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DUXJOSIBE ASD TRADES' XTSIOHS The foUoui...
The Albany, Dec. 23,1844. Dear Sib,—I am...
GREAT EXCITEMENT IN EDINBURGH.—DR. HANDY...
TO PATRICK O'HIGGINS, ESQ., DUBLIN Deae ...
Braoford Election- !— Notice—Five Pounds...
TO THE TRADES OF ENGLAND. Organise .' Or...
BANKRUPTS. (From Tuesday's Gaseitc.) Geo...
Loxnos Corn Exchange, Monday, Dec. 30.—T...
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Ingenious Scheme.—Jean Picard, Who Had B...
PAST AND PRESENT ASPECT OF THE CRIMINAL CODE ; Ott "PBOGKESS " IX JCBISPBUDEXCE . The growth of a reverence for human life is one of the surest indications of advancing civilisation . In proportion as we find this sense of the sacredness of humanitv characterize the ( _Criminal Code of any co _uutrv / way we calculate its progress towards the ideal of Associative existence . In the earlier stages of society , and at this moment , In semi-barbarous countries , the sword or the hangman are the " rough and ready" instruments which cut the Gordian knot of all difficulties . " Off with
lus head ! " is a summary , and , in its way , a most effectual reply to all rebellious doublings or " risings " against "the powers that be . " The policy saves a world of arguments , which , if called for , might , like Glendowcr ' s " spirits from the vasty deep , " not come when wanted . The gradations from this stage to lhat in which higher and sounder principles of jurisprudence are recognised and acted on are numerous . How far has Great Britain advanced—what is its present position with reference to thisvital question ? The answer will enable us to judge of the moral progress ofthe nation , as our former essays have of the political , economical , and educational .
Up to a comparatively recent period the laws of England , with reference to crime , were of the most sanguinary character . They seem to have been based on the declaration ofthe celebrated Draco , who Said that "the lightest crime was deserving of death , and be could not find any worse punishment for the greatest . " In fact , retribution , or vindictive punishment , not the reformation of the offender , seemed to be the main object of the legislator ; and this begot a reckless disregard of life on all hands , the reaction of which was of the most Injurious description .
Great and important changes have , however , been made in our criminal law during the last thirtyyears like other improvements , they have not been achieved without numerous and continuous struggles on the part of the advocates of humane and _enlightened principles ; but since the year 1803 , in which thelate Sir Samuel RomiDy brought forward his first motion for the reform ofthe criminal laws , there has been a gradual advance . In that vear a law was
repealed , by which the common pickpocket—the man who filched five shillings from his neighbour ' s pocketwas doomed to be hanged . Till the year 1 S _12 a . law existed , which made it a capital offence for soldiers and sailors to be found begging in the streets , and it cost Sir Samuel ten years of effort to abolish capital punishment for the crime of shoplifting , notwith Btanding he showed that in If So there were ninetyaeven executions for this offence in London alone .
Tothepersevering and benevolent efforts of Romilly , Mackintosh , and others , the late Lords EUenborough and Eldon , backed by their party , offered the most bigottcd and determined opposition , because "they introduced an innovating spirit into the criminal legislation . " They instinctively felt that the slightest leaven of this " innovating spirit" would impregnate flic whole mass , and speedily destroy the gigantic system of bloodshed and injustice they desired to maintain—because it maintained them . In the year 1811 , when four bills were introduced for the abolition of capital punishment for stealing to the value of five shillings in a shop—for stealing to the value of forty
Shillings in a dwelling-house , or on navigable rivers —and for stealing from bleaching grounds , Lord EUenborough said— " these hills went to alter laws which a century Lad proved necessary , and which were now to be overturned by _speculation and modern philosophy . " And again— " he trusted that laws which a century had proved beneficial , would not he chang _^ fortheihusoryopinions _ofspeculatists . " Lord Eldon said— " Hang them , hang them ; for it is so nominated in Hie bond . " Christian bishops supported ihe same views ; and the bills were consequently lost . It was not until fifteen years afterwards that the punishment of death was abolished in these cases , by
bills introduced by the present Prime Minister . Indeed , the conduct of Sir Robert Peel on this , 83 on many other questions , may he taken as a tolerably accurate barometer of the growth of public opinion . In the year 1819 , Sir J . Mackintosh , after the death of his friend Romilly , moved the appointment of a committee "to consider so much of the criminal law as related to capital punishments , and to report their observations and opinions to the house . " The previous exertions of himself and friends had so far gained the ascendancy over the narrow and cruel opposition of the Eldons and Ellenboroughs , that the motion was affirmed by
a majority of 19 in a house of 2 Jo members—too small for practical purposes , but large enough to show the Wary Peel "which way the wind blew . " Accordingly , in 1833 , be began Ms career as reformer of our criminal code ; and it has been evidently characteristic of the man , that be has , at every step of Ms progress , to use one of his own expressions , " _cautiously felt bis way . " He commenced by abolishing tho punishment of death in cases where the offences Were either obsolete , or where the juries had so unequivocally shown their determination to resist the severity of the laws by returning verdicts of acquittal , that milder enactments were a
matter of absolute necessity to prevent the commission of crime with impunity . He has pursued the same course ever since ; at all times waiting till the public voice was so well and nnmistakeably matured on each particular reform , that there was no danger of risking the support of his party by stepping forward to do its bidding . In three cases only does the punishment of death now remain on the statute-book . - One by one the sanguinary edicts of past times have been swept away . Experience proves they have been so beneficially ; and thai , so far from the relaxation of our criminal code stimulating to the commission of offences , the contrary las been the case . There are
infinitely fewer forgeries committed now , than when it was a capital offence ; and when it was customary before breakfast to hang some dozen or sixteen poor wretches in front ofthe Old Bailey , for forgeries on the Bank of England . These wholesale murders arc now numbered with the nose-slitting , ear-cutting , hand-chopping , and pillorying ofthe days of " Good Queen Bess ; " and we should as soon think of returning to them as to the practice which also obtained in the times of that famous "Yirgin Queen , " of exposing human beads , and quarters of human bodies , to fester and rot above city gates , and by bur public walks , as "terrors to evil-doers . "
The lnemcacy of such means to restrain from the Commission of crime , and the fact that the multiplication of executions has generally been found coordinate with the multiplication of the crimes for which this penalty was inflicted , is well shown by Sir Edward Coke , when muting of the times to which we lave alluded , and during which it is quaintly said , "Rogues were trussed up apace , " so that there was not" one year commonly wherein three or four hundred of them were not devoured and eaten up by the gallows in one place or another . " The total number of victims during Elizabeth ' s reign was not less than 19 , 000—yetitis observed , " That at the time of doing execution on such as had been attainted of any murder , felony , or other criminal cause , ordained chiefly for txaxnple and terror to evil-doers , people persevered in _tHEir . PELOXlOOS SLEIGHTS AXD DEVICES . " Tllis
ancient testimony is corroborated by the modern evidence of Mr . Gibbon Wakefield . "When I entered Kcwgate , " says he , writing on the basis of an experience of several years within its walls , and summing up an elaborate argument on this very point— " I had not a donbt of the efficacy of public executions as deterring from crime . By degrees I cams firmly to laiievejust Hie very contrary . " The general experience of society confirms this statement . At the present moment the office of _Jack Ketch is almost a sinecure . Yet , when were w or property better protected or more secure ?
It is not only in the matter of capital punishments hat a more humane and enlightened spirit is _ob-^ rvablc It extends to secondary punishments also . The savage 7 ft ? talimis _, the Jaw of retaliation , which _^ liiuted the principle of all early codes , lias _™«< ret « auy , at least , been abandoned . Even tlie more _^ ern justification of punishments for the _commis-& 0 _» of c rime-that of , by its means , deterring others , and _I'Wtenting , through the medium of example , the _Imi ' _^ tTUIHnahty among the population—is gra-- . _*'* ani ! igiu its influence . Theideaof _2 >« Hf . 'Zi »» £ _Ht 18 _= lvJng way to that of reformation . The offender _^ j _!^ 3 , t l awsandwcH-bcingof society is regarded in wK _' _-isht _t _faioHoiv-cTeaturcwhobasgonewronsunder
Ingenious Scheme.—Jean Picard, Who Had B...
strong temptations , but who may nevertheless be reclaimed by being subjected to better moral influences . Hence , the institution of a _BEFORUAronr hospital for adult criminals , at _PentonviuV , aud for juvenile offenders at Parkhurst , Isle of Wight , by the Government ; for in that light do wc regard both of these establishments . We rejoice in their formation , as proofs of the introduction of truly Christian principles into our legislation , and as heralding the advent of that happy period when the principle of love , the grand and distinguishing doctrine of Christ ' s Gospel , will supersede in human institutions the principle of feab , on whieh they have in all past ages been based .
Concurrent with this manifestation of an improved moral feeling in our jurisprudence , may be noted the appearance of symptoms of a more kindly feeling among the different sections of the commumty . No donbt they are yet too much estranged from each other , and , so long as they occupy their present relative positions , must continue to be so . But if we look from the strife of contending parties to the great mass who take no part in such struggles , we think wc perceive evidences of an extending sympathy and good will- Every party is less virulent " than it used to be . It is—as it ought to be , if honest—as bold
as ever in defending its own position and views ; but it is less disposed to attack , crhninate , and abuse its opponents . On many points the two extreme political parties of the nation hunt in couples—and that , too , without the slightest surrender of independence or the least admittance of compromise on either side . "When IV . _Fbrrand and T . S . _Duxcoitbe walk out into the lobby together , on a "Short-time" or "Poor-Law" question , they show not that either they or the parties they represent have abandoned any peculiarity or doctrine of their respective political creeds ; but that they are agreed on measures as essential to the welfare ofthe industrious classes .
This brief sketch of the prominent moral pheno mena ofthe present epoch must suffice . _Youxg Enolaxb .
Duxjosibe Asd Trades' Xtsiohs The Fououi...
_DUXJOSIBE ASD TRADES' _XTSIOHS The foUouing correspondence between Mr . Drury , secretary of the Trades of Sheffield , and T . S . Duncombe * Esq ., will , we feel assured , be read with heartfelt delight hy every man who lives upon labour . Sheffield , Dec . 19 , 1814 . Respected Sib , —Every-day occurrences convince me that the cause of Labour has arrived at a crisis , when it requires amostvigorous course of action to be pursued by an those who feel interested in _Labour ' s emancipation ; this has been the impression on my mind ever since I received your kind note in answer to that of mine , which accompanied the reply to Lord _Fitzwilliam ; from the tenor of that note , it appears that you apprehend another insidious attack upon Trades Unions , andl am confident that the working classes generally feel themselves under great obligations to you , sir , for havinjt given them
timely warning . As the trades of Sheffield ( in common with the working classes of the country ) regard you as the veritable representative of the working millions , I feel emboldened on their behalf , to request your opinion and advice on the _foUowing subjects : —First , I have long been of opinion ( aud every day's experience serves but to strengthen it ) , that it is essennauy necessary that there should be a thorough organization and consolidation of the various trades of this country , and that to effect so desirable an object , they should meet by delegation at a conference to he holtlen in London , when the wise and the virtuous from the various classes of wealth . produeers , might be enabled to devise , aud perfect , a plan for the more effectual protection ofthe working classes from oppression and persecution , whether emanating from the Legislature , or from capitalists , with whom they are more immediately and individually connected .
Secondly . It is with feelings of the greatest pleasure that I have seen it suggested that a demonstration should take place in London , to escort you to the House of Commons on the same day on which her Majesty opens the Parliament . This , I conceive , is weU calculated to arouse the working classes to increased exertions in defiance of their rights , and will at once caU forth the masses to rally round you , their champion , and inspire them with a confidence to battle by your side , in such a manner as
no other movement can at present effect . It wiU congregate delegates from all parts of the country , bearing testimony of the respect entertained , and the confidence reposed in you , and , at the same time would teach this moral lesson to those who are enemies to Labour ' s rightsthat the producers of aU wealth are fully alive to any attempt that may be made to prostrate Labour stiB further at the shrineofcapital . That demonstration , sir , you must allow to go forward , as it is eminently calculated to produce morally a great amount of good _.
Thirdly . I have seen by the public prints that you intend originating a motion for the Jlepeal of the " ratepaying clauses in the Reform Act . " As I believe that the efforts of hon . members to effect any measure of reform may be greatly assisted by the support which they receive out of doors , I -wish to know if numerous petitions in . favour of that object vM not be advisable ? In short , as it is necessary to strengthen your hands on various questions that may arise , in which the rights of Labour are concerned , I would wish to know how it can be most effectually accomplished . I have the honour to remain , on behalf of the Trades of Sheffield , with the greatest respect , Tour obliged and grateful servant , John Dbuby . To T . S . Duncsmbe , Esq ., M . P .
The Albany, Dec. 23,1844. Dear Sib,—I Am...
The Albany , Dec . 23 , 1844 . Dear Sib , —I am much pleased if any information that I can afford to the working classes should lead them seriously to reflect upon their true position ; for you may rest assured , that thought in the right direction , and acted upon wisely , is all that the Trades and industrious classes require , to obtain for them not only politica l emancipation , but some of those practical remedies which the men of Sheffield have so sagaciously adopted;—I allude principally to their plan of restriction , to which my attention was more immediately directed during the discussions of last session upon the " Factory" and "Masters and Servants " Bills . If my former note , in which I an nounced to you the probability of a similar attack upon Labour being made next sessionshaU have forewarned the
Trades and working classes , by stimulating them to such means as through union may make their opposition irresistible , I shaU consider myself amply repaid . I think we may draw some conclusions as to the tactics likely to be pursued in Parliament by the representatives of wealth from certain speeches , letters , and publications that have recently appeared , and which leave little donht in my mind no time should be lost by the working classes to prepare for a bold and vigorous stand . I fear you over-rate my powers of resistance—I am only strong when I represent the organised strength of your order ; and from my limited knowledge of tlie machinery by which Trades Unions are managed , 1 cannot venture to give you an opinion that should carry
weight with it , upon the subject of an improved organization and consolidation of our various national trades _, but if such an object is required , I know of no course ( excluded as the working classes are from the Parliamentary franchise ) better calculated to give effect to that object than that which you suggest , viz ., that tlie wise and virtuous from allparts of the empire _slmdd meet by delegation at a conference in London , where , co-operating with themetropolitan trades , they shaU endeavour to devise such means as shaU not only obtain protection to the sons of toil from that oppression and persecution of which they have so long and so justly complained , but shall also tend to disabuse the public mind of those prejudices , which I regret to see are now so industriously encouraged against every combination bnt that of capital and of power .
As to the time when this conference should be held I should recommend about Easter , as by that time all ministerial measures , whether affecting trade , commerce , or labour , either will or ought to be before the country and it could not then be said that it was either premature to discuss them , or too late to resist them . As to the contemplated demonstration on the opening of Parliament , I know nothing of it beyond rumour , and what I read in tlie public prints -, but if it is solely intended as a compliment to myself , ami a mere parading through the streets , upon the same day as the Queen , without any definite object or possible benefit to the working classes , I bcg to say that , as far as I am concerned , I nil ! be no party to it , and no man shall leave his employ , or lose his day ' s wage , on my account .
I am rejoiced to find that you attach some importance to my intended motion for th j repeal of the rate-paying clauses , and I certainly think that petitions , numerously signed , and presented by the members representing the localities from wliich they emanate , win have a most beneficial effect , for I have yet to learn why borough electorsmen whom I have always found , if not superior , at all events equal in intelligence and education to county electors—should be compelled to pay their taxes hy a certain day as a condition of their registration , while the smaU freeholder , and the servile tenant-at-will of an aristocratic lauded proprietor , is exempted from any such condition . I beg to conclude hy assuring you that my untiring and unflinching advocacy of the rights of the industrious
The Albany, Dec. 23,1844. Dear Sib,—I Am...
classes shaU be continued , until , with their assistance , Labour , which is their property , shaU be placed upon a perfect equaUty with the property of all other classes in the state I have the honour to be , dear sir , Yours , very faithfully , Thomas S . Duncombe . To Mr . John Drury , Secretary to the Committee of the Central United Trades of Sheffield .
Great Excitement In Edinburgh.—Dr. Handy...
GREAT EXCITEMENT IN EDINBURGH . —DR . _HANDYSIDE'S SYSTEM OF PAINFUL EXTINCTION . —THE MURDERERS OF THE POOR SHOWN UP .
TO THE _EOITOE OF THE NOETHEBN STAB . Sia , —We , the undersigned , are requested by the committee of the working classes to send you a report of matters connected with the report of the commissioners for inquiring into the state of the poor of Scotland , a subject that is engrossing much public attention in Edinburgh . It is the more necessary for us to apply to you to make the British public , cspeciaUyfhe people of Scotland , acquainted with what is going on , as one local press , with a partial exception , maintains a culpable silence on tlie matter , notwithstanding its vast importance .
The origin ofthe inquiry nowexcitiug so much interest here , and which through your aid wc hope wiU soon extend over Scotland , was the appearance of a paragraph in the Medical Times , published about six weeks ago , stating that Dr . Handyside , of Edinburgh , had sworn before the commissioners that a man could be kept in food at the rate of sixpeuce a-week , and that a man , his wife , and four children , could live on two shiUings and sixpence , and that they might live comfortably on three shiUings or three shillings and sixpence . This statement appeared so absurd that it was disbelieved , but on inquiry it turned out to be substantiatty correct ; and further , that the commissioners , eager to catch the lowest possible expense of . supporting the poor , have , in then : recommendation to Parliament , laid considerable stress on the Doctor ' s evidence .
It behoves us , then , to rise in opposition to such a monstrous and iniquitous proposal ; for , in the event of its being aUowed to pass unnoticed , it will , like a devastating pestilence , spread its baneful influence through the lenSth and breadth of the land ; for surely it foUows , if the poor of Scotland can live on sixpence a-week , it is legitimate to infer the same for the English poor . -. '• . A number of working men called a public meeting of the inhabitants of Edinburgh , to adopt such measures as the interests of the people demanded in reference to _tliis matter . The meeting was held in Richmond-court Chapel , and although the evening was very wet , and the Chapel somewhat out of the way , yet it was a crowded house . The evidence of Dr . Handyside was read , and after addresses by Messrs . Brown , Baker , Peddie , Cummings , and others , who were listened to with profound attention , resolutions condemnatory thereof were moved and unanimously carried .
A memorial to the House of Commons , cautioning them against paying attention to such evidence in forming a legal provision for the poor , wa 6 also unanimously carried . A numerous and respectable committee was also elected to watch the question , and they were , by the meeting , instructed to procure a fuU copy of the Commissioners ' Report , and to call another . meeting to consider what further steps might be necessary . In pursuance of their instructions , as soon as the report was obtained , they called a public meeting , which was held . in the South Bridge Hall , on Tuesday , December 24 th . Immediately on the doors being opened the hall was crowded to suffocation , and such was the interest excited , that , had the hall been four times as large , it would have been filled .
Mr . Walker was caUed to the chair , and opened the proceedings with a few pithy remarks . Mr . Peddie read the whole of the evidence of Dr . Handyside , and commented upon it -with weU-merited severity . This man ' s sworn testimony produced a feeling of abhorrence in the meeting seldom witnessed in this city ; which may easily be conceived when we tell you that the Doctor swears that nearly all the diseases , especially typhus fever , and many of tho deaths , might be attributed to the destitution ofthe people . Nay , that he himself had witnessed many deaths from starvation . Yet , with these awful facts before him , he recommends sixpence a-week for food ! After Dr . Handy side ' s , Mr . Peddie read the evidence of Mr . Wright , a shopkeeper , formerly a journeyman mason , the tenor of whose evidence proves that the reUef given to our destitute poor is an insult to suffering humanity , and that
numbers of them , to Uve , must become street-beggars , thieves , and prostitutes ; and further , that our managers ofthe poor desceud to the most flagitious trickery , meanness , and deceit , to get rid of their claims ; for instance , he gave the case of a widow with three children , who appUed for relief ; two of the children were above ten years of age , and so not admissible to the poor-house ; They supposed this woman would not come into the house , and leave her children , and although they had no accommodation for any more , they made her an offer of the house . This she refused for her children ' s stake , who , if separated from her , would have no friend or place of refuge , and be left to starve , or take to the most vicious habits . On the woman ' s refusal to part with her children , our most Christian managers refused her aU reUef , thus leaving them to live or die , as chance might determine .
The Commissioners , in tbe queries put to the witness , evidently wish to get up a strong case against Trades ' Unions ; and he swears that much of the stagnation of trade in Edinburgh , and destitution consequent on it , may be traced to the existence of Trades' Unions . This part of his evidence met with the most marked disapprobation . After Mr . Peddie finished his comments , Mr . Green read the evidence of Mr . Aifken , coffee house keeper , formerly a journeyman tailor . This man ' s evidence was _simUar to Mr . Wright ' s . He swears that Trades' Unions _universaUy produce the worst consequences to the workingmen themselves , and that they were beginning to be convinced of this , and were dissolving their unions , and , amongst others , the Curriers' Union was broken up . The reading of this statement called up Mr . Brogden , who stated that , so far from this being fact , he was prepared to prove it a direct falsehood . He hadbeen a member of the Curriers' Union for eighteen years , and so far from its being dissolved , it is now in a very prosperous condition .
The meeting considered the report so important , that they requested their committee to publish extracts from it in a cheap form , to place in the hands of the people withomt delay . This wiU be done on the 1 st of January . The meeting then adjourned till that day fortnight . On Monday , 23 rd of December , a public meeting was also held iu the Cordwainers' HaR , Lcith , on the same subject . Mr . M * Itea in the chair . The meeting , which was a most enthusiastic one , after listening to Mr , Peddie from eight till half-past ten o ' clock , adjourned till that day week , when they will again meet to petition Parliament on the subject .
As the importance of this report justifies its length , we trust you will give it insertion , so that the attention of the Scotch maybe directed to the watching of any legislative measure that may be based on the evidence contained in this report . Robt . Peddie , Jahes Nisbet _, Edinburgh , Dec . 29 , 1844 .
To Patrick O'Higgins, Esq., Dublin Deae ...
TO PATRICK O'HIGGINS , ESQ ., DUBLIN Deae Sib , —I return you my sincere thanks for the candid truths contained in your letter to Mr . Webb , of Stockport . It is indeed disgusting to hear a man declaiming against Government , and complaining of want and oppression , " with a pipe stuck in his jaw . " I have been smoking tobacco since I was fourteen years of age ; and I assure you , sir , there was not a week since that period in which I have not paid from sixpence to ninepence for that infernal stinking weed ; but after reading your admirable and truly patriotic letter ( in the presence of several other supporters of excise and oppression ) , I
broke my dirty old sooty pipe iu pieces ; for I grew ashamed of myself , and looked upon myself as a traitor to the sacred cause of Chartism , and a hypocrite , inasmuch as I contributed nothing to that cause—the cause of the oppressed minions in every region of the globe—while at the same time I was contributing unthinkingly to swell the coffers of those who enslave , plunder , and cheat us of our rights . Thank God , you have made a reformation in me , at any rate ; but , what is still better , hundreds have promised to foUow my example by never using tobacco again in any shape or form .
A vote of censure should be passed upon you for having remained silent for the long space of six months , when you can do so much good by writing . There is not an honest man in the British empire who does not feel de-Bghted when he sees your name in the Star . Itis a pity that you have been put to so much expense by the promotion of a cause in which you have no interest , except that of humanity and philanthropy . You have the elective franchise already , and you go to great expense to put others on a political footing with yourself who will not come forward to promote their own immediate interests . Wishing you a happy new year , and that you may soon see the object nearest your heart accomplished—the complete triumph of Democracy in aU its just rights , I am , yours respectfully , Ballyhaunes , Dec . 25 , 1814 . Joun Loweky .
Braoford Election- !— Notice—Five Pounds...
Braoford Election- !— Notice—Five Pounds Reward . —Rumours are afloat that Mr . John Hardy , Tory M . P . for tin ' s borongh , is seriously indisposed , and that he intends applying for the Chiltern Hundreds . The various electioneering staffs are in motion . Several candidates are spoken of—Wilberforce , Rand , and Col . Thompson . The first a Tory , the second a Tory and Freetrader , and "Old Betty" a philosophical Whig-Radical Chartist Free-trader . This is a queer- squad to choose from . Five pounds reward for any sterling John Bull Duneombeite , to he " ready to start" on the 4 th of February ! A __ preliminary meeting , to choose a non-electors' committee , will be held at Butterworth ' s Biiildings , on Sunday evening next , at six o ' clock .
JJollowav ' s _Oixtmext and Pills . —James Little , a blacksmith , residing at Cuckold ' s Point , in May last , was going to Guy ' s Hospital , to undergo the amputation of his leg , wliich had been bad for seven years ; there were upwards of twenty ulcere on it , and mortification'had commenced just " under the knee . In this alarming state he was recommended to use Holloway's Pills and Ointment , which in a very short time cured the limb , to the great astonishment of all . If the two medicines are used together , the most dangerous wounds and ulcers may , to a certainty , he cured by their means .
To The Trades Of England. Organise .' Or...
TO THE TRADES OF ENGLAND . _Organise . ' Organise ! ! Organise 7 / / To the contemplative mind , the events of the present time are fraught with instruction . They speak in language that cannot he understood , and proclaim " trumpet tongued , " that the battle betwixt labour and capital has commenced in earnest . The Messrs . Chambers ! tract is the precursor of that onslaught which capital is about to make on prostrate labour . It is looked upon in this light by the conductors of the " Northern Star , " who noblv sound the alarm from John O'Groat ' s to the Land's End ; and it will be well if the warning be properly attended to by the Trades ofthe country . The enemy is already in the field ; and it behoves the Trades of England to perfect their organization without delav . There is no
time to be lost ; for even whilst the Trades are perusing this , the battle is raging in deadly strife in various parts of . the country . The present crisis is one of vital import to the Trades , as the following facts will show . The struggle is not one sought ' by the working men . They have not struck work for _advanceson their present wages , nor to prevent present reduction . No ! onslaught is the masters '; and the men are obliged to act on the defensive , or become worse , much worse , " than Russian serfs . The capitalists having failed to carry Labour ' s _Dkorabatiox Bill last Session of Parliament , arc determined , if possible , to crush everything like Trades' Unions ; and _whatj they could riot accomplish hy _hjsiskthm , they arc determined to achieve by the power of that
wealth which they have extracted from the sweat and toil of those who they now wish to trample under their feet . In order to do this effectually , they are determined to employ no men that belong to the Trades' Unions , nor even sick clubs , if they are connected with the Trades ; and in order to gain their point , they have , in many instances , turned the men of several Trades out of employ because they would not sign a declaration to that effect . The Manchester Dyers were turned out by the masters the week before last , and upwards of seven hundred men are now walking the streets . They have posted the town with large p lacards , stating that in 1843 the masters reduced their wages two shillings per week , from twenty-one to nineteen shillings , at
which time the masters stated that when trade revived they would advance the two shiUings back . A few weeks ago they reminded the masters of their promise , when eleven of them gave them the two shillings , but the others would not . The consequence was , that the two shillings were taken off when they had received tho advance for one month . Week before last the document was presented to them to sign . This , of course , tho men refused to do ; and they are now out , determined to starve rather than suffer tyranny to ride rough-shod over them . The Moulders of Liverpool have also been turned out because they would not give up their Union , and break up a Sick and Burial Club which they had in connection with their trade . The iron masters of
Manchester have , in some of the largest shops , given their men notice that they must either quit the Union or leave their employment . We have much pleasure in saying , that out of tho six Mechanical Trades in this town , in the aggregate a very numerous body , the masters have net got one to sign the declara tion . At one firm the master sent for the men , and informed them , that after their notice was up , they must either leave the Union or leave their work . They answered that they required no notice , under the circumstances : they conld leave then if ho thought proper . He then sent for his nephew , who is the foreman , and asked , "If the men left , would he remain and instruct those that he might get ? " To this the man replied : "I would see you d—d first . "
At another very large establishment , tho master called the men together , and after a good deal of humming and hawing said , that if they did not sign the declaration they would _haye to stop work at the week's end ; and he thought to stop the works for a week , whether they signed or not , in order to repair the boilers and the engine . One of the men asked—Were they to understand that if they did not leave the Union that they were to leave work on Saturday night ? The master said "yes ; that was what he wished them to understand . " " Then , " said the man , " you will have to mend the boilers and engine yourself , for we will not do it for you : and then you will see how you like working . " A number of the Coal-Kings in the
neighbourhood of Wigan have also given their men notice , that at theend of fourteen days they must either leave the Miners' Association or leave their employment . Thus the Trades will see the necessity of at once casting away their culpable apathy , and at once get the organization complete . They may rest assured that this is but the beginning of the end . The next summer will either place the Trades of England in a proud and honourable position , or destroy that independence they have so long made their boast . Let them rally round each other , and form such an union of Trades , on a national scale , as will frustrate every attempt of unprincipled capitalists to trample on the rights of the industrious producers . —Manchester Correspondent , P . S . We have just received the
information from a source that maybe relied on , that the firmness of the men inrefusingtosign the masters ' declaration , and the knowledge that the whole of the six Trades were united together , has made the masters withdraw their notices , and tell their men to take no notice of them , but go on as usual , If proof was wanting of the necessity of general union amongst the Trades , this circumstance is sufficient to convince the most sceptical . Had the six Iron Trades not been united in one body , the masters would have taken them ,, a trade at a time : and if they had not beaten them , they would have caused the spending of a vast amount of money , and entailed a serious amount of suffering and deprivation . This fact is worth something ; therefore , let the Trades look to it .
MINERS , BEWARE ! MORE COAL-KING TYRANNY . Messrs . Daglish , _Blundell , and a few other of the coal proprietors of Wigan and __ Pembcrton , have mado proposals to the men in their employ to sign a document , binding them not to leave tlie pits until they have earned four shillings as a remuneration for the labour of the day . Now this might be well enough , if these gentlemen paid such prices for the work performed as would enable the men to earn anything like the above amount ; but " no , " say they , " we will not give you any advance on your present prices ; hut we insist on your not leaving the pits till you can legally demand from us four shillings for your day's labour . You will now perceive
who arc your best friends ; the fellows who perambulate the country , denouncing what they please to call " Coal-King Tyranny , " or we , whose interests are hound up in yours , and who , as a proof , offer you the chance of making yourselves and your families comfortable , by insisting that you shah not get less than four shillings per day . This is a precious " dodge , " when it is known that the men , at present prices , must at the least work ten hours ior two shillings and sixpence ! But the coal-kings sec that the strength ofthe Miners consists in their determination to restrict their hours of labour , and thereby keep the supply and the demand somewhat equal . This plan has succeeded wherever it has been acted on ; and the masters know full well that unless they can put a stop
to it , the day of the Miners' redemption is at hand . Therefore they have given notice that they must earn four shillings a-day clean ; and that one-third of the men must be discharged to give the other two-thirds an opportunity of working from twelve to fourteen hours a-day , and the engine be able to wind their coals to the bank . We trust that the Lancashire Miners will be cautious how they proceed , and let no step he taken that would in any way weaken their present position . Let all eyes he on the coal tyrants of the Pemberton district ; for if they be allowed to carry out this attempt , it will be a vital blow to the Miners' Association . Let them break up the system of restriction , and away goes the strength ofthe Union . We aro aware that the men in Lancashire
have asked of their employers to give some little advance , wliich in a great number of instances has been complied with : wc are also aware that the masters have advanced the coals one shilling and _eighth pence per ton to the consumers , whilst the men only ask for an advance of twopence-halfpenny a ton ! In fact , the coal-owners have advanced the price of coal in the Manchester market three shillings and fourpence per ton ; and if the poor Miners had all they ask for , it would but amount to fivepence per ton ! leaving the coal-king two shillings and elevenpence more profit than they received last year . The advance on forty tubs of the best coal in the Oldham district , within the last twelvemonths , is no less a sum than ten shillings . The Working Miners
have had no advance out of that , they being paid the same as they were twelve months ago . And a Miner gets for his labour in producing forty tubs the splendid sum of four shillings and fivepence ! out of which he has to find candles , powder , and tools . The public will now see that the coal-king is putting into his pocket five shillings andsovcnpcncc on every forty tubs that he sells . . It may now he seen who are " exorbitant in their , demands ; " the coal-kings , who have so many apologists in the Press , or the Miner that has but one paper , the Northern Star , to defend him from his calumniators . This one fact will he sufficient to open the eyes of the public , and let them see who it is that is " taxing them . " We caution the Lancashire Miners to beware what they are about at
the present moment . On no account strike until the Pemberton men have got out of the struggle . There can be no doubt . that wages are important to the working man ; but it is more important lo defend that wliich alone will enable them to get ivqgcs , the restriction . Let the Lancashire Miners look to this , and avoid strikes ! and the victory is certain . Soon will they have , what every working man ought to have , " a fair day ' s wage for a fair day ' s work . " Again wc say to the Lancashire Miners , rally round the Miners of Pemberton . Let old Sam Shamot and Jackev Douglass know , that although they have been considered the greatest tyrants in Wigan for tlie last twenty years , with all their chicanery , the Miners of Lancashire arc more than a match for them . —Manchester Correspondent .
To The Trades Of England. Organise .' Or...
The Leicester _Framewokk-knitters' Address . — to the inhabitants of tub town and coi'nty op Leicester . —The Framework-knitters of the town and county beg to inform you that they have for a long time been in a most depressed condition , arising from the heavy deductions made by the manufacturers and middlemen from their wages , in the shape of frame-rent , standing , taking-in , profits for giving outf > and per centage for being employed , to the amount of nearly 170 per cent , on our gross earnings . In addition to the above , the Framework-knitters have to purchase needles , candles , coal , winding , & c , ic . ; so that when men aro ill , or only partly employed , they have nearly all their real wages deducted , as thev have to pay the same on all occasions , with the
exception of a few better disposed masters . Men and women have been driven to the parish for relief , to eke out a miserable existence , in consequence of these severe stoppages on their labour . About the year 1835 , our wages wore much higher and charges much lower . Masters then could live comfortably , and men tho same . Now , masters can accumulate riches , while tbe men , the first week of a depression in trade , arc driven to the rate-payers for support . To alter this dreadful state of things , the poor men have resolved , with your assistance , to bring their case before her Majesty ' s Justices of the Court of Queen ' s Bench , to try whether it is lawful to make these deductions . Several respectable attorneys hold an opinion that it is illegal . Counsel ' s opinion
has been taken , who state that it is contrary to law ; and should their opinion be established in the Court of Queen ' s Bench , the present system must be altered . Gentlemen , wo ask you , as men , and as christians , whether it is right and just for the Stocking-maker to have all these deductions made , any more than the journeyman printer , who uses his master's type , cases , galleys , press , & e . ? Or the man who works in the lace machine ? Or other machinery ? Or the man who works his master's ploughs , harrows , thrashing and winnowing machines , or any implement ? In bringing this case before you , we do not suppose that men ought to , purchase machines and receive no interest for the capital embarked ; but we do think it reasonable and just that a sufficient profit should be laid on the articles manufactured to pay for the wear and tear of machinery , & c . The alteration would be highly
beneficial to the men and rate-payers in general , it the manufacturers would act any way honest to the men . It would do away with a vast deal of that unprincipled competition earned on by bagmen and others , to the injury ofthe honest manufacturer , and the workmen . For instance , a manufacturer having fifty or one hundred frames under liis own roof , receiving from 3 s . to 4 s . Gd . per week from each frame , in addition to the regular middlemen ' s profits , can , and does go into the market with his goods considerably below tho manufacturer who __ only receives one bare Is . Cd . per week ; and such is the case . Manufacturers have found , when they have gone into the market , these very bag hosiers underselling them , and they will and can do it until the system is entirely swept away . Signed , on behalf of the Committee , Josem Johnson , Chairman . Thomas Winters , Secretary . — Committee - Room , Upper George-street , Leicester , October 30 th , 1 S 44 .
Miners' Meeting in Yorkshire . —Mr . Septimus Davis has visited the following places : —Monday night , Dec . 16 , Gildersame-street . After the lecture the rules ofthe Miners' Mutual Benefit Society were read to the meeting . The union is going on well at this place . —Tuesday night , 17 th , Adwalton ; the cause of union is going on well at this place also . —Wednesday , 18 th , Cargate , near Wakefield . It is disgraceful to the men of this place , that since they have got an advance , they have given up paying to the union . But we are informed that the coal-king is going to put the riddles into the pit again—perhaps this will bring them to their senses . —Thursday night , 10 th , Crigelstone . —Monday night , Dec . 23 rd , Birchenclitfe , near Huddersficld . There are some stanch union men at this place—Tuesday night , 24 th , Osset-street Side . The men of this place are paying
a shilling a week to raise a . fund . It would be well if all the men in Yorkshire who have got an advance of wages would follow their example—Wednesday , 2 oth , Christmas Day . The Colliers of Gildersome had a grand dinner at the house of Mr . John Smith , Gildersomc-strcet Side , when between seventy and eighty of the hardy sons of toil sat down to a good dinner of beef and pudding . Dinner over , a meeting was held , when Mr . Davis delivered a lengthy discourse on the benefits of union . A lengthy discussion followed regarding the Miners' Mutual Benefit Society , when it was resolved that the Miners of Gildersome commence a fund exclusively for accidents in the mines . A little before eight o ' clock , p . m ., the meeting separated highly pleased with the proceedings of the day . —Thursday night , 26 th , Mr . Davis lectured to the men at Adwalton . —Saturday night , 28 th , Mr . Davis again lectured at Osset-street .
_NoitrmuiproA-. —Boot and Shoe Makers' Mutual Assistance Association . —At tho last meeting of this body the following resolution was proposed , seconded , and earned unanimously : " That the journeymen Boot and Shoe Makers of Bradford arc entitled to our best support , for the part they have taken in their present struggle against a reduction of wages . And we pledge ourselves to continue that support until they have achieved their just objects . " _: The Oldham Miners . —At a meeting of the Coal Miners of Oldham , held on Tuesday , the 24 th inst ., at the Old Messhouse , Oldham , the following resolution was agreed to;— " That the statements already given in are right and just ; and we pledge ourselves to stand by them ; and we trust that the Colliers of the county will not he duped by the falsehoods of the masters . " The men here are standing out for their just 'rights . ' They return , their sincere thanks for the kind support the following i ) laces have rendered
them—viz .: Gathered , per Richard SiddaU , 10 s . 7 Jd . , _- Downing , 10 s . 2 _Jd . ; Mr . Garnet's men , Is . ; Bailey and Co ., Lees , 4 s . lid . ; Copperas House Pit , £ 3 3 s . ; Ireland Pit , £ 1 3 s . Cd ; ; ' Home Pit , £ 2 ' 0 s . 3 d . ; High Crampton , Cs . 10 id . ; Greaves Factory , "is . Sid . '; George Hirst , Fitton Hill , 5 s . ; John Robinson , BuU ' s-head , 2 s . 6 d . ; George Knight , Three Crowns , 2 s . ; Modern Druids , No . 201 , Bull ' s-head , 3 s . 3 d . ; Spence's spinners , 5 s . ; Two Friends , Bull ' shead , 2 s . Id . ; A Few Friends of Bottom-of-Moor and its Neighbourhood , £ 1 Is . 5 d . ; Park Bridge Forge , 14 s . OJd . ; Broad Oak New Mine , 16 men , 16 s . ; Rochdale District , £ 3 13 s . Id . ; Hole Bottom Colliery , 19 s . ; A Few Friends , Is . lid . ; Broad Oak , New Pit , and Black Mine , 8 s . 3 d . ; _Whittaker's Shade , 2 s . 2 d . ; Ditto Tobber , Gd . ; Edward Brierly , Is . ; Foundry Mill , 7 s . 8 d . ; Roytoh Foundry , 5 s . Gd . ; Hart ' s Head , 2 s . Cd . ; Strange , Royton , Is . lOd . ; also the I . O . of A . D ., Gladwiek , 7 s . ; Union Mill , 4 s . ' , 4 d . ; A Few Friends , 5 d . — Samuel Kitson , Treasurer ; Joshua Hirst , Secretary .
A Miners' District Meeting was held at the Horse Shoe Inn , near Bardsley , Ashton district , when the following resolutions were agreed to : —1 st . " That the demands of the Miners of Oldham are justifiable inasmuch as the masters have not advanced their wages . " 2 nd . " That wc , the Miners of Ashton and Rochdale , pledge ourselves to support the Miners of Oldham , as far as lies in our power , through their present struggle . " Bradford . —The Mechanics are on the alert concerning the " clearance" proposition of the Lanca shire masters , and are . resolved not only to resist it , hut assist their Lancashire brethren to the utmost . The Shoemakers' Strike continues without change , both parties being resolved to win . The sons of Crispin hold out as stout as lions . They have an excellent committee , composed of steady , clear-headed men , and it is thought that the struggle must , ere long , terminate in their favour .
The _Wooicomders' Society has been inactive for the last few months , but as some of the manufacturers are encroaching a "leetle" too much , they are beginning to exert themselves . Bar . _vsley Weavers . —Two men engaged by the Union have this week measured the warping mills belonging to Mr . Frudil , one of which was six yards too long , and the other five and a half . However , he readily agreed to have them made right . Mr . George Smith was next visited , but would not allow his mills to be measured . In justice to the other masters it is to be hoped that he will set his mills right , if not , steps will be taken to compel him . Mr . Benjamin Horsefield was next waited upon , who distinguished himself by that conduct which always characterises a petty tyrant ; but he may depend that he will not he suffered to filch away the rights of a whole town with impunity . A branch lodge of the Union has been opened at Doihvorth , which is likely to do well . Weekly meetings will be held at the Chandlers' Aims .
Bankrupts. (From Tuesday's Gaseitc.) Geo...
BANKRUPTS . ( From Tuesday's Gaseitc . ) George Bartlctt , Wellington-street , Goswell-street , manufacturer of plaster ornaments—William Ellis Gould , Finsbury-place South , City , _carves _^ -Proderick Dudley , Rochford , Essex , builder—John _'Bailor , Market-street , May-fair , carpenter—Ralph _Eldridge , _dietclmujly , Surrey , innkeeper—Thomas William Vurford , _Brydges-street , Covenbgarden _, victualler—Emily Sarah Ann f indluy , Grafton-street , _Fitzroy-scmurc , milliner .
declarations of dividends . J . Hilton , Tipton , leather-seller , second dividend of lid in the pound , any Thursday , at the office of Mr . Christie , llivmingham . L . riershcim , Birmingham , merchant , first dividend of Id in the pound , any Thursday , at the office of Hi ' . Christie , _Birmingham . J . _> Vicks , Trowbridge , clothier , first dividend of 2 d in the pound , any Wednesday , at the ofiice of Mr , Acrnman , Bristol . It . G . Roberts , Liverpool , timber-merchant , fourth and final dividend of S-16 ths of a Id in the pound , on new proofs Is 4 Jd and li-lfiths of Id in the pound , any Monday , at the office of Air . Turner , Liverpool . 3 . and D . Sugden , _lluddersfielU , fancy cloth manufacturers , first dividend of 10 s in tho pound , any Tuesday , at ihe ofliee of ifr . Frame , Leeds . _ .
J . Harford and W . W . Uavies , Bristol , iron-masters , second dividend of KM in the pound ( So . 1 to 200 ) , Thursday next , and ( 200 to 401 ) Friday next , and any subsequent Wednesday , at the office of Mr . Button , Bristol . S . Ihulticld , Manchester , lile-mamifacturcr , first dividend of His id in the pouud _, any Tuesday , at the office of Mr . Stauway , Manchester .
Bankrupts. (From Tuesday's Gaseitc.) Geo...
dividends . Jan . 21 , E . L . Aarons , St . James ' s-place , Aldgate , City , oil-merchant—Jan . 17 , R . Lee , R . J . Brassey , F . Farr , and G . Lee , Lombard-street , City , bankers—Jan . 21 , F . _Hoshins , Birmingham , wiiie-morchant-Jan . , F . Barry , Rye , Sussex , miller-Jan . 21 , R . Armficld , King-street , Chcapside , City , button-manufacturer-Jan . 21 , E . Gra . ham Dover-street , riccadilly , singing-master—Jan . 22 , C , Maun , Romford , Essex , banker—Jan . 22 , T . Pearson , Liverpool-road , Islington , builder—Jan . 23 , E . Turniaine , Canterbury , porter-merchant—Jan . 23 , J . P . Davis , Bronilev Kent , innkeeper-Jan . 23 , W , Read , . King-street , Coveiit- Karden , engraver-Jan . 23 , J . Stonebrirtgc _, Wivenhoe Essex , corn-merchant—Jan . 23 , L . Fenner , Fenchu ' reh-street , City , mercliant-Jan . 23 , C . Robinson , High _Holborn tailor—Jan . 23 , W . Fenner , Fenchurch-street , City , merchant-Jan . 23 , C . Terry , Shoe-lane , City quiUmerchant-Jan . 23 , W . Espivent , Colemaii-street-buildings , Citv , merchant-Jan . 24 , R . Lang , Millbndge _, _lorkshiro , tallow-chandler-Jan . 23 , T . Eyre , Gainsborough , Lincoln _, shire , corn-merchant-Jan . 21 , J . Metcalt , Liverpool , grocer —Jan . 22 , 11 . Ward , Stafford , - builder . _CEBTIFICATES TO BE granted , UNLESS CAUSE DE SHOWN TO
THE CONTKABY ON THE DAT OF _JIEETIIsG . Jan . 22 , W . Scovell , jun ., Chilworth . Hampshire , brick maker-Jan . 2 : 2 , D . J . Mackenzie , Chambers-street , Minovies , provision-merehan *—Jan . 28 , 11 . Bragg , _Montagueclose , Southwark , bottle-merchant—Jan . 21 , C . S . Harvey , George-street , _Hanovcr-siiunro , dress-maker—Jan . 21 , M . aud ii . Lee , Duke-street , Piccadilly , tailors—Jan . 21 , J . Dyson , Sheffield , scythe-manufacturer — Jan . 21 , B . W . Franklin , Liverpool , merchant —Jan . 21 , G . Winning , Dover-street , Piccadilly , upholsterer—Jan . 21 , T . B . Andrew , _Ashtoii-under-Lyno , tea-dealer—Jan . 21 , L . D ., II ., and G . F . Smith , Gutter-lane , City , crape-manufacturers .
rARTNEBSHirS DISSOLVED . J . KeUy and J . II . Law , Ilolcombc-moor , Lancashire , coal-proprietors—C . Canning and B , Evans , Birmingham , iron merchants—J . Ircdale and J . Oxlcy , Rotherham , Yorkshire , tanners—W . Grcsham and J . Lecto , attorneys —J . 11 . and J . Hayward , Manchester , wholesale booksel . lers—II . T . Wright and J . W . Bazalgetic , Great Georgestreet , Westminster , architects — R . Watson , S . Broom , and A . Grunibpld , Kidderminster , Worcestershire , wool _, staplers ; as far as regards _iS . Broom—F . O'Brien and J" , Kevan _, Liverpool , corn merchants—W . Fairbaim and J . lletherington , Manchester , machine-makers—W . and J . Fairbairn , Manchester , engineers—J . Gadd and II . Hus kisson , Nottingham , lace-manufacturers—J . Pickard , W ,
B . Earl aud R . Dickinson , Conside , Durham , brick-manufacturers ; as far as regards J . Pickard—H . Stoddart and J . Knight , Bolton , Lancashire , engineers—W . _CasweU , J . Callow , and W . Caswell , jun ,, Paradise-row , Chelsea , builders—W . Boutchcr , W . Mortimore , II . Bowden , and S . Linnington , Liverpool , hide-agents—A . Spottiswoode and H . II . Vizetelly , newspaper proprietors—W . Jones and A . Heath , New-cross , Old Kent-road , omnibus proprietors—E . Ramsay aud C . Greenwood , _Bruton-street , Hauover square , dress-makers—G . Walworth and T . Robinson , Congleton , Cheshire , silk-throwsters—W . and J . Vaughan , and E . Sheldon , Austin-friars , City , merchants ; as far as regards W . Vaughan—II . 0 . Kempson and T . S . Lea , Kidderminster , miners—J . Ainswortli and H . Ward , _Blackbui'ii , Lancashire , cotton-spinners .
Loxnos Corn Exchange, Monday, Dec. 30.—T...
_Loxnos Corn Exchange , Monday , Dec . 30 . —Tho supply of all kinds of grain from our own coast and Scotland was small during the past week , and there were no arrivals from Ireland , whilst from abroad the receipts consisted of a few small parcels of linseed and _rapeaeed . At to-day ' s market there was a small show of wheat by land carriage ; samples from tho home counties . Only moderate supplies of barley , beans , and peas , and a few cargoes of Irish oats fresh up . The weather has for several days been very damp , and the samples of grain were consequently not in very good order this morning . The demand for wheat was far from active , the inferior condition rendering mind's unwilling to buy ; and in this position of affairs , some difficulty was experienced in making sales at last Monday ' s quotations . The inquiry for free foreign wheat was . likewise of a retail character , but holders were very firm , and the little
business done was at fully previous rates . Flour moved off somewhat slowly , but neither town nor country manufactured was cheaper . Barley excited little attention ; choice malting qualities were scarce and quite as dear , but the ordinary kinds were very unsaleable . The transactions in malt were on a restricted sale , and quotations remained precisely the same as last week . Oats were held at rather enhanced terms , neither dealers nor consumers showed any disposition however to buy beyond what they required for immediate use , and business closed _languidly . For beans the demand was rather sluggish , but lormer rates wero about supported , and tup value of peas also remains much the same as on this day week . In bonded articles there was little or nothing passing . Clover seed continues to be held at too high prices to allow of much business being done . Canary seed met little attention to-day , and was rather easier to buy . Linseed and rapesced supported former prices , and there is no change to notice in other articles .
CURRENT PRICES OF GRAIN , PER IMPERIAL QUARTER . —British . 8 s as Wheat , Essex , & Kent , new & old red 42 48 White 80 . 64 : Norfolk and Lincoln . ... do 42 46 Ditto 48 58 Noi'thum . and Scotch white 41 45 Fino 46 50 Irish red old 0 0 Red 40 44 White 45 49 Rye Old 33 35 New 33 34 Brank 36 38 Barley Grinding . . 27 29 Distil . 30 32 Malt . 34 38 Malt Brown .... 54 5 G Pale 58 63 Ware S 4 65 Beans Ticks old & new 31 34 Harrow 33 38 Pigeon 36 48 Peas Grey 32 . 83 Maple 33 85 White 36 40 Oats Liucolns & Yorkshire Feed 22 24 Poland 23 23 . ' Scotch Angus 23 25 Potato 25 28 Irish White 21 23 Black 20 22 Per 2801 b . net . s s Per 2801 h . net . s b Town-made Flour - _.-..-. 43 45 Norfolk & Stockton 83 34
Essex and Kent .... 34 35 Irish 34 35 Free . Bond , Foreign . a « ' ' ¦ Wheat , Dantsic , _Konigsburg _, 4 c ...... SO 58 86 38 Marks , Mecklenburg 48 54 34 35 _—Dauislij Holstein , and Frieslandred 45 47 31 32 Russian , Hard 45 4 G Soft ... 45 47 31 32 Italian , Red . . 46 50 White ... 50 52 34 36 -Spanish , Hard . 46 50 Soft .... 48 52 34 36 _Byei Baltic , Dried , . " . " . 32 33 Undried . . 32 33 24 26 Barley , Grinding . 27 29 Malting . . 33 33 24 30 iBeans , Ticks ' . . 32 34 Egyptian . 32 34 26 39 Peas , : Whito . . 36 38 Maple .. 34 35 28 32 Oats , Dutch , Brow and Thick ....... 24 25 19 20 Russiaufeed . . 20 21 14 18 Danish , Friesland feed 20 22 14 16 Flour , per barrel . . . . 25 28 23 24
London Smithfield Market , Mosday , Dec . 30 . — As is almost invariably the case at this season ofthe year the Supply of beasts brought forward here to : day was but limited , and of very inferior quality . The attendance of both town and country ouyers being small , the demand for all kinds of beef was in a very sluggish state , at a decline on last week ' s quotations of 2 d . per 8 lb ., the highest figure realised for the few , prime Scots offering not being more than 4 s . 2 d . per 8 lb ., and at which a clearance was not effected . Since tllis day se ' nnight , tho imports of foreign stock have been miserably small , in consequence of the severity ofthe weather in Holland ; and very few beasts or sheep arc expected for our market for some time hence . The bullock droves fresh up from Lincolnsliire , Leicestershire , and Northamptonshire , were composed
of about S 00 short-horns . From Norfolk , Suffolk , Essex , and Cambridgeshire , we received 400 Scots , < fcc . ; from the Western and Midland districts -600 Herefords , Devons , runts , & c . ; from other parts of England , 400 . of various breeds ; and from Scotland 185 horned and polled Scots , The numbers of Bheep were sufficiently numerous . The very priinest old downs were in fair demand , at late rates ; but tho general trade was extremely dull , and it was with difficulty that last Monday's prices were supported , a clearance of the supply not being effected . Notwithstanding the supply of calves was small , tho inquiry for them was inactive , at about stationary prices . Upwards of 200 pigs were on sale from Ireland ; while the pork trade was in a sluggish state , at our quotations .
By the quantities of 8 lb ., sinking the oftal . s . d . s . d Inferior coarse beasts ... 2 8 2 10 Second quality .... 3 0 3 4 Prime large oxen .... 3 6 3 10 Prime Scots , < fcc 4 0 4 2 Coarse inferior sheep . , _, 2 10 3 4 Second quality . . . . 3 « 3 8 Prime coarse woolled . . . 3 10 4 0 Prune Southdown .... 4 2 4 4 Large coarse calves .... 3440 Prime small 4 2 4 4 Suckling calves each . _, . 18 0 31 0 Large hogs 3 0 3 6 Neat small porkers ... 3840 Quarter-old store pigs each . . -16 0 20 9
HEAD OF CATTLE OSJ SALE . ( From the Books of the Clerk of the Market . ) Boasts , 30 G 3-Sheep , 24 ,. 510-Calves , 75-Pigs , 280 . Liverpool Cork Market . —Monday , Dec . 30 . — The week ' s imports of grain , & c , arc again of very _moderate amount . The oidy change in the duties on foreign produce is an advance of Is . per quarter on barley , being now subject to an import of 4 s . per . quarter . With the interruption of the holidays , the week ' s business generally has been more than usually limited , but for wheat we have to quote
previous rates as quite maintained ; new has been in scanty supply , and Cs , 9 d . to 7 s . per 70 lbs . obtained for the best Irish red . No change in the value of flour . The arrival of two or three parcels of oats for last Friday ' s market , and a very low demand , rendered them rather easier to purchase ; good mealing were to be bought at 3 s . 2 d . per 45 lbs . Oatmeal has met a tolerably fair demand , at 24 s . 9 d . to 25 s . 6 d . per 240 lbs . for old and new . There has been little passing in cither barley or beans , and wc have to note previous rates as barely sustained for cither article . No alteration as respects peas .
Manchester Corn Market . —Saturday , Dec . 28 . —The business transactions of the week have been confined to the actual demand for consumption of all articles , < ind no change in prices can be noted . There was but little passing in wheat at our . market this morning , and we repeat the quotations of this day se ' nnight . Flour was in fair request , and thesalcs effected were without change from the previous currency . In tlie value of oats or oatmeal no alteration can be noted ; and , although the demand for either article Was but limited , purchasers were compelled by scarcity to pay full prices .
Liverpool Cattle Mabkkt . —Monday , Dec . 30 . — We have had a larger supply of cattle at market to-day than for sometime of ' late , which met with dull sale at lower prices . Beef 5 d . to Oil ., mutton Sid . to Gd . Cattle imported into Liverpool from the 23 rd to the 30 th of November , 455 cows , 81 calves , 209 S sheep , 3570 pigs , 1 bono .
Northern Star (1837-1852), Jan. 4, 1845, page 7, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/ns4_04011845/page/7/