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atreams as also by all the links of a community of more than a thousand years , to cutoff ^ ransy lvania , and to Sve it up to the neighbouring Wallachia , to cut out , 4 ike Shvlock , one pound of our very breast—the Banat—and + h / rich country between the Danube and Theisd—to aueirient by it Turkish Serbia * and so forth . It is the new ambition of conquest , but an easy conquest , not by arms but by language . Sojnuch I know , at least , that this absurd idea cannot , and will not , be advocated by anv man here in the United States , which did "not'open its hospitable shores to humanity , " and greet the flocking
millions of emigrants with the right of a citizen , in order that the Union may be cut to pieces , and even your single states divided into new-framed / independent countries by and according to languages . And do you know , gentlemen , whence this absurd theory sprung upon the E uropean continent ? It was the idea of Panslavismthat is the idea that the mighty stock of Sclavonic races is called to rule the world , as pnce the Roman did . It was a Russian plot—it wasthe infernal idea to make out of national feelings a tool to Russian preponderance over the world . " >
HUNGARIAN REQUIREMENTS . ^• Xstate clearly my own and my nattoli ' srulingTjrinciole even in respect to the claims of the nationalities of languages ; and that it is—we shall have republican institutions , founded on universal suffrage , and so the majority of the sovereign people shall rule in every respect in the village , in the city * in the country , in the Congress , and Government- ^ in all and everything . What to the public concerns of the Tillage , of the city , of the country , of the Congress belongs—self-goVeriiment everywhere—the people sovereign everywhereAand universal suffrage and the rule of the majority everywhere . This is pur principle , for which we live and are ready to die That is the cause for which I humbly request the
protecting aid of the people of the United States , and chiefly your aid and protection , gentlemen—you , the mighty engineers of the public opinion of your glorious land ! Let me entreat you , gentlemen , to accord this protection 1 o the cause of my down-trodden land ; it is the curse of oppressed humanity on the European continent . I know how Italy stands , and I dare confidently declare there is n 6 hope for Italy but in that great republican party , at the head of which Mazzini stands . It has nothing to do with pommunistical schemes or the rrenchddctrines of Socialism . But it wills Italy independent , free , and republican . Gentlemen , the generous sympathy of the public opinion of the United States-God be blessed for it!—is strongly roused to the Wrongs
and sufferings of Hungary . Mjrrhumble task in that respect is done . Now , I look . Jpr your- generous aid to keep that generous sympathy-alivepthat it may not subside like the passing emotion of the heart . . 1 look for your generous aid to * urge the formation of societies , to collect funds , and to Create a loan . I look for your generous aid to urge the public opinion of the sovereign people of the United States , to pronounce in favour of the cause I represent . . r • • • . .... . The power of Hungary will become the indispensable basis of freedom in the nations of Europe . The great ; enemy of that freedom is Russia . Austria is its satellite ; leaning on its aid , Austria ja l going _ to _ crush . downItaly . Now , can Hungary be a barrier to oppose Che power of
Russia ? I answer , yes . You are a nation of 20 , 000 , 000 . and have an organized militia of 3 , 000 , 000 . Hungary is a nation of 15 , 01 ) 0 , 000 . Then it can at least have 1 , 000 , 000 of organized citizen soldiers , I hope . That is the positive basis of these Hopes for Hungary , that it can be a barrier to Russia against its encroachment . The negative basis is the weakness of Russia itself . Russia is not so strong as in public opinion it is taken ordinarily to be . The whole power which Russia can raise consists of 750 , 000 men . But you must consider that it has an immense territory—h . territory , the population of which is oppressed . Tranquillity and the order of the grave , and not the order of contentment , can , be only kept in Russia itself by the armed
power of the Czar . -Now , it is not much when I say that at least 200 , 000 or 250 , 000 men are needed to keep up the tranquillity in the interior of Russia itself . It wants 100 , 000 men to guard its frontiers , which extend from Silesia down to Turkey . 100 , 000 it needs , at least , to keep down that heroic spirit of oppressed Poland ,. ( Cheers . ) Now , take- all this together , and you will see that Russia scarcely cannot , at the utmost , employ 300 , 000 men for a foreign war ; and really in no case did it ever employ more . History lies before us and in the greatest . struggle for life and existence it has Hot been able to employ more in a foreign war . No ; the 1 , 000 , 000 of citizen soldiers of Hungary would not need to be so brave as they are , in order to be a match for thia 300 , 000 . ( Cheers . ) And therefore , at the flrst organization of this 1 , 000 , 000 of soldiers , should once more the Czar have the arrogant intentidn to put nia foot on mankind ' s neok as he dared to have the te
merity to do , this power would break upon him on hia nm attempt upon Hungary . And not only break upon ins army , but would assault and attaok Russia , and carry * , tho danger to himself ; and it would find mighty a , 8 * n tl > e Russian empire—first in its financial embarrassments . For you know , gentlemen , that even alter the . short war in Hungary ,. Russia was obliged to K , Zi I !?* En elan <* . We look also for our allies in Russia , the , oppression of the nation . Of course every nl ! Ollk 7 ? 1 ( i bo f 9 "owed by those who arc S J , " 4 ^ ey would be ready also ., the Polish nation and others , tp be our allies ; for this oppression T ?»«« f reBtr . 10 ted to Poland , but is Bpread over the feS ? empire \ Lithuania , Wallaohiarand Ukrania . Tlusallproves that the might of Russia is not bo immense llanlJH ? aU 8 e of totimMatlob to those who are 82 SS ? ? JW i caU 80 > And be sure , Hungary onoo libertv /* , wduld never more dare to threaten European this £ „ <> fr * - ) But if Russia is really so weak as in erKl ^ l " ™ ^ aBk y ° » M « 8 « to » t Russian Jaterforence , Tfo neoeaoity of my humble request is
because Bussia lias her army now , so very near , only about thirty hours distant from Hungary , and that great army stands prepare d to move , at whatever time , to crush the liberties of Hungary ; and , being so near , these 300 , 000 men would crush Hungary > before . we had time to organize and develope our forces . Once organized and developed , my Hungary fears not their power . ( Cheers ^ 1 'hese are the great objects for which I seek . the support of the United States , to check and not permit Russian interference in Hungary , because that Hungary may 'have an opportunity to organize her strength against Russian despotism and barbarity . This is the reason that I ask the United States to become the executive power to
recognize the right of every nation to dispose of itself . This is the only glory , gentlemen , which is yet wanting to the list of your glorious stars . The people of the United States , paving successfully asserted their own independence and freedom , have scarcely any other calling than to become the assertors of freedom equally for other lands ; and I confidently "hope , that being your condition , that you will not deny me , gentlemen , your generous support in carrying out that great principle of non-interference , and-alsp _ ofIno ^ allpmng ^ any interference in the new struggle of Hungary for freedom and independence , which is already felt in the air , and is pointed out by the finger of God Himself . My second humble request is " one which I most firmly believe you
will admit , which , is to secure the commerce of the United States with every people , whether in revolution or not . It is so much my interest ; it is your right , and I hope that the militia of the United States will ever be ready to support and protect the right of your citizens , as from both those ships , the staf-spanglea banner of which was sent over for * me to Asia , it was proclaimed there is a power iii the United States ready to protect the rights of oppressed humanity . ( Cheers . ) My third humble claim is to see recognized the legitimate character of the declaration of Hungarian independence . The militia of the United States fought and bled for that principle of independence in your own country . So I suppose that by the glory of your predecessors , by all the blessings
which have followed from your struggle for independence—byall these blessings which make your glory and happiness , you , gentlemen , will feel inclined to support my humble claim for the recognition -of the independence of my native land . As to the financial aid , that is a matter of delicate consideration , which » I entirely leave to you generosity ; bu'tFavail" myself of this opportunity to prorfbim that it is not my design to get money to Qiarry oi ^ ar in Hungary , but only to have some material financial aid by the help of which we could succeed to come into the condition not unprepared to meet the opportunity which I hope God soon will give . ^ There is a great difference in these two words . If once war breaks out , my nation will find resources in themselve s
to carry on the war . To become prepared to meet the opportunity , not only in that , but in every other respect , we want the aid of generous men and . free nations ; because Hungary is now oppressed and has no public life , and the slightest manifestation of patriotic feeling is considered a crime for which the scaffold and hangman wait . I here declare that if I should be so happy as to obtain your financial aid through the generosity-of-the people of the United States , I will never employ it in such a planner as is not permitted by your laws ; because I not only will respect , but am firmly determined to aid not
your laws . It is out of this motive that I will even solicit the formation of an armed expedition for Hungary . Yet , perhaps , the generous disposition of the people of the United States would offer some opportunity even for this . But when the time comes , when we fight the battle of freedom and independence once more , I confidently hope that out of the generous ranks of the gallant militia of the United States , there will be found single men who , out of their own will , without my interference , will be glad to share the glory of the battle of freedom and humanity . ( Deafening cheers . )"
MINISTERIAL VIEWS . From the Morning Chronicle of Monday , Ministerially opposed to the Anglo-American alliance , we extract a passage which amounts to a confession of the progress of that idea which we have long been strenuously advocating . " The vote of the American Senate , and the speeches which preceded it , indicate a signal change in the policy of the United States in its dealings with foreign powers . The young Democracy , in the insolence of its _ strength and its prosperity , has begun to feel that it has ' a mission . ' The wise maxims of Washington are . no longer respected ; and America is become ambitious of the dangerous glory of intervention in the affairs of
other countries . Wo are told that the principles recommended by the founders of the Republic served well enough before ' the infant Hercules had developed its strength ; and intervention in favour of Republicanism is now suggested as the legitimate expression of the ' progress' of the United States . If such doctrines were adopted in practice by any nation , however powerful , theiy would , inevitably bring upon it the most condign punishment ; but it is nevertheless painful to observe that the sound principles , laid down by the old school of American statesmen , are so completely
discarded by their descendants . By the / resolutions referred to , the American Legislature entirely . abandons the position of . neutrality , with regard to tho domestic disputes of foreign states , which it isinoumbent upon the Government of a friendly power to maintain . Congress , in receiving Kossuth , receives one who has boen proclaimed a traitor by Austria , and tho sympathy of that Assembly rests mainly upon the fact of his having attempted to establish a form of Government , analogous , in name at least , to that of the Union . Such acts are obviously incompatible with friendly relations with , the Cabinet of Vienna : and we would ask whether the United States ate prepared to push their principle * still further ,
and to support , * by Congressional action ' the cause of Mazzini and Ledru Rollin J . : '•*• ¦¦ At present , foreign politics are the popular subject of political excitement in the United States ; and it is easy to understand that , for electioneering purposes , Such topics are far more convenient than any other topic which could be selected for popular declamation . In the approaching Presidential election much use will be made of the part taken by America in , the liberation of Kpssufh ; antf this is ind ; doubt the reason why so many of the leading statesmen of the Union have manifested
such an alacrity in departing from the traditional policy of the country . But , after giving full weight to such considerations , we must still recognize the fact , that a great change has come over the people of the . United States , and that they are now excited by the ambition of making the power of America felt in Europe . The triumphal progress of Kossuth , and the homage paid him by all classes in the Republic , will not fail to stimulate this feeling , and to mark more distinctly than has yet . been done the antipathy subsisting between Republican America and the despotic countries of Continental Europe . "
^ Mr . ^ W # lker , _ o £ JWasconsin , has moved the ^ fpllqwing preamble and resolutions in the Senate :-r " Whereas the signs of the times are portentous of an approaching struggle in Europe , between the Republican masses for constitutional government on the one side , and the advocates of monarchy or absolute government on the other ; and whereas it pressingly behoves the representatives of the people of the United Sovereign States of America seriously to consider and betimes to inquire into the relations of the Government and country to this struggle , and their duty in view of it to themselves , to foreign nations , and the - international law ; therefore ,
"Be it resolved , &c * , that the committee on foreign relations be instructed to inquire into , and report upon the expediency of an open declaration by Congress , to foreign nations and the world , that the United States hold strictly to the policy and principle that each individual nation , state , or power , possesses for itself the exclusive right and sole power to take care and dispose of its own internal concerns , without the intervention and interference of any foreign Government , State , confederacy , alliance , or power whatsoever , and that any such intervention or interference by or on the part of any foreign Government , State , confederacy , alliance , or power , constitutes ail infraction of the law of nations , authorising and justifying the interposition of any or all other Governments , confederacies , or powers , at their discretion , toj > revent such intervention , and to repair such infraction of the law of nations .
c < Resolved further , that the same committee be instructed to inquire also into the . -: pediency of requesting the President of the United" States to cause negotiations to be opened with all other constitutional Governments , with a view . and to the end of obtaining their cooperation , with the United States in the declaration aforesaid , and in the policy and principle thereof , and in the observance , defence , and maintenance of the law of nations in this respect . "
The vessel Arctic , which arrived with files of papers up to the 20 th ;~ brings some news of the movements of Kossuth . also . He left New York on the 20 th for Philadelphia , whence he proceeds to Baltimore , and thence to Washington ; and , after getting what practical aid he can from Congress and the Government , he will then visit Cincinnati , of whose citizens he has expressed such warm admiration , although he does not like the sobriquet of their city , " Queen of the West . "
THE CASE OF THE ENGINEERS . The Amalgamated Society of Engineers , Machinists , &c , held a public meeting on Tuesday night , at the Hall of Commerce , Threadneedle-street , " to discuss the present state of the iron trades , and the position of the society in relation thereto ; " or , as was indicated in another handbill , publicly to contradict certain assertions put forward by the employers , and set themselves right with the public . The hall was crowded . Mr . J . Musto , the chairman of the Executive Council , presided , and briefly opened the proceedings by calling on Mr . W . Newton , to explain the present position of the society and to state what had been done .
Mr . Newton was very heartily received . He said that they had been compelled to call public attention to their affairs , in consequence of the attempt made to mislead public opinion and misrepresent the intentions of the council . " The combination of employers started at Manchester was either misled by the statement of Messrs . Hibbert _ andPlatt , of Oldham , or was based upon known untruths , but the combination was formed upon tho ground that the workmen of Messrs . Hibbort and Platt were about to do an . act of injustice to their employers . The matter had been discussed . in the newspapers , and the society had been represented as insisting—( 1 ) upon the abolition
of systematic " overtime / ' and ( 2 ) the discontinuance of " piecework "; ( 3 ) with claiming that the masters should at once -and without reserve discharge the class , of persons engaged in , and long trained to , the working of self-doting •• machines , - and employ in their stead mechanics , members of the union ; and , further ( 4 ) , according to ' Amious / ' tho council were prepared to advocate an equalization of the rate or wages ; to lend themselves , in fuot , to an agitation for a trial of the ingenious dootrines of M . Louis Blanc' Now , tho first two of those propositions were the propositions of the society . ( Hear , near . ) The third was never made by them , and the intention attributed to them of equa- » Using wages was as foreign , from their objects and
Jak . 3 , 1852 . ] ^ S
Leader (1850-1860), Jan. 3, 1852, page 5, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/l/issues/vm2-ncseproduct1916/page/5/