF NEUTRALS. The question of the a...
THE FRENCH LOAN. The writer of the City ...
MBKIJCK. AND ENGLISH ALLIANCES. A cobbbb...
NEW METROPOLITAN COMMISSION OF SEWERS.—M...
Prussia And The West. The Berlin Corresp...
of its country permit , to the common work oftbe re-^ ga ? £ e . « r 5 SBTsa « »~ tocpla of Jieima , wljich still form the common basis , are ^ ^ ^ ^ take part in the exchange of the notes of the 8 th of August , she atleast gave her moral B fffi ^ atic concert with the other Powers , there-^ fcconSSnceof transactions with Austria , a . transaction motived by the menacing attitude of Russia , Prussia has even engaged herself , under certain eventualities , tomilitary co-operation . . "Thwe exists , therefore , already , an analogy between the position of Prussia and that of the Powers who signed the treatof December . iS , .
y _ __ _ ,, . ¦ " Prussia is disposed to join in new stipulations , and to come to an understanding , the pacific weight of which would be of a nature to exercise a salutary and decisive influence . ' - _ . , "As regards the treaty of the 2 nd of December , Prussia observes that it bears the stamp of an entente with Austria . Prussia adheres to the gfeneral tendencies of that treaty , and is ready to conclude an analogous arrangement . " With this object , and to fix with certainty eventual decisions , it leads naturally to the question what would be the interpretation of the guarantees which Russia has adopted without any reserve and in their primitive form ( redaction primitive ) . " This interpretation of the guarantees will be the pivot of the diplomatic measures .
, , x . " The more Prussia appreciates the step taken by the Powers who signed the treaty , and the more / desirous she is of responding to the sentiments which dictated that step , the more does she hope to obtain confidential explanations on the interpretation of the guarantees .
Thames 8 The Jueapeb. Jsajukuat,
8 THE JUEAPEB . jSAJUKUAt ,
Trade Of Neutrals. The Question Of The A...
TRADE OF NEUTRALS . The question of the advisability of stopping the trade of neutral powers lias occasioned much discussion . aad ^ tKei unsettled character of our decrees on the subject , and the laxity with which decrees are carried out , has given rise td great dissatisfaction . The non-interference principle is thus argued -against by a correspondent of-the Times • — " If we cannot persuade a -neutral State ( say Prussia ) tojbin our righteous cause , against the common en ^ my of Europewe are surely entitled to do our best to prevent
, that State deriving large Additional revenues from the war . Is it not worse than folly to allow so great a temptation to sinful neutrality to remain undiminished ? The plan proposed for lessening the profits of this iniquitous indifference , and for impeding Russian trade , may not be perfect , no plan is so ; and it may in part injure us also ; still , will it not be wise to lay heavy , duties on all Prussian goods and all goods and vessels from Prussian ports , and on all Prussian vessels entering any British- ( jor-xolomal ) , port , jun ^ join us , at least to the extent of a commercial bloekade . "
The French Loan. The Writer Of The City ...
THE FRENCH LOAN . The writer of the City article in the Times gives the following particulars relative to the French loan of 500 , 000 , 000 francs , or about 20 , 000 , 000 £ sterling : — " The terms at which it is to be issued are considered low , and calculated to draw subscriptions from this side , should such be admitted . The Three per Cents , are to be issued at the rate of 65 J per cent ., and the Four-anda-Half per Cents , at 92 per cent . The payment on subscribing is to be one-tenth , and the remaining instalments are to be spread over the unusually lengthened period of eighteen months . Notwithstanding the delay allowed in the payment of the instalments , the full dividend on the Three per Cents , will date from the 22 nd of December , 1854 , and that on the Four-and-a-Half per Cents , from the 22 nd of September , 1854 , an
arrangement by which the Minuter of Finance calculates that the subscribers will receive a bonus of nearly 3 J per cent , as compared with the present range of prices on the Bourse . Four per cent , discount is also to be allowed to parties wishing to pay up the instalments in advance , but this privilege will be confined at present to subscriptions not exceeding 1000 francs ( say 40 / . ) of annual rente , the object of this arrangement being to prevent large capitalists from deluging the market with the new creation of stock . One of the most interesting features of this national loan is the extent to which facilities are i afforded to small capitalists . Subscriptions to ttitULow amount of ten francs of annual income are actually invited . The lists are to be open from the 8 rd to t h * 14 th of January . "
Mbkijck. And English Alliances. A Cobbbb...
MBKIJCK . AND ENGLISH ALLIANCES . A cobbbbpowdbkt of the Times tt & yB : — '• 11 There exists an impression on the minds of many of our countrymen that' the armies of France and England have never , Bide by side ; ' encountered a common foe , since they stood arrayed under Philip Augustus and our
own lion-hearted monarch against the paynim hosts of Saladih . Permit me to remind your readers that in 1658 , on the declaration of war by Spain , C romwell ( to me the words of Hume , vol . 7 , pages 286-7 , edition ¦
1767 i ' . - " ' Concluded a peace and an alliance with France , and united himself in all his counsels with that potent and ambitious kingdom . . . • He was particularly desirous of conquest and dominion on the Continent , and he sent over into Flanders 6000 men , under Reynolds , who joined the French army under Turenne . Siege was laid to Dunkirk , and when the Spanish army advanced to relieve it , the combined armies of France and England marched out of their trenches , and fought the pa " *** the Dunes , where the Spaniards were totally defeated . The valour of the English was much remarked on this occasion . Dunkirk , being soon after surrendered , was by agreement delivered to Cromwell . ' .- _
^ " Again , on the dissolution of the triple league between England , Sweden , and the United Provinces , and the alliance with the French in 1670 , no less than 10 , 000 Englishmen co-operated with the armies of France against those of Holland and the Imperialists , and these troops Charles II . jtfas by treaty prohibited from recalling from the service of Ze grand monarque , even on the conclusion by him of a separate peace with Holland . Of them it is said that ? they had acquired great honour in every action , and had contributed greatly to the successes of Louis . ( Page 525 ) .
"In the campaign of 1675 the same troops were still to be found ranged under the banners of Turenne , when guarding the French frontier on the Upper Rhine in opposition to his Imperialist rival Montecuculi ; and m the retreat consequent upon the untimely death of that great Marshal , and the assumption of the command by DeLorges , the services of the English troops are thus recorded by the historian : — " 'De Lorges , nephew to Turenne , succeeded him in the command , and possessed a great share of the genius his skilful
and capacity of hi * predecessor . By operations the French were enabled to repass the Rhine without considerable loss , and this retreat was esteemed equally glorious with the greatest victory . The desperate valour of the English troops , who were placed in the rear , contributed greatly to save the French army . They had been seized with equal passion as the native troops of France for their brave general , and fought with ardour to revenge his death on the Germans . _ JThe _ Duke of Marlborough , then Captain Churchill , here learnt the rudiments Of that art which he afterwards practised with such fatal success against France . '" ~
New Metropolitan Commission Of Sewers.—M...
NEW METROPOLITAN COMMISSION OF SEWERS . —MR . F . O . WARD'S STATEMENT ; From the observations on Private-house and District Drainage which we have reported in our two last papers , Mr . F . O . Ward proceeded to state his views on the important questions of Main Intercepting Drainage ( for the dispollution of the Thames ) , and of tHe ' AgriculfuralTTtilisationrof tliesewrtger" ~ The subject of Main Intercepting Drainage , Mr . Ward said , was one which he approached with more than ordinary diffidence , partly because of the many complex considerations involved in the difficult problem itself , partly because it had engaged the
attention of several eminent engineers , in whose opinions he found himself unable * entirely to coincide . And here he was anxious , having been held up as Hostile to the engineering profession , and as haying joined in imputing to members of their body a want of skill and judgment in sanitary matters , to disclaim with all his force any participation in such attacks , and to declare himself , on the contrary , a sincere admirer of that high and honourable profession , for the leading members of which he had always entertained a most sincere and unaffected esteem . Those men had gone forth from this country to every part of the civilised world—they had
covered both hemispheres with railways , docks , harbours , bridges , and other magnificent workseverywhere they had done honour to the English name , and to the genius of British , civilisation ; and he looked up to them as the heroes of glorious victories , gained , not over mere men , but over Nature and the rebellious elements . Nevertheless , if their views appeared to him to require modification , upon any sanitary point , it was his duty to express his opinions frankly , as frankly as he should himself acknowledge any error into which he might bo shown to have fallen
in discussing these vast nnd intricate problems . Now , speaking in a spirit of the utmost deference to the great men who had lent the sanction of their approval to the scheme of Intercepting Tunnels now before them , he must declare his opinion , that that scheme , if executed in its present form , would turn out , witli reference to the main objects In view , a costly failure . He should reserve , for the special debate on this subject , of which Sir J . Shelley had given notice , the detailed development of his reasons for taking 1 this view ; and in the mean time ho would only say that these tunnels would not thoroughly accomplish the
disppllution of theThames , nor improve , as was supposed , the levels of the main sewers , nor put an eneVto the accumulation of deposits , nor effect that beneficial sanitary revolution which powerful organs , of the press had led tha public to expect . Neither the tunnels , no * the . pumping power provided , were adequate to carry away the sewage when swollen by very ordinary showers . Rain-coming down , as it very commonly did , at a greater rate than l-100 th of an inch per hour ( heavy showers , they were aware , came down at the rate of an inch , and and
storms at the rate of two inches upwards , per hour )* all such rain , lie said , would swell the sewage beyond the discharging power of the tunnels , and the excess would flow as heretofore , through the existing outlets into the Thames . This circumstance involved the other evil he had mentioned—the npnimproveraent of theexisting levels of the sewers . The outfalls of the sewers would not , a 8 the public imagined , be lowered , and brought into the deep tunnels . Those outfalls would have to be kept at their present levels in order to discharge the excess of sewage ,
during rainy weather , into the Thames . Thus , the dead level sewers of the south side—sewers which could be flushed either way indifferently , and which were three days emptying themselves when filled by a . storm , so sluggish was their flow—all these would have to remain level , in order that the sewage , when swollen by rains , might pass off into the Thames . So again , the evils of ponding up the sewage would continue whenever rain happened to fall at high water , in quantities exceeding the limited amount capable of being discharged by the tunnels arid raised by the putnping engines . On the other hand , when rain in excess fell at low water , the sewage discharged would be carried some twelve irales up
the river by the rising tide , then thirteen or fourteen miles down with the ¦¦ ' ebbf' then twelve miles up again with the flood , and so on tide after tide , passing the point of discharge half a dozen times , and only working its passage a couple of miles or so down the river at each tide , so as to keep the tide-way of the Thames within the London area polluted with sewage ^ not merely at the moment : of its dischargervbut during " all thes , er subsequent tidal oscillations . Thus , © heday in twelve of sewage-discharge would be tantamount to one day in-ejght of river-pollution . "It waa said , he Ttnew , that the overflow of _ the sewers on these occasions would be mere rain water ; but whoever
had noiiced _ the _ 6 tream issuing from the fceWeifs ' mouths during heavy rain would be able , he thought to judge whether the admission of . such , blacklooking contributions could be held compatible with the desired dispollution of the river . He believed ; on the contrary , that whenever heavy rain followed drought , as often happened in the hot months , vast accumulations of offensive deposit from the more badly sloped of the sewers would be swept to the river ; an evil which the interception of the upland rainfall from the sewers below would tend to in-9 *? 3 *?> J ? y j dirninishing their ^ ordinary ^ scour . And this , be " it observed" might " sometimes" happen " at epidemic seasons , just when a pestiferous outgush
of foul matter would be among the evils most of all to be avoided . Would such a result , he asked himself , satisfy their fellow * citizens ? Would they be content if , after having contributed their three millions sterling , and waited five or six years for the result , they should find the stink of their streets and the befouling of their river only partially abated , not done away with ? For his part , he thought not . He believed that no such partial measures would satisfy the public , who would , he thought , justly consider that if pollution of the Thames were wrong for seven days , it could not be right on the eighth ; and that , if the retention of stagnant deposit under our houses and streets were a recognised source of
disease and mortality , means should be devised for its continual and complete evacuation , at any cost in reason . So again , with respect to the marshy water-logged districts lying near the river , below high-water mark , those districts measured only about 4600 acres , or very little more than onetenth the area of the great Haarlem Lake—a lake which covered 45 , 230 acres , and had formerly an average depth of fourteen feet , which received , moreover , 36 , 000 , 000 tons of rainfall per month-, besides upland flood , and which had been , nevertheless , dried , and was kept dry , by three steamengines of 350 horse-power each , worked at an
expense of only 4500 / . a year . Surely , with such an example before us , we should endeavour to dry the water-logged soil of those low levels , instead of leaving them as at present , for the sake of a few thousands of pounds a year , to remain a sort of sodden swamp in the heart of our metropolis . We employed steam-engines for every conceivable purpose—to transport us on railways and rivers , and across mighty oceans , to weave our clothing , to produce a thousand articles of use or luxury , among other , tilings , to pump water into our towns ; why should we be niggardly in the application of a few hundred , or oven , if needful , a few thousand horsepower , to dry the soil of our cities , and to rid ue . of
Leader (1850-1860), Jan. 6, 1855, page 8, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/l/issues/cld_06011855/page/8/