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Hussars of the Guard , and by the Racletzky Regiment of Hussars formerly stationed at Odessa , From , this it would seem that Gontsehakoff does not suffer from want of provisions . Large bodies of troops are being marched from the Crimea into Bessarabia ; but their places will we filled by other troops from the reserve , and by the militia . General Gortsehakoff , it is said , will be replaced in the Crimea by Count Osten-Saeken , and the former will resume the command of the troops on the Danube . The allied gunboats which remained at Kmburn have been frozen in .
The fortunes of the Russians seem to be looking up a little . Their success at Kars has been followed by a trifling victory near Kerteh , in . the vicinity of which , on the 16 th of December , two sotnias of Cossacks of the Black Sea defeated a squadron of General Vivian's Anglo-Turkish cavalry . The commander of the squadron ( an English officer ) ana forty-seven men were made prisoners . Such is the Russian account . The Czar ' s troops in the Crimea have been reinforced by a regiment of
Notwithstanding the continued efforts for peace on the part of Austria , it is quite certain that Russia is making gigantic efforts to carry on the war . The Czar has ordered a fresh appeal to be issued , summoning the peasants of the Crown domains to form fresh regiments of sharpshooter ^ to bear the name of the Imperial family . The Ministry of War has advertised for tenders for the
supply of one hundred am ! thirty-nine complete mortar-carriages , and fittings for an immense number of others . All are to be delivered early in the spring . 5 , 280 cwts . of ordnance are to " delivered at Archangel , and the arsenal is ready to contract for the delivery of 200 , 0001 bs . of Russian lead . Similar advertisements are appearing daily in the Gazette .
In order to conciliate the Poles , the Government has authorized a commutation of the rohat ( compulsory services of the peasants on the lords' demesne , payments in kind , &c ) , terminable in three years . An imperial ukase orders a new coinage of copper to the amount of three millions of silver roubles , to be commenced as soou as the issue previously ordered shall have been completed , and ,
in . conformity with a new ukase , the non-commissioned officers of the navy , who , in consequence of their wounds , can no longer serve on board the fleet , will be employed in the batteries destined to defend the coasts of the Baltic in the approaching campaign . The defence of Cronstadt is confided to Prince Menschikoff , who is created . Military Governor .
Omar Pacha has retreated , and , according- to some accounts , has returned to Souchum-Kaleh , renouncing his intention to attack Kutais . The Journal de Constantinople states that , on the 5 th of December , Omar ' s army was encamped on tin ' s side of the river Siva , and that its advance was rendered impossible by the overflowing of tbat river . This was its position in the middle of last November ; but , whether or not the Turkish General ever advanced beyond that spot , it seems improbable that he will at present venture to come into contact with the victorious Muscovites . Ilia
alleged retreat is said to have been caused by a proclamation of General MouraviefF , calling the entire population of Imcrctia , Guricl , and Mingrelia , to wage a war of extermination against " the enemies of tlie Cross . " Some speculations on " the present position of Omar Pacha are contained in the Vienna Military Gazette , where we read : — " It is probably no longer doubted by any ono that our correspondent « t Trebizond was well informed when he wrote that Omar Pacha had not for weeks lost eight of tbe Politic oonst , and that ho had not aclvancod further than tho small town of Chopi , ou
Pacha ' s service . It is possible that a re-embarkation of the troops is to be made . " Muataj&a Pacha bas , in a similar way , retreated to Batouin , in order to pass the winter in that unhealthy coast * station . As we cannot suppose Omar Pacha means to persist in wintering where he is at present , seeiug that he is exposed to the danger of being attacked by the Russians , and unable to make *» pr great , resistance , Anaklea and Redout KaJsfti being * , only small forts , it is highly probable th&fc the ^ ntiM Turkish ) army will be brought to the
Ifcoumejian harbpurs , and stationed there in winter quarters . The Russians too will do do more tlian garrison Kai « , and will not advance ou the offensive in the wide radius between the Western and the Eastern Euphrates . General MouravieffLas detached oue division to Aehalkalak and Ackalzik , whilst another division lias escorted the captured garrison of Kai : & to Tiflis . The Pachas , and a few superior officers , will be tsransfex ' red to Moscow ; the remaining officers , with the men , will probably have to yas * the winter in the government of Tiflis . "
From Erzeroum , intelligence is contradictory- It is said that many persons have abandoned the city in the fear of a Russiau attack , and have taken refuge at Trebizond ; but the Journal de Constantinople affirms that the garrison of Erzeroum amounts to 16 , 000 men , and that the Egyptian contingent will raise that number to 27 , 000 , while other corps sent there from different points will place the Turkish forces at 35 , 000 men . Another authority states that Erzeroum is abundantly supplied with provisions , and possesses an excellent artillery .
As a reproof to the idea of peace being at all probable or even desirable , the Siecle has been blowing a tremendous war-trumpet , and , strange to say , chiefly as regards England . There can be no repose for England , says the Paris journal , until the utter destruction of Cronstadt , and of the Baltic fleet be effected . When people talk about peace , the Siecle simply points to the Baltic It is no time , says the writer , to talk about tlie s » fetv
of the English empire in India : England herself may be imperilled . The Baltic menaces England ; and " peace will not and cannot be made so long as there exist , within a few hundred leagues of London , fortresses reputed impregnable , which can send out fleets as numerous as those of France un . d England put together . " But the English nation has seen the danger , and exclaims , " War , war to the end ! war for ' our Salvation !"
Such is the trumpet-note of the Sie ' cle . That the estimate of the Russian Baltic fleet is greatly exaggerated there can be no doubt ; for why did not this overwhelming armament forcibly raise the blockade ? But that Russia is vigorous * and energetic in north and south , east and west , is very evident ; and England and France will have to look narrowly to the future .
CAMP GOSSIP . This will be a joyous Christinas , as fur aa it cau be away from friends and home . Solitary subalterns ride out to Miskomia , aud gaze gloomily on the beautiful mistletoe which grows on all the wild pear aud apple trees in these lovely valleys , but their conteutmeut returns when th « y think of the fat goose who , tied by tho log , is awaiting his doom by tho kitchen tent or bakehouse , or of the tender pig , who has boon reared up from his childhood for the solo object of doing honour to the corning feast , and who is "just fit to be killed . " Already contrasts are drawn between dinners iu the trenches , on dreary outposts , on remote cruards
and pickets last year , and the luxuries which ure forthcoming for the grand English festival . Men remember "that tough old turkey , which oast 40 a ., and that turned the edge of the carver liko plate gloss , " and laugh over tho fate which soomod somehow to attend most efforts to be jolly last Chriatmaa , and thon turn and look round their huts , which arc generally , it rauBt bo confessed , -very like retail grocers' establishments , backwood stores , or canteenmon ' a magazines ; tho shelves which arc placed along tho walls in layers , tho cupboards made of pvokingcftsos or powder-boxes , aro filled with pates in . Str isburg ware , hams , tins of soups and lKOHerves , mnrti :
dishes , vegetables , long-necked bottles of French manufacture ., and tho stumpier sturdier work of the English glaesblower . There is a stove or some nubotituto for a fireplace in each hut , and it ulwuyn onjoyn tho advantage of a famous draught from tho door and walls . As to tho latter , tho onYbellishmontH upon them wile away many un idle hour , and afford opportunities for the oxorciBQ of taste , good and bad , tho monuments of which must pQriah with the spring . They ooneist chiefly of illustrations from tho pictorial paperw of Punch , which arc transposed ingeniously by the introduction of faoeB , figures , and bits out of different engrATings , with tho view of giving them a ludicrous or whimsical character , and tho result is
the right bank of tho little river bearing tho same name . Skondor Pacha , it is true-, advanced along tho excellent road that runs to Abasha , but did not venture further than Tchonitzeiitilo * . Ho only did thia for the purpose of nsoortitinisig whether or no tho Rusnians , under tho oonunaud of General Bagration Muharski , aud reinforced , by tho troops of General Brunnor , lind taken up a position in Lovano and
Kutyri ou the left bank of that river . Having < lone thin , Omar Pacha decided on retreating to Redoubt Kaloh and Anaklai . It having at tbe same time beoome known that tho Russian commander intended Bonding to Mingrelia all tho troops collected iu tho fluvial ditttriotH of tho mountains near Oori , ho that they may act on tho oflanmv « , tho Turkish Admiral , Ahmet Pftoha , received orders to plaoo all tho disposable Turkish and Egyptian steamers at Omar
2 THE LEADER , [ No 302 , Saturdat _
they have come to it by degrees , sinc « it saved that counter-burst of indignation , which we apprehended . President Pierck had issued a proclamation , warniag the citizens that they would be outlawed should they join the buccaneering expedition which General Walker is understood to be leadingupon Nicaragua from the West . " We do not understand the relation of that ady 4 iBturous leader with Colonel Kinnev ,. who is i& > i ^ sidence and in agitation among the fcjbsquito people . The real
difference between them appears to be simply a geographical distinction . Walker operates from the West —KrNNEYinoperates from the East j but both evidently have it in design to convert Nicaragua Into a Texas , with ultimate Yankee objects ?^ The true assistant in that design has been our Government , which , instead of maintaining frank and cordial relations with the Government of the United States , lias placed itself in a position that
renders English and Americans almost necessarily antagonistic in that quarter . Both English and Nicaraguans had already become antagonistic . Thus in Nicaragua , England appears the encroacliing state , while the restraint that might be placed upon the annexationists from Washington , is enfeebled by the fact that the English Government has rendered itself anti-American . The English in Nicaragua , therefore , appear to be fighting at once the Nicaraguans and Americans .
The last published accounts of the revenue are satisfactory , according to the orthodox view of such tables , but according to no other view . They show that i-evenue does not keep pace with expenditure . We had succeeded in extracting for the year 1854 arewnue of , € 56 , 000 , 000 ; for 1855 , ^ 64 , 000 , 000 j besides that , we spent last year .= £ 16 , 000 , 000 on loans , altogether , ^ 80 , 000 , 000 , and yet it is understood the expenditure is still greater . The satisfactory view is derived from the circumstance that there is an increase on the year of ^ 8 , 130 , 000 ; if there is a deficiency of . ^ 3 , 800 , 000 , the question is , ujrhat has been done for all that naoney ? There has been no stinting ; but , has the money ' s worth been got ?
Poisoning cases are becoming common , but none rival . 3 in interest the Rugeley case , whichappears to be complicated with other crimes by the same hand . Coroners are inquiring into the deaths of Walter and Mary Palmer , the brother and wife of the sporting surgeon , who now lies in Stafford gaol Insurance offices are withholding sums payable on policies taken out by Palmer ; and the detective police have hunted up the strange story of " George Bates , Esq ., " on whose life Palmer had proposed to effect an insurance . There has been no > death in that particular case , and yet the tale is one of the
most revolting in its suggestions . Inspector Tield goes down to Itugeley in search of George Bat es , Esq ., whose life William Palmer had proposed to insure for a large sura . The Insurance officers had become curious to know for what purpose William Palmer insured the life of that particular gentleman . Everybody knows the principle of insuring a life ; this power of purchasing a future advantage , subject to a chance , has suggested a very economical form of saving—such is the insurance premium . But it may also be converted into a form of gambling . Stipulate with some Insurance office
tliat you are to have a given sum on the death , say , of your sister ; pay the money for a few quarters ; let the sister die , and you gain immensely by tlie transaction . That was the principle of the now illustrious Wain ^ right . The case , no doubt , supplied the hint for the Insurance office , and Inspector Field was sent down to inquire about ' * George Bates , Esq ., a gcntloman of property , with a good wine-cellar 1 " "George Bates , Esq ., " was discovered in the act of cleaning out Pa-lmer's stables ! He had beard something of
Mr . Palmrk ' s intention to insure his life , and probably thought — simple man ! — that his life would bo tl \ c surer for the operation ; besides , he was to have so me money for himself , and so he " had left it all to Mr . Palmer . " Perhaps tlie social history of this country never presented to us a more curious picture than tfmt of Inspector Field surveying the healthy countenance of " George Bates , Esq ., " whilst he— honest man !—was telling how he " left all that to- Mr . Paumkk , " - quite unconscious of the fate which hie London visitor could so distinctly truce out for him .
Leader (1850-1860), Jan. 5, 1856, page 2, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/l/issues/vm2-ncseproduct2122/page/2/