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January 3, 184C. 6 THE NORTHERN STAR, _ ...
MR. CALHOUN TO MR. PAKENHAMf Department ...
An Lion Sibam Frigate. — A most magnific...
TIIE YARMOUTH MURDER. EXAMINATION OF YAH...
SUICIDE AND ATTEMPTED MURDERS THROUGH DE...
HAPPY ENGLAND! Extbeub DESTiTUiioN. -Lat...
Another Larch Bask Robbery.-—A package c...
THE SOUTH »«'»"""' «...««.,, The South S...
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The Cape of Good Hon'. — We understand, ...
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January 3, 184c. 6 The Northern Star, _ ...
January 3 , 184 C . 6 THE NORTHERN STAR , _ . - ^
AMERICAN At'tfAlKS .
THE OREGON QUESTION . JHTiOMATJC CORKESrOSDEXCE BETWBEX THE bmush AND AMERICAN tiOVEtlXUKNTS . The papers brought by the Cambria contains the whole of the diplomatic correspondence between the American and British ministers , upon the Oregon question . As this correspondence , if given entire , would occupy nearly three pages of ibis journal , we must confine ourselves to a statement of the chief grounds on which the claims of the respective parties arc asserted and denied .
It appears from the despatches of Messrs . Calhoun and Buchanan , that the American government makes two separate claims . First , it claims the possession of the whole of the Oregon territory . This claim it founds on the fact of its having obtained from Spain , iu the year 1819 , by the Florida treaty , a surrender of all rights possessed by that country north of the 42 ud deg- of N . latitude , and also in 28 ( 13 , bv the treaty of Louisiana , the whole of the territory in North America formerly belonging to Trance ' ScronA , it claims an exclusive right to that part o f the Oregon territory which is watered by the Columbia river , on the ground that Captain Gray , a citizen of the United States , was the first to pass the bar of that river in the ship Columbia , of Boston , on the 11 th of Mav , 1792 , when he sailed twenty-five
miles up it , and gave it its name Columbia , after Ms ship ; and on the further ground , that one of the branches of the upper part of the river was explored by Lewis and Cl-wkc , the well known American travel ! , rs , in the year 1 S 05 . They state that the consequence of that exploration was the formation , in 1 S 11 , of the settlement of Astoria , by Mr . John Jacob Astor , the well known American merchant , which settlement , after having been occupied by tho British , during the last American war , was restored at the end of it , under the first article of the treaty ef Ghent , which provided tbatall territories , places , and possessions , whether taken by either party from the other during the war , or which maybe taken after the signing of the treaty , excepting certain islands in the Bay of Fundy , should he restored without d .-Ia-r .
The Btitisu Ambassador first proceeds altogether to deny the claim of the United States to the possession of the Columbia valley , on the grounds of discovery and exploration . He contends that on this ground the British Government can make out a better claim to the territory tk « n the United States , and that the whole argument which the American Gjverament founds on the discovery of the Columbia River by Captain Gray is in direct contradiction to that on which it rests its claim to the rest of the territory , namely , that Spain possessed an undoubted right to the whole of this territory , which right was made over to the United States by the treaty of Florida in 1319 . He maintains that if the United
States Government is correct in asserting that the whole ten itory in dispute belonged to Spain at the time when Captain Gray entered Columbia River , then Captain Gray merely entered upon a territory which belonged of right te another state , and could not confer any title on the government of his own cauntry . He also contends that if at the time when Captain Gray made his voyage the country belonged neither to Spain nor any ono else , then Spain having bo right of her own , could confer none to the United States by the treaty of Florida . In reply to this efforts are made by the American negotiators to show that though Spain had no right on this coast in 1 VS 9 which could prevent Captain Gray from establishing an absolute ifeht to the mouth of the Columbia
River and the whole of the region traversed by its waters , yet that it had rights , founded ' on the undisputed possession of centuries , authorising itto transfer the whole of the territory , the Oregon valley included , to the United States , by the treaty of Florida . In discussing the claim of the United States to the whfile of the Oregon territory , the American Government relics first on the rights obtained from France , by the treaty of Louisiana , in 1 S 03 . On this point Mr . Colhoun savs : —
The cessioa of Louisiana give us undisputed title west of the Mississippi , extending to the summit of the R- < cky Mountain ? , and stretching south between that river and those mountains to the possessions of Spain , the line between which and ours was afterwards determined by the treat * of Florida . It also added much to the strength o ' four title to the region bey-md the Rocky Mountains , by restoring to us the important link of continuity westward to the Pacific , which had been surrendered by the treaty of 1763—as will be hereaftcrshown .
In answer to this claim , Mr . Pakenham says : — Tlie claim derived from France originates in the treaty of 1 S 03 , by which Louisiana was ceded to the United States , with all its rights and appurtenances , as fully and iu the same manner as they had been acquired by the French republic ; and the claim derived from Spain is founded on the treaty concluded with that power in the year 1810 , wherebv his Catholic Majesty ceded to the United States ail his ri-hts claims , aud pretensions to the territories lying east aud north of accrtaln line terminating on the Pacific , in the forty-second degree of north latitude . Departing from the order in which these three separate claims are presented by the American
nlenipotentiary , the British plenipotentiary will first beg leave to observe , with regard to the claim derived from France , that he has not been able to discover any evidence tending to establish the belief that Louisiana , as originally possessed by France , afterwards transferred to Spain , then retroceded by Spain to France , and ultimately ceded by the latter power to the United States , extending in a westerly direction beyoud the Rock y Mountains . There is , on the other hand , strong re-ison to suppose that , at the timewhea Louisiana was ceded to the United States , its acknowledged western boundary was the Rocky tains
Moun . Such appears to have been the opinion « f Presicent Jefferson , under whose auspices the aequLdtiouot Louisiana was ccomplished . in a letter written by him in August , IS 03 , are to ha f ound the following words : — - The boundaries ( of Louisiana ) which I deem not admitting question , are the high lands on the western side of the Mississippi , inclosing all its waters—the Missouri , of course—and terminating in tho line dr awn from the north-west source of the Lake of the Woods to the nearest source of the Mississippi , as lately settled between Great Britain and the United States . "
Iu another and more formal document , dated in Juiy , 1807—that is to say , nearly a year after the return of Lewes and Clarke from tlieir expedition to the Pacific , and fifteen years after Grav had entered the Columbia river—is recorded Mr . Jefferson ' s opinion ot the policy giving offence to Spain by the intimation that the claims of the United States extended to the Pacific ; and we have the authority of an American historian , distinguished for the attention and research whie- he has bestowed on the whole su'ijcctof the Oregon Territory , for concluding that the western boundaries of Louisiana , as it was ceded by France to the United States , were those indicated by nature—namely , the high lauds separating the waters of the Mississippi from those falling into the Pacific .
Oi far greater importance is the claim to the whole Oregon territory which the United States professes to have derived from the government of Spain , under ihe Florida treaty . On this ps .-t of the subject the American negotiator says : — The claims which wc have acquired from her between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific rest on her priority of discovery . Numerous voya « es oi discovery , commencing with that of Maldonado in J 52 S , aud ending with that under Galiano and \ aldes 1792 . were undertaken by her authority , ai-injr the north western coast of North America That they discovered and explored not only the entire coast of what is now called the Oregon Territory kit still further north , is a fact too well established
to be contravened at this day . The vovages which they performed will accordingly be passed over at present without bjing particularly alluded to , with the exception of that of Ileccra . " His discovery of the mouth of the Columbia Rivcc has been already referred to . It was madeon tin loth of August , 1775 —many years anterior to the voyages of Meares and V-: ucourer , aud was prior to Cook ' s , who did not reach the north-western coast until 177 S . The claims it gare to Spain of priority of discovery were transferred to u « . with all others belonging to her , by tlie treaty of Florida ; which , added to the dis-overics of Captain Gray , places our right to the discovery of the mouth aud entrance to the iuH and river be : aad au . controversy .
In answer to this claim , Mr . Pakenham makes the following remarks : — Sext comes to be examined the claim derived from Sjwui . It must , indeed , be acknowledged that , by the treaty of 3 S 10 , Spain did convey to the United States ali that she had the power to dispose of on thenorthw-.-M . vust of America , north of the 42 nd parallel of latitude ; butshecould not , by tint tain-action , annul
or invalidate the rights which she had , by a previous transaction , acknowledged to belong to another P 0 Bytue treaty of 28 th October , 1 W 0 , Spamackiuw-Icdged in Great Britain certain righfei with respect tfltlwaf t paste ft ? tbftv-eateta coast ot Amentia , not already occupied . This acknowledgment had reference especially to the territory which forms the subject of the present negotiation . If Spain could not make good her own right to exclusive dominion over those regions , still less could she confer such a right on another power ; and hence Great Britain argues that from nothing deduced from the treaty of 1819 can the United States assert a valid claim to exclusive dominion over any part of the Oregon territory . The answer of the American negotiators to this is , that the treaty between England and Spain in 1790 , was a mere temporary treaty which expired in the year 1 / 96 , when war broke out between the two
countries , and which has never since been renewed . This , Mr . Pakenham , on the partof his government , altogether denies , contending that the treaty in question was not a concession of favours , on the part of Spain to England , but simply , a recognition of rights which existed before the treaty was concluded . As this is the grand question on which the whole of this controversy turns , we give , in the following extract , Mr . Calhoun ' s statement on the subject , together with Mr . Pakenbam ' s answer to it , and Mr . Buchanan ' s rejoinder . The two former will be both found embodied in the following extract from Mr . Pakenham ' s last letter to Mr . Calhoun , dated "Washington , July 29 tb , 18 i 5 : —
In this paper it is stated , that "the title of the United States to that portion of the Oregon territory between the valley of the Columbia and the Russian line , in M deg . -10 rain , north latitude , is recorded in the Florida treaty . —Under this treaty , dated on the 22 nd of February , 1 SU > , Spain ceded to the United States all her rights , claims , and pretensions to any territories west of the Rocky Mountains , and north ot the 42 nd parallel of latitude . "— " We contend , " says the Secretary of State , "that at the date of this convention , Spain had a good title , as against Great Britain , to the whole of the Oregon territory , * and , if this be established , the question is then decided in favour of the United States , " the convention between Great Britain and Spain , signed at the Escurial , on the 28 th of October , 1790 ,
notwithstanding . "If , " says the American plenipotentiary , "it should appear that this treaty was transient in its very nature ; that it conferred upon Great Britain no right but that of merely trading with the Indians , whilst the country should remain unsettled , and making the necessary establishments for this purpose ; that it did not interfere with the ultimate sovereignty of Spain over the territory ; and , above all , tliat it was annulled by the war between Spain and Great Britain , in 1796 , and has never since been renewed by the parties , ttien the British claim to any portion of tiie territory will prove to be destitute ot foundation . "
The undersigned will endeavour to show , not only that when Spain concluded with the United States the treaty of 1819 , commonly called the Florida treaty , the convention concluded between the former power and Great Britain , in 1790 , was considered by the parties to it to be still in force ; but even tint , it no such treaty had ever existed , Great Britain would stand , with reference to a claim to the Oregon territory , in a position at least as favourable as the United States . The treaty of 1790 is not appealed to by the British government , as the American plenipotentiary seems to suppose , as their " main reliance" in the present discussion ; it is appealed to to show that , by the treaty of 1819 , by which ** Spain ceded to the United States ali her rights , claims , and pretensions to any territories west of the Rocky Mountains , and north
ot the 42 nd parallel of latitude , the United States acquired no right to exclusive dominion over any part of the Oregon territory . The treaty of 1790 embraced , in fact , a variety of objects . It partook in gome of its stipulations of the nature of a commercial convention ; in other respects , it must be considered as an acknowledgment of existing rights—an admission of certain principles of international law , not to be revoked at the pleasure of either party , or to be set aside by a cessation of friendly relations between them . Viewed in the former light , its stipulations might have been considered as cancelled in consequence of the war which subsequently took place between the contracting parties , were it not that by the treaty concluded at Madrid on the 28 th of August , 1814 , it was declared that all the treaties of commerce
which subsisted between the two nations ( Great Britain and Spain ) in 1790 , were thereby ratified and confirmed . In the latter point of view , the restoration of a state of peace was of itself sufficient to restore the admissions contained in the convention of 1790 to their full original force and vigour . There are , besides , very positive reasons for concluding that Spain did not consider the stipulations of the Hootka convention to have been revoked by the war of 1796 , so as to require , in order to be binding on her , that they should have been expressly
revived or renewed on the restoration of peace between the two countries . Had Spain considered that convention to have been annulled by the war ; in other words , had she considered herself restored to her former position and pretensions with respect to the exclusive dominion over the unoccupied parts of the North American continent , it is not to be imagined that she would have passively submitted to see the contending claims of Great Britain and the United States to a portion of that territory the subject of negotiation and formal diplomatic transactions between those two nations .
It is , on the contrary , from her silence with respect to the continued occupation by the British , of their settlements in the Columbia territory , subsequently to the convention of 1814 , and when as yet there had been no transfer of her rights , claims , or pretensions to the United States ; and from her silence while important negotiations respecting the Columbia territory , incompatible altogether with her ancient claim to exclusive dominion , were in progress between Great Britain and the United States , fairly to be inferred that Spain considered the stipulations of the Nootka convention , and tbe principles therein laid down , to be still in force . In the last dispatch published , which is the one handed in to Mr . Pakenham , on the 30 th August , by Mr . Buchanan , the present American Secretary , for Foreign Affairs , the following answer ia made to the above argument * . —
The second proposition of the British plenipotentiary deserves greater attention . Does the Nootka Sound convention belong to that class of treaties containing " an acknowledgment of subsisting rights —an admission of certain principles of international law" not to be abrogated by war ? Had Spain by this convention acknowledged the right of all nations to make discoveries , plant settlements , and establish colonies on the north-west coast of America , bringing with them their sovereign jurisdiction , there would have been much force in the argument . But such an admission never was made , and never was intended to be made by Spain . The Nootka convention is arbitrary and artificial in the highest degree , and is any thing rather than the mere
acknowledgment of simple and elementary principles consecrated by the law of nations . In all its provisions it is expressly confined to Great Britain and Spain , and acknowledges no right whatever in any third power to interfere with the north-west coast of America . Neither in its terms , nor in it-i essence , does it contain any acknowledgment of previously subsisting territorial rights in Great Britain , or any other nation . It is strictly confined to future engagements , and these ar e of a most peculiar character . Even under the construction of its provisions maintained by Great Britain , her claim does not extend to plant colonies , which she would have a right to do under the law of nations , had the country been unappropriated ; but
it is limited to a mere right of joint occupancy , not in respect to any part , but to the whole , the sovereignty remaining in abeyance . And to what kind of occupancy ? Not separate and distinct colonies , but scattered settlements , intermingled with each other , over the whole surface of the territory , for the single purpose of trading with the Indians , to all of which the subjects of each power should have free access , the right of exclusive dominion remaining suspended . Surely , it cannot be successfully contended that such a treaty is " an admission of certain principles of international law , " so sacred and so perpetual in their nature as not to be annulled by war . On the contrary , from the character of its provisions , it cannot be supposed for a single moment that it was intended for any purpose but that of a
mere temporary arrangement between Great Britain and Spain . The law of nations recognises no such principles iu regard to unappropriated territory as those embraced in this treaty ; and the British plenipotentiary mu-t fail in the attempt to prove that it contains " an admission of certain principles of international law" which will survive the shock of war . But the British plenipotentiary contends that from the silence of Spain during the negotiations of 1818 between Great Britain and the United States respecting the Oregon territory , as well as " from her silence with respect to the continued occupation by the British nf their settlements in the Columbia territory , subsequently to the convention of 1814 , " it may fairly " be inferred that Spain considered the stipulations of the Nootka convention , and the principles therein laid dawn , to be still in force . "
The undersigned cannot imagine a case where the obliuations ofatreaty , once extinguished by war , can be revived without a positive agreement " to this effect between the parties . Even if both parties , atter the conclusion of peace , should perform positive and unequivocal acts in accordance with its provisions , those must be construed as merely volun-
tary , to bo discontinued by either at pleasure . But in tiie present case , it is not even pretended that Spain performed any act in accordance with the convention of Nootka Sound , after her treaty with Great Britain of 1814 . Her mere silence is relied upon to revive that convention . The undersigned asserts confidently , that neither by public nor private law will the mere silence of one party , whilst another is encroaching upon his rights , even if he bad knowledge of his encroachment , deprive him of these rights . If this principle be correct as applied to individuals , it holds with much greater force in regard to nations . ' 1 he feeble may not be in a condition to complain against the powerful ; and thus the encroachment of the strong would convert itself into a pcrtect title against the weak
. In the present case , it was scarcely possible for Spain even to have learned the pendency of negotiations between the United States and Great Britain , in relation to the north-west coast of America , before she had ceded all her rights on that coast to the former by the Florida treaty of 22 nd of Feb ., 1819 . The convention of joint occupation between the United States and Great Britain was not signed at London until the 20 th of October . 1818—but four months prcvions to the date of the Florida treaty ; and the ratifications were net exchanged , and the
convention published , until the 30 th of January , 1819 . Besides , the negotiations which terminated in tho Florida treaty had been commenced as early as December , 1815 , and were in full progress on the 20 th of October , 1818 , when the convention was signed between Great Britain and the United States . It does notappcar , therefore , that Spain had any knowledgeof the existence of these n egotiations ; and even if this were otherwise , she would have had no motive to complain , as she was in the very act of transferring all her rights to the United States .
The above is the great point on which the whole oi this question turns . Mr . Pakenham ' s arguments have not convinced the American government , nor will Mr . Buchanan ' s convince the British government . In this difficulty there are only two courses , the one the arbitration of an impartial third party , the other war . It will be seen from the following correspondence , that the British government has invited the American government to adopt the just , peaceful , and honourable course of arbitration , and that that government has refused it .
MB . PAliENHAM TO MB , CALHOUN . Washington , Jan . 15 , 1845 . Sir , —I did not fail to communicate to her Majesty ' s government all that had passed between us , with reference to the question of the Oregon boundary , up to the end of last September , as detailed in the written statements interchanged by us , and in the protocols of our conference . Those papers remain under the consideration ol her Majesty ' s government ; and I have reason to believe that , at no distant period , I shall be put in possessionof tho views of her Majesty ' s government , on the several points which became most prominent in the course of the discussion . But considering , on the one hand , the impatience which is manifested in the United States for a settlement of this question , and on the other , the length . f j ! w . ... 1 . ! - ! . « .... f . l -... nUnl . ! . * t \ a o + SII i . nmiii . a / 1 tn 6
Ul LllUC WIUUU WOU 1 U yiVWXVl ] Uown n-xjum-v . » v effect a satisfactory adjustment of it between the two governments , it has occurred to her Majecty ' s government that , under such circumstances , no more fair or honourable mode of settling the question could be adopted than that of arbitration . This proposition I am accordingly authorised to offer for the consideration of the government of the United States ; and , under the supposition that it may be found acceptable , further to suggest that the consent of both parties to such a course of proceeding being recorded by an interchange of notes , the choice of an arbiter , and the mode in which tlieir respective cases shall be laid before him , may hereafter be made the subject of a more formal agreement between the two governments . —I have the honour to be , with high consideration , sir , your obedient servant , R . Pakenham . Hon . John C . Calhoun .
Mr. Calhoun To Mr. Pakenhamf Department ...
MR . CALHOUN TO MR . PAKENHAMf Department of State , Washington , Jan . 21 , 1845 . Sir , —I have laid before the President your communication of the 15 th inst ., offering , on the part of her Majesty ' s government , to submit the settlement of the question between the two countries in reference to the Oregon territory to arbitration . The President instructs me to inform , you , that , while he unites with her Majesty ' s government in the desire to see the question settled as early as may be practicable , he cannot accede to the offer .
Having all other reasons ior declining it , it is sufficient to state that he continues to entertain the hope that the question may be settled by the negotiation now pending between the two countries ; and that he is of the opiniou it would be unadvisable to entertain a proposal to resort to any other mode so long as there is hope of arriving at a satisfactory settlement by negotiation ; and especially to one which might rather retard than expedite its final adjustment . ,-. . I avail myself of this occasion to renew to you the assurance of my distinguished consideration . J . C . Calhoun . The Right Hon . R . Pakenham , < fce .
An Lion Sibam Frigate. — A Most Magnific...
An Lion Sibam Frigate . — A most magnificent iron steam frigate , built expressly for the royal navy , was launched on the Mersey , on Tuesday , from the yard at North Birkenhead . This is the first large vessel of war ever built on the shores of that noble river , and , therefore , a few particulars respecting her may be interesting . Her dimensions are as follows : — Length between perpendiculars 210 'feet . Breadth within paddle-wheels 371 feet . Ditto outside ditto COJfeet . Depth of hold 23 feet . Tonnage ( carpenter ' s measurement ) ... 1400 tons . She will be propelled by paddle-wheels , and the engines will be of 560 horse-power . The engine-room , magarine , and shell-room are all protected by iron encasements . The upper deck is flush , and of great
area , and there are two other decks below , the height between which is ample . This fine vessel was , by command of the Admiralty , christened " The Birkenhead . " Her armament will be two 90 pound first guns , one forward and the other aft , and four 68 pounder broadside guns ; so that with the aid of her steam she will prove a formidable opponent to any adversary . The launch took place exactly at twenty minutes past eleven , and the ceremony of christening was performed by the Marchioness of Westminster . There were present , in addition to her ladyship , the Marquis of Westminster , the Earl of Wilton , Sir Philip and Lady Egerton , Sir Edward and Lady Oust , Mr . Irland Blackburn , M . P ., and a host of the principal gentry in South Cheshire . The Admiralty was represented by Captain Black , R . N .
Destruction op a large Mill near Kendal . — On Saturday night last the neighbourhood of Kendal was visited with a severe pale of wind and rain , which effected the almost entire destruction of a very large and extensive mill at Sear Fort , near Kendal , the property of Messrs . G . and J . Braithwaite , manufacturers , which was in the course of building . It appears that the roof of the building , which was composed of massive balks of wood supported by iron pillars , was not entirely completed , and the hurricane tore away some of the yet unfinished , and probably not effectually fixed , beams , and they fell with a dreadful crash , leaving the bare walls standing , which were much damaged . The force of the shock
may in some measure be estimated bv the fact that many of the ponderous beams of wood " were smashed in several places , and the iron pillars were likewise broken to atoms . What renders the circumstance more extraordinary , is that the building is almost surrounded by a mountainous rocky precipice , and that no other property has been destroyed in the neighbourhood . From the extensive character of the building , and the romanticspotin which it is situated , it has been the resort of great numbers of people from the neighbourhood ; aud when they paid it a visit on Sunday last , they were astonished at seeing only a heap of ruins .
Ihe Convicts under Sentence of Death—It has at length been finallyarranged that the execution of the two unhappy criminals , Martha Browning and Samuel Quennell , who were convicted of murder at the last session of the Central Criminal Court , shall take place on Monday next ; the former at tho usual spot in front of the gaol of Newgate , and the latter on the top of the Survey county gaol at Ilorseuumgcrlane . Within the last fetv days a petition has been sent to the Home Secretary by the relations of yuennel / , praying for a commutation of the sentence on account of the state of his mind ; but as there did not seem to be any evidence or facts to warrant the conclusion that his mind was affected , an answer was returned from the Home-office , stating that tho case was of a character as would not warrant any interference on the partof tho authorities with the sentence of the law , and that it must , therefore , take its course .
Delicate Affair . —A circumstance of a very distressing nature has occurred in this city , and will ere long meet the public eye . A few days ago the daughter of a highly respectable citizen , who is connected with a public establishment in this city , was married to a gentleman , a native of Galway , and atter the ceremony proceeded with him to Franee ; but the previous marriage of the gentleman with n lauy , by whom he has children , transpired after their departure , and the unhappy parents of the deluded girl Jmve been obliged to resect to the laws to punish the offender and vindicate their respectability . For tins purpose a warrant has been issued for his apprehension , and police constables followed him to France , the informations were sworn in the Colleee-strAot
Ulicc-o hee , but then- precise contents , and all the circumstances attendant upon this most hrtirt-rendmg case , must ior tho present remain unrcvealcd .-Sattnder ' s News letter .
Tiie Yarmouth Murder. Examination Of Yah...
TIIE YARMOUTH MURDER . EXAMINATION OF YAHIIAM . Yarmouth , Dec . 20 . —Since the announcement of Yarham's apnrehension a variety of circumstances have transpired tending to throw lig htupon this extraordinary murder . In consequence of astatement mauc by Mrs . DicMUeg ingthatshchad had a conversation with Yarham in which he admitted a guilty participation , indeed that he had inflicted the wound that tc-r minatedthe existence of his victim , the magistrates of the borough d etermined to take the firstadvice with respect to any ulterior proceedings that might be required to satisfy the ends of justice . Their great difliculty arose upon the following point : —whether Yarham , having been ovig ' mally included in the
indictment and subsequently admitted as evidence ior tbe crown , could be afterwards indicted as a principal . Mr . Holt , the clerk to the bench of magistrates , prepared a case for the op inion of the Attorney-General , which that learned gentleman returned to the following effect : —that the fact of a man having been' admitted approver was no bar to an after prosecution as a principal , if it could be proved satisfactorily that he broke faith with the prosecution , and did not reveal all the facts within his knowledge . Upon the receip t of this op inion a warrant was placed in the hands ot Captain Love , the superintendent of police , who , accompanied by Serjeant Coleman , proceeded in search of Yarham , who was apprehended in tho manner already announced . He
was brought to xarmoutn on tne lonowing ounaay morning , and on Monday was remanded until this day , when the magistrates met in a private parlour at the gaol for the purpose of again remanding him . It may be remembered that Mrs . Dick , in her sworn information , stated that a conversation took place between herself and Yarnham , three weeks after the trial , whereas it can be proved , by reference to the parish books , that on the 22 nd of April Yarham received the sum o f £ 3 from the parish to enable him to quit the town , and also that he sailed for London the following day by the steam-boat , a fortnight after the trial , and not three weeks , as stated by Mrs . Dick . This woman ' s statement is most extraordinary ; and , from its extreme
improbability , is very generally discredited in the town . At the same time no reason can be assigned why she should fabricate a tale which , if not fully proved , must involve her in serious consequences . She has recently become connected with a sect denominated Ranters , or Primitive Methodists , and not unfrequently travels on Sundays a distance of twelve or fourteen miles to preach . Yarham had authorised Jiis father to give his address to any person in authority requiring it . The following letter to his father and mother fully corroborate this assertion , and shows the state of the prisoner ' s mind , and the line of defence he will probably adopt , should the magistrate determine to send him for trial . The letter is a verbatim copy : — , _ "December ? , 1845 .
"Dear Parents—We received your welcome letter , and was glad to hear that you were all as well as could be expected under the circumstances , though you did not send us word the particulars ; but yesterday week , Nov . 29 th , I received a newspaper and letter , from Sarah ' s sister in Chatham , and on looking over it I was thunderstruck to see a long paragraph of a confession that I was said to make to Mrs Dick , previous to my leaving Yarmouth , in fact , three weeks after the trial ; when at the same time I was not in town but a fortnight , and can truly say that I never saw Mrs . Dick after the day I came down in the train from Norwich . But it appears some persons have nothing else to do but to invent lies , and whoever it was that are so base and wicked , I wish that
the Almighty would strike them dumb , and then we should be able to discover who are our friends and who are our enemies ; but , however , it is no use wishing that . I should think tlieir own conscience , for knowingly 'inventing a lie , is sufficient , to punish them . But let them say what they like , bless the Lord , I am as innocent of that as the child unborn , and the reason that I did not wish you to tell or let my address be known was not on account of any guilt , buttha ^ my enemies and yours should not know , as I believe some of them would glory in letting my employer know , or anybody else , when they could annoy roe by so doing , and that is the reason I have not wrote to anybody besides you and Sarah ' s sister , and her only once . Tell Mr . and Mrs . Freeman the
reason I have not wrote to them , but if they know my address , I should like to hear from them at any time , but not to keep it from anybody that is in authority , as I have written to Mr . G . Palmer , Mr . Crifandc , and Mr . Kemp , some time since , and about the railway there is one from London to Gloster and it is sixteen miles from Gloster to me , and there is a mail coach runs through every night , and a van every Saturday , but I cannot say much more . Thanks he to God our health is as usual . I have got a very comfortable master ; he is a member of the Baptist Connection . We attend the chapel with him . Give our love to all . If any body ask you where I live ,
tell them close to Gibraltcr , as there is a hill close to us called Gibralter , and that won't be a lie . Remember us to all enquiring friends . I know that James is in the habit of going to old Bick ' s , in Swan-street ; and lean prove that he was one of the worst enemies we had , for what she told Sarah ' s sister you would not credit ; and that is where a certain vagabond got most of his information from ; but enough of that , they have got to answer for themselves before a higher tribunal than any earthly one . I must conclude with our love to you all ; and believe we to remain your affectionate son and daughter . "S . andS . Y . " " Address as usual . "
" P . S . I wish you all a happy Christmas and a prosperous new year , if the Lord see so fit as to spare us , if not , may we be found prepared for a place above . When you write send the name of the new mayor . Write soon , and let me beg of you not to make yourselves uncomfortable , and prepare your mind for anything that may be said , for you may depend upon it there will be many reports raised until the truth comes out . " Yarham conducted himself before the magistrates with the utmost composure . His personal appearance remains about tho same as when he appeared in court at tbe time of the trial . The public will be admitted to hear the next proceedings .
Suicide And Attempted Murders Through De...
SUICIDE AND ATTEMPTED MURDERS THROUGH DESTITUTION . On Tuesday afternoon , Mr . Wakley , M . P ., held an inquest at the Ben Johnson , Great Wilde-street , Drury-lane , upon the body of John Grainger , a blacksmith , aged 27 , who committed suicide , and attempted to kill his wife and brother , under the following distressing circumstances : — The jury viewed the body of deceased , which lay at No . 9 , Lincoln-court , in a room wretched in the extreme , and completely destitute of furniture .
Anne Grainger , the wife of deceased , quite a young woman , and far advanced in pregnancy , examined : The deceased , herself , and his brother , lived together . Her husband was out of work , and all they had to live upon was what his brother earned , which did not exceed 6 s . a week . On the Saturday preceding his death they lay in bed all day as they had nothing to eat . During that week he attempted thrice to cut her throat and his brother ' s while asleep . His brother leaped into the street out of the window to save his life . Her husband then endeavoured to hang himself . Last ; Christmas Eve he got a quarter day ' s work , for which he was paid two shillings . Wnen he returned home he exclaimed , " All I have are two shillings , and I owe my rent .
They will turn us out . What will become of you ?" She endeavoured to comfort him , but in vain . About nine o ' clock at night he took his brother with him to purchase , as he said , two ounces of salts , but would not let his brother go into the druggist ' s shop with him . He returned home in three minutes , and getting two cups he diluted the half of ono package in each cup . He then laid to witness , " I am going to take some salts , I have got an ounce for you , ° and an ounce for myself . It will do you good . " He drank off his cup , and fastening the door , seized her , threw her on the bed , holding in his hand an open razor , and exclaimed , " I am not going to leave you for any one after I die . " She implored of him to spare her life , and called for help , when he said , " If vou crv
out , l will dash your brains out . " Witness at length released herself from his grasp , and succeeded in opening the door and procuring assistance . He however , pulled her back and kissed her , after which ho made an effort to snatch the remainder of the noisto from the landlady , but she threw it into the fire A doctor was sent for , but he was a corpse before his arrival . Ihoy were m the deepest poverty . The last article she pawned was her apron for sixpence , and she had to borrow the dress in which die then appeared . Ihe poor creature during her evidence was in a paroxysm of grief . Coroner Why did you not apply for relief to the parish ? The law will not allow people to starve . Rugby , the sutunuming ollicer , said , that if her husband had no work , or even half employment , the parish would have relieved him .
Jwamination resumed : Her husband was an exceedingly sober , hard-working , steady , young man . They never quarrelled . Thrico in one night , whilst nut of employ , he drew a razor across her throat , and on one occasion he drove nails into the door to hang himself . She ascertained that he had bought two ounces of oxalic acid , instead of salts , with a portion of which he poisoned himself . Richard Grainger , brother of deceased , was next examined , and confirmed the last witness ' s evidence . Although he was seventeen years of age , so stinted in lus growth and so poverty-stricken was he , that he appeared to be not more than twelve years of age Ho was such a picture of squalid misery as to hornly both coroner and jury . He said that his brother had been struck upon the head with a hammer two years ago , and that ever since he had complained ot a pain in it .
Deceased ' s landlady gave him , his wife , and too . titer a most excellent character . Verdict " In « anity . " ' The Coroner and jury raised a subscription towards the rebel ol the wretched woman and her brother-in-law .
Happy England! Extbeub Destituiion. -Lat...
HAPPY ENGLAND ! Extbeub DESTiTUiioN . -Late on Tues ^ y ,, ?' " - '' Mr . Bedford , the coroner , concluded an inquiry at the Three Elms , St . Annc ' s-street , Westminster , on the body of Henry Nicholls , aged two months , ihe painful details elicited at this inquest excited the surprise and commiseration of every one who heard them . The jury viewed the body , which presented jtll tho appearance of a skeleton , from its extreme attenuation . Ruth Finch , a married woman , stated that she lived with her husband at a lodging-house , 37 Old Pyc-street . There were six beds in the room , occu pied by married and single people , among whom were the father and mother of the deceased . Mr . Lavies , of Great George-street , surgeon , observed out
that not only were ncus let in hub way , ¦«* u « - Jieved a part of a bed could be had . The witness said it was so . On Christmas night the mother ot the child called to her that it was ill , but she said it could not be so , as it cried so loudly . About six she called to her again , and then the child seemed dying , anp it soon after expired - No medical , aid was sent for . Emma Nicholls , the mother , sa . oi on the 17 th of November she was committed to Westminister Bridewell for a month for begging , and the deceased was then but three weeks old . They were both very ill at the time , but had every attention paid to them by Mr . Laver in the infirmary . Since she came out , which was on the 17 th of December , she had neither tasted meat nor porter , h « r husband having been committed tn » f / iiit-months for rescuinc a prisoner , tne jury
said it was no wonder the child was a skeleton , when it or the mother had not common necessaries , lhc mother said she had very little milk , Mid gave the child bread and milk and sugar . She had app lied to the parish , but they would not assist her . A former child had died in St . Martin ' s Workhouse , Mr . Lavies said he had no doubt the child had died from debility , arising from the want , on the part ot the mother , of common necessaries . He had no reason to think the child had been ill used . Venhct" That the deceased died of atrophy ( debility ) caused by the mother wanting the common necessaries ol life " The Dwellings of the Poor . —On Tuesday Mr . WakleyM . P . held an inquest at the Duke of
Cla-, , rence , Battle Bridge King ' s-cross , upon Harriet Jones , aged two years , whose parents reside in Weiier scourt , and who was burned to death during the temporary absence of her grandmother . Upon the jury returning , after having viewed the body , the foreman , addressing the coroner , said , 1 hope , sir , you will do your duty . —Coroner ( with surprise ) : What do you mean ? I trust that I always , at least , endeavour to do my duty . —Juror : My brother jurors and myself hope that you will draw public attention to the disgusting condition of the hole in which the family live . We had to descend to it , and could not enter it without stooping . The interior is truly horrifying . The flooring appeared to be common earth ; and in thesame roera , which was quite damp , and the
window of which had not a pane of glass to exclude the inclemency of the weather , we found an ass living with human beings . —Coroner : The place is truly revolting and sickening . I am sure that few imagine that such a hovel exists in London , yet I have met with hundreds worse than even that . I understand that a railway is likely to do away with all the miserable dwellings in that court—Juror : At all events the press shouldgive publicity to the wretchedness of tbe poor beings inhabiting the hovels in Weller ' scourt . Verdict " Accidental death . " Miserable Condition of Hundreds of Children in London . —At the Mansion House , on Wednesday , three boys , the youngest of whom was eight years , and the eldest twelve years of age , were brought
before the Lord Mayor . They were in a miserable plight , and a gentleman who saw one of them commit a petty theft caused them allto be apprehended , in order to have inquiry made into their apparently desolate condition . The case proved to be one oi ' ordinary occurrence . The boys were all the children of very poor parents , who are probably unable to support them , deriving a precarious living for themselves from vending articles in the streets . It was stated by the children that as they had nothing to do they walked about together , and their parents were , God knew where , all day endeavouring to scrape up the means of getting a bit of bread , and paying for the wretched room in which they contrived to live . Fifty such cases have been brought before the present
chief magistrate . The Lord Mayor said it was most deplorable to see these poor children in the road to certain destruction . It was a disgrace to the great nation , which boasted of charity taking within its comprehensive grasp the distressed and afflicted of all classes , that the streets should be crowded with poor half-naked children , who had no human being to guide them , many of whom were sent out by their parents to beg or steal , and others , without parents or friends , prowling about disregarded byj the officers of the unions , and , in fact , encouraged ' in the practices of poverty and vice by the depraved people with whom they necessarily came in contact in the course of their wanderings . Mr . Goodman ( the chief clerk ) said that although he had
been but a short time in the situation he held he had seen an infinity of cases of the kind . There appeared to be no approach to an abatement of the evil , which was certainly one of the greatest magnitude . The new poor-law did not meet the difficulty . That law punished parents for refusal or neglect to support their children , but how easily were its provisions evaded . Children would , when tlieir parents were looking after a livelihood in the streets , wander about from place to place , and fall in with bad associates , and it could not be said that their parents refused or neglected to support them . But those who were bound to carry the law into effect , by compelling the parishes of the poor to support them , did not perform their duty . The City of London union had no refuge
for the miserable creatures who crowded into London , except at Peckham , a distance of three miles , to which they were sent at all hours , with tickets of admission . The Lord Mayor said that he would supplicate the powerful press of the metropolis to lend their great assistance in checking the dreadful evil , by calling the attention of the legislature to it . Of all the painful spectacles he had ever witnessed , that of the crowds of helpless children with which the streets were deluged was the most afflicting . Multitudes of them were , he knew beyond all doubt , sent out to beg by tlieir parents or other relations . They were thrown upon the world at the age when the mind was flexible to any impression of good or evil , and they were imperceptibly led into the
commission of crime , until repeated acts rendered them Incorrigible . Society thus became responsible for the contamination to which poor children were subjected . There was a total absence of restraint or good example , and the very ingenuity displayed in the little acts of dishonesty perpetrated by those of tender years was encouraged by the laughter , and in some cases by the approbation , of the lookers-on . There was no calamity in his mind comparable to that which sprung from the bringing up ot youth in practices of idleness and vice . The Legislature spent hours and days in discussing tho princi ple of education . Could the minds of the representatives of the people be more admirably , more benevolently employed than in devising tiie meaas of correcting the awful evil which was always before the eyes of the magistrates , and was almost as frequently encountered by men concerned in the ordinary transactions of town life ? He was convinced that a
blessing would wait upon any effort of the kind he suggested , and again he would beseech the influential press of the metropolis to take the important question into their hands , for the sake of common humanity . What could he do , as a magistrate , in the case before him ? Commit these three children for stealing a few peas' Were they persons to be sent for trial to the Old Bailey ? His heart revolted at the thought , ior his heart bled for them , and the thousands of poor young creatures who , like them were without protection , and going headlong into rum . Mr . Goodman said he had no doubt " that publicity would be given to his lordship ' s observations on so vital a subject , and that some benevolent high-minded man would apply to the Legislature , by whom alone a remed y could be administered . The Lord Mayor acknowledged the receipt of a * P ?< - * -- » ** 0 ; M » l * t , and dated 11 th of November , 184 o , J . J ., for the poor applicants at the Mansionhouse .
Another Larch Bask Robbery.-—A Package C...
Another Larch Bask Robbery .- —A package containing 20 , 000 dollars , in bank bills , notes , checks , Ac , belonging to the Suffolk Bank , Boston , was stolen on Friday morning from Mr . Monson ' s stage , on the route between Waltham and Boston , A reward of 500 dollars is offered for its recovery and the detection of the robbers . —Philadelphia L & lgur ,
December 9 . Miserable Delusion and Scandalous Exhibition . —The Millerite delusion in New York is leading to the most infamous practices . In Greene county , at a village a few miles back of Catskill , a company of iMillcrites , consisting of various ages and both sexes , a few weeks ago , in expectation of the immediate end of tho world , concluding that clothing was no longer necessary , shut themselves up together in a state of perfect nudity for several days together The discovery was made by tho neighbours , through one of the young women , without a particle of clothing , being seen to go to the well for a pail of water and the poor deluded creatures could not be induced to resume their apparel till the authorities of the place interfered and compelled them to do so . These facts are stated upon authority , the Sun says , the most unquestionable . ' '
Sudden Death in an OMNinus .-On Wednesday evening Mr . Bedford held an inquest at the Black Horse , Bedfordbury , on the body of Thomas Scantlebtiry , age 41 , late stud groom to Mr . Tattersall . of Ilyde-park-corncr and Willcsdon Paddocks . The deceased had complained of a severe pain in the region of his heart lor some months past , and , on Sunday mormng he got into an omnibus in Cheapside , to go to St . George ' s Hospital . On the arrival of tho vehicle at Charing-cross , he suddenly fell from his scat to the bottom of tho carriage . He was assisted out in an insensible state , and taken to the Charingcross Hospital , but life was quite extinct prior to his arrival . Dr . Gohling attributed his death to the sudden rupture of a blood-vessel of tho heart . Verdict —Natural death .
CnftesP fflo & emettt &
The South »«'»"""' «...««.,, The South S...
THE SOUTH »« ' »"""' « ... «« .,, The South Staffordshire miners held * delegate meet , ing on Monday , December 29 , to elect a delegate to th 9 forthcoming conference , to be held at Ilkston , at the bouse of Mr . Charles Hill , Horsleyhelds , Wolverhampton . DelcateB were present from Bloxwich , Tipton , Wolver . humpton , Wedncsfield , Heath , and Bilston . Mr J ) r 0 iVll in tlvech-vir . Mr . -fames Biakeway was duly elected to . conference . At tho close it was agreed that the ne delegate meeting of the miners beheld at Mr . Mortiboys , sign of the Little Swan , Harslcyfields , Wolvcrhamj . ton , on Monday , January U , at eleven in the forenoon . John Jones , Deputy Secretary , I > S . I am told you have rejected the miners' reports bcCore ' tUtte , which I am doubtful ; but , if so , I must Uwt a word with Mr . O'Connor .
[ John Jones must possess no little assurance to have been capable of penning tiie above postscript . He l , ag been " told" we hare rejected " miners' reports . " Have we rejected any report he has sent 1 If not , what cause for complaint has he , and why should he repeat the gross untruth he lias been " told V We request John Jones to act with more sense for the future than he shows by his insulting threat to "have a word with Mr . O'Connor . " We are neither school . boy nor apprentice , and we knoiv , and can perform , our duties , without the meddling interference of John Jones . ]
To The Operative Plasterebs Of Obeat Bri...
To the Operative Plasterebs of Obeat Britain and Iriland . — At a general meeting of the operative plasterers of Manchester , held at the Railway Inn , Deansgate , on the 6 th of December , 1845 , it was unani . mously resolved , — " That a meeting of delegates from all parts of the united kingdom be called for the purpose of effecting a more efficient organisation among the operative plasterers than at present exists ; and that a corresponding committee be appointed to carry this objwt into eft ' ect . " We , therefore , as the committee appointed for that purpose , beg earnestly and aifectionately to call the attention of our fellow workmen to this subject , as one of the greatest importance to our general welfare , and a subject in which all are deeply interested . Th » wonderful results that have proceeded from union need
scarcely be enumerated here , for , with many of thesesuch as railways , and other gigantic undertakings—you are already sufficiently acquainted to perceive that the spirit of the age we live in demands union and concord , whenever anything worthy of notice is contemplated . Union is strength—division is very weakness ; and all who are not sufficiently advanced to act in accordance with the spirit and necessity of the times , must be content to dwindle into insignificance , or pass into oblivion , while the prompt nnd energetic alone will be able to secure themselves any real or permanent advantage . Ia addressing you , we speak as to brethren having a common interest and end in view . Our object , therefore , is that , as brethren , we may more fully know and understand each other : more fully sympathise with , and assist
each other ; tha ^ we may , in fact , be enabled to do good for and to tach other , and injury to none . "We would carefully abstain from blame and harsh imputations upon , any one , either employer or employed , as measures and not men , have to be considered , and in proportion as we submit to the dictates of wisdom and prudence , so far shall we be deserving of the ceuntenance and support of all good and intelligent men , who , whether employers or workmen , will soon perceive tliat their interests are identical , and cannot be separated without injury to both . While we fully affirm that our present position as workmen is not what we consider right and desirable , we would seek the cause mainly in ousselves ; for if our past efforts have only been of a local and trifling
character , it is but reasonable to expect that only trifling and insignificant good could have been effected thereby . Let us , therefore , put away the weakness of our boyhood , and , assuming the position ef men , we may justly expectto be treated and acknowledged as such , for it is only when we truly respect ourselves , that we need look for respect from others . All who are wishful for the accomplishment of this object will please to correspond with Mr , James Gourley , So . 1 , Fletcaer-square , Brook-street , Huline , Manchester , relative to sending of delegates t » the general delegate meeting ef plasterers , to be held in Manchester , on the 24 th day of February , 1846 . —Wiluau Paimeb , President , James GocsiEr , Secretary GitBEBT Macbeth , John Dickinson , Richabd RiiEr .
To the Colhers or England and Wales . —We beg to inform you , that there are , at present , upwards of two hundbid colliers now on strike in Wigan , and more thus that number in other places in Lancashire , for WAots , which every working man ought to have , and may , if he will take proper steps to obtain it . Some of our masters have their agents prowling about the country , seeking men to fill up our places while we are on strike—they only want you to assist them in their dirty work . Wo hope you will not be Ud astray by them—we hope you will watch them , for they are as cunning as foxes—they will tell you that they have some new pits to start , but have no men to work them—they will tell you this , and make you very fine promises , all for the purpose of leading you from your homes , and as soon as their old men will go to
work for them , at their master ' s terms , you , who have been their tools , may then go where you think proper for what they care . Now , we hope you will take timely warning , and not be deceived by them , but stop at home and endeavour to obtain good wages on your own native soil . Some of our masters say that they can have plenty of men from Wales , Derbyshire , Glostershire , and other places , to work at any price , but we hope bettei things of themwe hope they will not disgrace tlieir country and their name , to be tools for tyrants , for if they do , the Aill bring poverty , degradation , want , and misery upon their own heads , and many thousands beside . We again advise you not to be deceived by foul pretenders . — We remain , yours , on behalf of the committee of the Wigan district , Joun Bebrv , secretary ; James Price , agent to the association . Wigan , Dec . 23 , 1 S 45 .
AATIO . VAL U . S'irED TRADES ASSOCIATION FOR TDF EMPLOYMENT of Labour . —President : T . S . Duncombe , M . P . Since our last report , the Protective Society of Coachmakers , meeting at the Bird-iu-Haad , Long-acre , have taken out forty shares . They have also denounced their determination to attach themselves to the United Trades' Associatiou for the Protection of Industry . Glasgow ••' Justice "— " Sailors and Crimps . "—Mk . Editor , —In the 10 th sec . of the Act 8 th and 9 th Vie . ' , chap . 110 , it is enacted , « That if any person shall demand or receive from any seaman , or other person , other than the owner , part owner , master , or shiphusband , or person in charge of a merehant-shi p , or vessel , any remuneration whatever , either directly , or indirectly , for and on account of the having , supplying , or providing of any seamanhe
, shall forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding five pounds " Now , on tbe 6 th ult ., I raised an action against a crimp named Flett , of the firm of Boyd , Flett , and Bojce , alias Barney Devins , for charging a seaman , named Smith money for shipping him on board tbe Earl DaViousic Smith proved on ortth the threats held out to unship him ' if he did not pay the amount demanded . Another seai man , named Clark , proved on oath , that he saw some silver money paid by Smith to the crimp , Flett , at the time libelled , and also ; added , "I paid 2 s . myself , and 5 s . more for whiskey , extorted from me by Flett and his associates , before they would deliver the usual advance notes to me . " This latter statement , however , was not
admitted as evidence in Smith ' s case , and the justices thought thecase not sufficiently proved . You will understand , that Clark did not hear the demand , he being at the door of the office , but distinctly saw some silver monty paid . This , in my opinion , should have been sufficient to have proved the conviction . One swears that the money was demanded , and he paid it ; the other saw it paid , still uo conviction ; the case was quashed ! If that be the way our sailors are to be " protected , " Sir George Cockuum's good Act may as well be thrown overboard . Pray tell me , Mr . Editor , is there no way of bringing this violation , or lustration , of the laws before the House of Commons . —J . S . Filoes , Glasgow . —[ No ; we know of no appeal from such tyranny . — -Ed . N . S . l
The Cape Of Good Hon'. — We Understand, ...
The Cape of Good Hon ' . — We understand , on good authority , that her Majesty ' s steamer Resistance is to return to Monte Video as soon as she is refitted , and is to carry the 45 th Regiment to the Cape of Good Hope , its original destination before it was diverted to another purpose by Mr . Hamilton . Wo are informed , also , that Mr . Hamilton is recalled . — Morning Chronicle . Fike near Witlet Court . — On Saturday last fire broke out on the farmstead of Mr . Tui-Jev , of M . irtley , about five miles from this place , and which has totally destroyed all the outbuildings on the firm The tire broke out at about six o ' clock in the even ' in § ia a stable adioining the fold yard , which wis quickly enveloped m flames . E gresses were immediately sent oft for fire engines , and at seven o'Xk two the Phoonix
engines ( and the BirminghamV arnved trotu Worcester , and the house enS £ t it Wttley Court , also arrived at about ffwM & J Ihe wind was at this time blowing « S » " and it was soon apparent that nothhig couldsave the men were directed to the prcservat on of the -rain noksui the nckyard , which was near a Sndtand these were mercifully saved , the wind blowi c in a huiiS t eCti n- J he 0 , ° of thefaZ "lit-Im / rh ? ** ! ^^ f *<¦« - totally destroyed , Satel reater ^ f H contents - « < -- * « nVw ? 1 -M 9 y >* < - " > r , the produce of the present year s growth of lr nit on the iarm and as the ? Mft . i rrel the y- b ,, wt ' amHtiscom uted that nearly thirty hogsheads of excellent eider has been i
osu . me tire illuminated the country for many miles round , and when at its height , exhibited a grand and awlul spectacle , the flames roaring , and the flakes oi lire flying along the fields for a considerable distance . It was not totally burnt out till Sunday morning . The origin of the fire assumed at nrst a mysterious appearance , and some dark hints at incendiarism were thrown out , hut we believe there is no ground at all for them , and that tlie firt was purely accidental , and arose as follows;—A short time before the lire was discovered , one of the boys went to the stable with a lighted candle to look after the horses . It is very reasonably supposed that while so occupied a spark fell amongst the loose straw , and smouldered there unperceived until after he left the building , when it broke out into active flame .
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 3, 1846, page 6, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/ns2_03011846/page/6/