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for this than for his talents . Having long enjoyed what is most valuable among men , virtue and glory , he at length closed his life in that peace which he had ever sought , and in that advanced age which seems to be the recompense of virtue , and the consequenee of a tranquil life . "
Condition of the Jews in Rome . ( From a review of hyman ' s ' < Political State of Italy , " in the game number . )
Paul IV . confined the Jews to a quarter of Rome , on the left bank of the Tyber , near the theatre of Marcellus , where they still live ; this quarter is called Ghetto . * It is separated by walls and five gates from the other parts of the city ; every night , about
an hour after sun-set , these gates are shut by the guard of the city , and not opened again till next morning at sunrise . During the French times , a perfect liberty of residence was allowed the Jews ; but since the restoration ,
they have been driven back to their ancient limits , enjoying only the small privilege of keeping shops within two hundred yards of the gates of the Ghetto . These Ghettos are now only
known m Rome , though in the other cities of Italy the Jews , for the most part , continue to live in a particular quarter , either from habit or of their own accord . Their number in
Rome is about 4 , 500 . It cannot he ascertained exactly , as there is no return of this population ; and owing to their habits of life , and the size of their families , the common methods of calculation do not apply to them . They are poor , degraded , reviled and scoffed at , by the Christians , who call them
" Sorneri , " ( asses , ) while the Turks , in their turn , call the Christians " dogs . " Nevertheless , the government protects them from insult and injury , though it compels them to live in a filthy and unwholesome part of the city , and denies them the rights and privileges of Roman citizens . The Jews , in Rome , are in great poverty ; the richest among
* * ' Ghet , " amorig th £ Jews , is the name of the act of divorce when they repudiate their wives , founded upon this verse of Deuteronomy ( chap . xxiv . 1 ) : " Then let him write a bill of divorcement , and give it into her hand , and send her out ofhls-houqe . "
- ^^ . ^ The Nonconformist * No . XXI . Thoughts on Freedom in Matters of Opinion . NO subject can offer a wider field for inquiry , than the disposition to controul the opinions of others which has existed among mankind hi all ages . _
It is easy enough to perceive that property would furnish a temptation to violence in a very early stage of society ; but it is not quite so easy to explain all the encroachments which have been made on the right of private judgment .
True it is , that by far the greater number of even these aggressions may be traced to the love of property ; for certain classes of men soon begin to draw wealth and rank from the opinions of society , which acquisitions they would lose if the public mind were drawn into a new course : but this
principle , although so powerful , will scarcely account for all the persecution which has been raised against reason whenever she ventured to oppose fashionable creeds . Instances will readily occur to every mind , of unjust opposition which could not have been
generated by any fear of losing the solid proceeds of orthodoxy . The great dislike , as it appears to me , that persons feel to have their opinions impugned , results , in a great measure , from the manner in which they are
usually made up . The number wbo have imbibed any part of their creed , religious or political , from a careful examination of the arguments on which it is founded , must be very few . It is the condition of our nature to believe ,
before it is possible we should have had an opportunity of collecting evidence . In philosophy , we examine first , and believe last ( if at all ) 5 but in common life , we often believe first ,
and examine , if at all , afterwards . The habit of what may be called unphilosophical belief , is of necessity among the earliest we form . I much doubt if any man has time ( I am sure few have inclination ) to try , link by link , every chain of reasoning in every proposition to which he has given bis
— them keeping only a small shop for the sale of cloth and grain . ^
452 The Nonconformist . No . XXI .
Monthly Repository (1806-1838) and Unitarian Chronicle (1832-1833), Aug. 2, 1821, page 452, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/mruc/issues/vm2-ncseproduct2503/page/12/