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^ornsH «n9 Bomrt tu £*tteO%*tttt.
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wS 8 T 82 &UTG OF VOBK 8 HXBS . : spring siisioKs , t 839 ; W ° JIPS IS HEfcETJ ? GIYEN , tht ' - ' ike £ VS ^ £ K QUA&TE * SESSIONS ^ fei ^ ** **>*» W-&ACT <» Mokiuy , * , e § £ ? ^ fL ° ** P >« i » •»** dsj tbe u <« lrt »^ be opened « cTw o'clock < rf the Porenoot , aB ^ oa erwy suc ceedin g day at N » e ft'Clpek , ttweCTitoTt ud Witnesses in pT ^ stecaiaonj most ¦• MattendaBee in the following orier , via : — " """ f ISJ" ^ ^ frt > m *« DmaoWof Stafford Tv . llil L t ( mer A g >* % g , aud-all pltfces witkin Ten Miles of Pontefr&et , and also those ia rapiteU Traverse * , are to be in attendance at the opening of the Court on Monday Mbro-«* g-
The * from the Dmaons of Barkstonasb , Staineroaa , aad O * goldenw « , ( except * ueh parts of those Divisions as * re within Ten Miles of Poatefraet , ) at * te be in * ttendance at Two o'Ckx * on Monday afternoon . ' These fron 4 e Bhrmotf * « f Upper Agbngg , ^ Morley , ana * S * yrack , are to be in attendance at Nine o'clock oh Tuesday morning . Those from the Division * of Staindiffe and Ew ~ f **** ' , *? ^* ^ " Ain st ?> (<* nng the remainder of the West Riding , ) * nd those in all cases of Mwdeoeaoor ( except i « respited Traverse * , wbe are to attend on Monday , ) are -to he in attendance at Tw © o'Clock on Tuwday afternoocus- . -. . ¦ the Gra
. Ater ^^ arge to nd Jary , been given M » tw « rby Council will be bearl , ard Application , in Btrtariy will be entertained , which , am * be euteTwJ ^ ith the Clerk of the Peace before the Mtang of the Court . After they are disposed of , tb « tnals of Felonie * and Misdemeanors will * e proeeeded with * commencing with the trial of re * pit « d Traverses . " - x The poblic business ef the Riding will be transacted m open Court at noonon Wednesdays he * Motions . for Gratuities will also be entertained . The hearing of Appeal * will commence , at all erents , on Friday morning , in case they shall sot ban : been began on TJmrwtey-: bat parties in Appeals » ast be in readiness on Thursday , and all Appeals nost be entered before ths ^ itting of the CoS-ton that day .
Coronen and Chief ^ Cstwtabies must be in attendance at the sitting ' of the Court on Twsday Kioming . . ... ; '' Th « aames o ?< £ jpDB « boond over ' to answer in Felony or MbdeaSaner , with a-description of the Offence , moat be sent to the . Clerk of toe- Peace ' a Q ffi-e . ^ we * " ^* at Ie ** t befar * ^ c Eighth day of April , together wfch all DepoatioBs , Conviction ! aod B * eogn «« aees . ' - ... .. ' TheatteBdaaee of Jurymen with-not be excused oo the ground of ilia ** , ralws itW verified , by affidavit « prored by eridence in open Coart . C . H . ELSLET , Clerk of the Peace . Clerk of the Peace ' s Office , Wakefi'ld . ? March 12 , 1839 . C .
By her Majesty ' s packet , Lyra , we have received papers and letters ircm the inland of Jamaica , to the 7 th of February , with corresponding datw from the Leeward Iilands &sd Demerara . The accounts which have thus been received , are decidedly more anfavourable than any since the period of goal abe-StkJB , and we need scarcely add , that it has created jnaeh anxiety , as well u alarm , amongst the owner * « f "West India property , as also the numerous interests connected with the one time mach * &lued eotnatrce between tue mother country , aB < i ^ e now almost worthies * West India eolonies , most certainly not witheat much cause . Tbe accounts of the lazy eondoct of tie negrnes , and the unfortunate resnlu mrising from tbe sheer idleness of thrse
Parliamentary freemen , who seem determined to abase the boon of freedom / wear the worst complexion with resptct to the state of the Island of Jamaica , though is those from the smaller island * , -and the continent of Brinsh Guiana , tb * degrees of comparison are not very wide . Not only do the private advices from all parts of our West Indian settlements concur ia drawing a truly melancholy pietare of tbe ftate of the plantations , bat the public journals of both political creeds respecting abolition , depictnre tbe condition of the difierest « agsr properties as one that Bast end in total rain . In fact , it appear that affairs bare assumed at last a fearful cruis is mlnost every settlenent , asd it prove * that , though legislative philanthropy may make negroes free , it eaanot make then industrious .
We have taken some paias to acquire important information respecting toe cause * which have brought abooi this spirit of insabefdination on the part of the negroes , commencing with Jamaica , where the symptoms grst prenented themselves , and froai whtac * they have spread unfortunately to the ther settlements . It is well knowD that the wants of tbe negroefl , with reference to tbe nec ^ waries of life ,, are exuemely ample , asd that tbe fertility of the soil of our Viest
Indian colonies is such that the slightest exertion will enable the negro to provide , vegetables and herbs , even for a large family , all the . year r * und , w \ k& , with the aid of a little salt £ sh or salt pork , will maks a savoary pottage , similar in its nature to the "kail . brofe" of Scotland , which forms their general food . Thus , excepting for fiaery , they are very independent of labour far their repport , which account * for their almost mnrversai struggle to retain their hots and ground " rent free . "
"We regret to oMerre that the majority of tbe account * received from all parts agaiE concur in attributing aucb blame to tbe Baptist Misrionariw , who are openly and . boldly accused of filling tbe minds of the negroes with false notions of the satnre of tbe new position they have acquired in the great scale of social order ; eo tb » t freedom has been ss a - term misunderstood , and ennappily per-Yerted into license . It appeal * that since the Christmas holidays the negroes hav « been very indifferent to work in Jamaica , St . Vincent ' s , Berbiee , Demerara , and St . Lucia ; whilrt the aeeounts from Barbadoes , TriHidad , and Antigua , presented a more favourable coBtrirt .
At St . Thomas ' s , in Jamaica , St . James ' s , Hano- ' Ter , St . Ann ' s , and other targe sugar-growing parishes , meetings had been held , wherein resolutions had been passed , attributing the conduct of the negroes to their having been , converted into freemen before they undrtrtood a freeman ' s duty . In the parish of Hanover a series of questions ' had -bees pnt to tbe managers of 68 estates , from 46 of which retara * had beea received in less than nine days . Prom ise results it sppeaja that si Dee the 1 st of Augnft not more than otje-haH of the sgrieoldural labourers had been' in rcgalarand actual eaploynest . Tbe letter * state , in ; many . instances , that the negroes would sat work .., at cane-catting * sd
sagar-making under from . to ^ xqrreney per diem—arate « f wage * that the white-s 1 sj ?« of onr cotton , factory system , with tfce oooeanenv adw > - TP % r \ woaid jaisp at ; but many of the letter * which we have seen estimate tb » t theogh the oost of ssgar luking has advanced from £ 7 ^ £ 15 per hogabead , they do not , as we have said before ^ exge « . rb make » o » e titan onfr-third of & » crop io , » . sugar ^ wbibjt no hands can be obtained to cultivate tbe , aew cane ylaat 8 and ,, et ^ erb , raacJie # of , V ? e * % . India . Mpaab . tanit . Thai } ; wi th . rotting crop * jiaiMfe labaarefs , the ' slanters aopear to- h * r * pleasant prosp&Rbit . u . r-At St . V 4 »© BDfa ' froa 4 f& f ^ j flOO . iabflHtm had left propertie * to whieh they h * d UiitainA > tor ¦
years . ... .,: ^ ; - «_ ' * -- - - \ - AtBerbioe -tbesaste rn proportion , ;« pdal ? O . ft St . Lscia * ad I >« B « rar « . In toe fatter © elpriy tbe exparor' of tngar d « r » g last seasbe ? is eteiparef with tint of 1 S 37 , hai Mb * off iojL nan . her of 3 ^ 608 kbns . '" . A ~ . M ~ ' "" ., '" '¦' :
x " " ^^ ' »^ groe « retorniHg * * . . . employ . Tb «> xporrP from Trinidad wer- £$ ? ? L , ^ 2 » « H r 915 fi » , again-t 8 , 6 ^ 7 VS 5 , - ' i 837 ; of Bttgar , iD 1 » 38 , 20 , 721 » . V * ' ?^« w .., ^ m n ^ w ; . ;^
AELLOVODtS . —> ^^ ™""~ X « i infwroity , — :. ^ S * " ® M "P ^ aa ™ of mechanifpd t ^ ^ Wsji ^ rss ^• S ^^^ Td ^ »* l *^* * f T *» * r ijetween twenty and thirty miles ^ 'STf « Bd W ^ &oads it might be work ^ J wi « h incred . ble tefedty . Tb * cV > ef object of iw mentor ^ £ * * »^ . « employed tq ukenp the cro *»
-A «« w-C * OT » if introduced by the Loudoa OaoBtcho ^^ CojDjMaiyjmade either water-proof or n oy and ja ^ oae iutances having < he appearamse of iiroad-ckti . ; It ir made withoot the loo » , thaV ^ n ot woven . I < h »» novel feature will make it much cheaper . - T ^ e abWers of wool , cotton , or other fabroua material are uken from the carding engine iwf . 5 r" '* ~ * •^ ° P ° ' rtioDate ' thickaes * , and passed i ^ ^ Br * ' ' e fibres being at the " same time closely -aaitea by-i ' . flexible varnish , in a similar manner to thfc making felts . Yfben a surtac * is required , to giVeitthe appearance ef weollea-olotb , a fine fioek » . fcstened to the surfaee by . a flexible cement , and tB « flock rolled in when *» a » ami £
aeiored , is a perfeet imitatian of broad-cloth . B 4 pTii , j . Ty . . oF a Father towards his ow » qHiL »^ -At the Tham es Police-Office on Tawday . Th « Ba « Cluer , a waterman , was charged with criminally , assaulting hia own daughter , Ckari ptfc * C ) o * r . aged only elevea yeare . The cas-e oecBpied lhe-attention of the Magistrate nearly the wh » le day , ana the feicts , as they came out in evidence- , " *^ there : —Tae prisoner is a widower , and the father of twelve children , seven of whom are-now alive . 8 om *» of them are in good situations , and are very ' Oreditable members of society . Tbe prisoner has been for some tim ( 3 past cohabiting with a ^ n : ddle-aged ., W 9 nian , named -Louisa Resell , and residing in a . house containing three rooms , in a place calWTittymooM-alley , Shadwdl . Two of Lis children , aged four and eleven vears . livrd und *> r
the same roofr On Friday se ' nnight , the prisoner went oat at atf e * rry hour , and returned a . "bout eight odock to breakfast . The woman Rus ^ eil had shortly before called up the prisoner ' s daughter Charlotte , aad seat-her to a room "below to prepar * breakfast . "While the girl was attending to the tire her father cam * in with some coale , aijd he immediately afterwards ueiied the child and threw her on the grtuad . The girl began to cry , and said sbe woald tell her mother , meaoing the woman Russell .
The prisoner Mid— " If you do tell your mother III murder jon and her too . " He then proceeded to gratify hi * brutal desires , and committed the offence laid to his charge . The woman Russell , bearing a noi * e in the room below , called the girl up stair * and asked her what she had been dom * . Tbe girl replied , that her father had b . en doin what be had no tenner to do . Tbe woman f eolded the child , and , after striking her with a list # hoe , went down stairs and saw the prisoner in the act ot adjusting his clothes . She asked him if he was not
ashamed of him e elf , and if he thought there was a God above to panUh him for Ms wickedness . He muttered something , a * d said he had a right to do as he liked with his own child . The woman abased him , and said bis condsct was most infamoun and beastly . The prisoner on thu left the b « o « e . Tbe girl was immediately removed by Ro * sell * o th # bou ^ e of a woman tamed Everden " , in Etbow-laae , ShadweH , where ibv remained uatii Monday evening , when information wu given to Serjeant Hinham , J ?» . 18 , " K ., who very properly seat tw * policemen , t » make the necessary iuquiries , and aecampsnred dre girl to tbe house of Mr . Danie ! Ross , a snrgeoo , in High- ^ reet , Shaduell , who found tie . ohiW Iabonrine under KTmDfnmnrii * ffr » r
caused by the . nsajri site hsi reoeived . The eiri . dence of Mr . Eoai went to iliow . that the girl hid been rtij ssriowlj lajored ^ nd * he . oomplHined of great paia xsd * nferi » y from her ' father ' s brutal treatment , A great portion oC . tbe evidence i » unfit far publication , but it e » tabli » bed the ca * e clearly ajainat the prwoner . The Htde fjirl was serioujtl y admoaLthed by Mr . Ballanrine to speak nothing bnt the truth . In answer tt kis questions , she said that her father had on two previous occasions behaved in the same atrocious manner toward * her , and that he threatened to kill her if she told any b > dy . Ro » 8 tll was a * ked where the girl unuallj deft , and she answered in a room above the "JeepiDg apartment occupied by her and tbe prisoner . Her little boy , who was only four year * of age , slept in the same r » oni as the girl . She had long saspested die prisoner , and bad cbuti ^ ed the girl ecautt
¦ M& Uwwgbt her father had been acting improperly to ner . James Kookt , a policeman ot the K diTiaon , BaiAthn when he apprebtrudea the prisoner he * % id , "You m * ydo as you-likewitb me , I . know nothing about it . " The prisoner , in his defence , » aid he was entirely innocent of the charge , and that it was a conspiracy against him . Mr . Ba-llanUM * aid ihit the evidence was such a * to leave no alternative but to commit ' . he ^ prironer under Lori Lansdowne ' s Act , the 9 th Geo . IV ., cap . 31 , for the capital offence of unlawfully abusing h ' w own dao ^ bUi / . The prisoner ' s children were sent to Waj > p » n £ poor-bouse , and Mr . Ballantine * aid the polioe strjeant bad acted very pro »« rly in sending the girl to the workkotwe , on Monday night .
It is tj ndbbbtood intimation has been eivenbv the ,. London poltee , that a parcel of thieves feave left the metropolis to try their hands on some of the Scotch banks rn the way they wtre so successful in at Glasgow acd Aberdten some time since . Those concerned had ae well , therefore , leok after the secur ity of their offices and taim . —Dvruiee Paptr . Insubordination . —A case of insubordination has occurxtd among the crew ofthe Maryvit Camrfra , Indiam&n , ' arrived at Plymouth , which has Wen " the subject of much discussion among the shi pping interest , . 'it seems that when preparing to
weigh anchor , t > e greater part of the crew declareJ that they would not proceed , alleging that the ves « el was leaky . Some-inquiry was made into the facts of the case , when it was ascertained that she was perfectly * e * woflthy . Tbe men were taken beforr tbe magistrates at Plymouth on the charge ef conspiring to delay the departure of the vessel , and thus injure the owners , and were sentenced to 30 davs ' imprison meat asd hard labour . The greater part of tha mutineers ia the Laxkins had received two months' pay in advance , asd obtained an absent bond , which they had sold to receive their pay .
Dreadfui , Act of Self-Destruction . — On Friday alternoon , about two o ' clock , an elderly man committed self-destruction by drowning himself in a nost mysterious manner . It appears the deceased kept a little fishmonger ' s shop , situated at Xo . 4 , St . ClunentVlane , Strand . The brother of the deceased had . liired with him for a number of years , and died -very suddenly . on last Sunday wetk , which took such an t&tet os him that he was But able to
follow him to . the , grave . From that time be appeared in a roost desponding way . On tbe above day tbe deceased wu discovered by one of the lodgers , who was going down for a pitcher of water , and . wax horror-struck on discovering the legs of the deceased hanging out of the water-butt . Assistance was instaatiy procured , and die body taken out , whea Mr . Dunn , the nearest surgeon , being sent for , pronounced him dead , and gave it as his opinion ( hat the deceased hi * been in the water-butt more than
an hour . -Os ^ DKANCE . — Very great activity prevail * in the ordnance department at the present time . The sun easiness has . not been so brisk since tfae battle of Waterloo , and good workmen are with difficulty obtained . Very extensive contracts < ndeed the largest erer known ) have been lately entered into for the supply of military and naval stores of all -descriptions . Large quantities sf stores have Been lately shipped off from tbe Tower for the colonies and various parts o ' f the United Kingdom .
. Returns—We are told that Mr . Joseph Hume , justly fearing that there was a chance of his great labours and extraordinary uwfulnew being forgotten and overlaid by the almost interminable discussions now earryrag on , hat had it in contemplation temore for a retorn of tbe number of returns he has moved-for during tbe last fifteen years—such return to set forth each return in the order of its date , together with its description as entered on . tbe journal *
of tbe Boose . By this grand aggregate rctntn of returns Mr , Hjuoe-, it is said , intended to remind toe I ^ ou »» J in £ the people of hi * watchfulness , and his Vhretfdswa , a * 4 his-Jove of . eeonomj ; bet that wnejk W applied to Lord . John Bnsselhto know -whether . ber Ifajesty ' ji . ministers -would- offer . airy opposition to soeb a grand ' tattle" of the * whole , his Jordafeip replied , not if Mr .-Home ' would consent that it shookd = * l * o contain a statement of tbe cost of !
all th « -T « tri | gBMr . H . baa moved for aod obtwo ^ d , togeti ' er ' 'wJK the me be had made of them , and the ' tajftik ir | t ? ci had tbeYe'by accrued to , tbe country Iftr / Hanre , j ? rs addedv thought tkis answer a rather " cani « jJiejeli " pae ; and there ihematcer dropped . ' >> : '¦ jr ' " . ; ' . , . ' ¦ :
s Remaukablk Cask . —A -veryremarkable case has occurred in the village of Bcelett . Last year a young mac , who is now in his 33 d " year , w « s taken ill , and according to his . mother ' i * account , he continued for tbirty-eigbt days without taking any food except liquid , chiefly water , aod that only for a portion ef tbe trme'meBtiened . * The nam « diseaw has returned this ' season . It is noV twenty- * ix'dayf since betook any other nourishment except what isay be derived from water * . ^ i » £ a « Ji . fs jfre wortby peop l * , ^ pd n * Tejio wneeivubjii e wpans fo ?> tteu > ptingimpt > etion . —KeUo Paper . ¦¦ ' ¦ ' ¦ - ¦ - '¦
SiTDDBw ' DfeATH . ^ -A grei& seofeaiku ) wae pt « i ducttd in rbe '»«^ ee eoart , ( if ^ dB tone oa Thur , d ? y mrrning upon its b > ing ' airowiH- « l-in . ot JkTrl Minfiatt , one » f t ^ ecognig ; . ffiaglHtraltt )) bai been found dead in his b ^ j »« h ^ j | e ^ SS ^ bQ " weDt to call bim ( . The worthy gtnflpi ^^ ii ^ jkB }|^> Qrt on " vVednevdiiT , and appearj ^| i J ^ . ^^^^^ b ^^ - spirits , lie WHAT ^^ iii ^^^^^^| re » peet must exist amongTOp ^ fn ^^ rfnjriHmfNivic the premier denonncea tae ? s «^ iBe « ' ta ^| Mr ^ ri ^^ w colJeagUfg on tbe subject of the c « rn , ftnta'ii i'f * ^ > iide « t dream that ever eatesed thi isii > # <) fr ^ uH" '
ANNIVERSARY DUSN « E ¦!» HONOUR QF THE MEMORY OF &R > : COBBETT . [ The following portions * ofc-Mr ^ Relliwi ' s speech as Chairman ot the Cobbett Anniversary . Dmner , we give from the CAampha : 'TOfy 4 * w , ell worth perusal . ] ... .-, ,- ¦ ¦ -,: On Monday week thu anmventtCT : dinner wa < given at the Crown arid Auclj ofijJiS'th ^ S trand . ; Nearly a hnndted gentlemen . Wt oWn'tD -dinner . ' Mr . John Fieiden , M . P . fiwcflWJieaiit presided . After the cloth was removed , and < irat « said by the Rev . Dr . Wade , . * M * The Ch airman rose , and addressing the company , said , they were again met to do honour to tile memory of a man , whom it wa&osaetK 88 ary for him
to laud , whose character was written in bis workx , and those works Were familiar to pwst of then : tti «* y ought to be to all . The toast he ' wis about to propose to them was , " The . M / uporr o / .-William ) Cobbett . " Before giving it ; he might be excukexi lot dwelliug a little on some © f . those topics with which they were all pretty familiarly acquainted , and whicb it had been Mr . Cobbett ' s . habtt to disfeus * , botH in the closi-t with the pen , and «^ li the people out of doors ; and to consider what prospect there win before us of succeeding in arriving at those object * which he had not lived to r ^ acb , bnt to which h ^ said we should come in time . He delighted to use his pencil in pourtraying the state , of the people , aud especially of the working people . the producers ot all
the wealth . For them , indeed , he lived , wrote , fcnd spoke , and never ceased to defend them from all the iusults to whieh they were exposed—from-tuo * e who got rich by their exertions , at whatever peril that doty was discharged . He was gone ; and they were left ; and it was lor those who thoHght bis ppiuion ' * sound , to uphold , as he bati done , tfco liberty and rights of the working clRsses ^ -to tread in his . « tep !< , and follow out his policy . ffftar ^ And cheers . ) "Mr . Cobbett bed , under the gloomiest . ojrenru-» tnuces , al * a > s encouraged the . reformers to look f « rwanl to eveuU , to exercise patience and to dv tbf ir dutv . Let them now enquire what events hua happened , and what events were'how * to be expt-cied
to work out the great end which be Lad olw * y * in \ -iew , and which he * rote fortHn i > nrpo ^ e of accomp lishing a radical reform in tbe Commons' House od Parliament . Let them fim consider the coudiiioi of the people . If U \ e state of the working people was appalling , » o also lie could assure thata vw that oi their employers . He had bad the opportunity Ol minute inquiry into the state of the people on th » l and , at the ^ pinuiuj ; jenny and tbe loom ; and tlie ptesent distress of all was beyond any thing he had ever witneiwetl ; Siiice lie Imd been . returned lo Par-Lament , 1 m ? had had tb \ - opportunity « f iaquiry , nnd had made it hw dtf ' ty to 3 »' ciose 4 bii condition of the people . He had bvgun with the npoiest of all , the ioom nd hatl
nana- wegver ^ j « prowd before a committee of tbe House ol Commons , that since the peaca , tbe return they rewbed for"fbeir labour had been gnidaaUy reduced 70 pef cciit . He had proved ^ 1 * 0 , in detatt ithat the profits of ( heir employt-rs had «« i * il ^* B rtin e prouortioB . Thu was prov » d , not Ml ^ with regard to tbe employers of the hand-loi « h weaver . * , but those also who were eugsfod in tnanntactarinp by machinery , whose profits as well hud falien " 0 per cent . 'I he wages of the men ' fell ol ' course in the same proportion : or more , for the weaker party suffered most . There was » omethinK to account for the distress , without attributing it to the fiiultof the employer . He had since had tbe opportunity of proving in Parliament on the bot * r « law committee of which he was a member , that the labourers on the land w «« re n » t better off . He had proved it to demonstration ; proved it to the satisfaction even of his opponents . And he could assure them
that they were « enumeroo « , that be bad a hard battle to fight , Yethad he compelled them to admit the fact . He had proved thatthe labourers in husbandry wtre so destitute , that many of them in full employment , had uot more than twopence a-day for tbe xnaitiUinance of each member ol their families . He would * . ©• give them the pietare of the downward progress ol that destitute class of persons , ifee fland ^ ooiii wearers , in the words of " the report « f the committee appointed to inquire into thmr condition-r-a committee comprising sixty-seven Members otthe liouso of Commons . After silting two Aeesions , that committee had declared in two separate reports thai the statements he had made were pot in the
slightest degree exaggerated . That they were sorry tii fiud that all the tales representing tne miser ) - ot these people were by the evidence foll y confirmed ; and that they had borne their privations with a patience unexampled . This , too , 1 t must be recollected , was no small affair . Thi « daw of workmen , and those depending on thnn , ftre stated by morn than one witness to number 80 Q , 000 < They exceeded the number of tbe slave * for whose emanci pation £ 20 , 000 , 000 , to be paid input by these poor weavers , were voted . The report « nd «« hat llitf-sUta
of these people was proved by Need ham , on fr . e part of the men , and confirmed by the masters , confirmed by every witness-who > came « p fur them or agaiust tuem . One of tbe mult * ! Wa » exhibited in the following Uble of weavers' wages , aud their power over proviviuus for a series of jftr The » agp « , from 17 V 7 to MsOi , » ere on the average 26 > . 8 d ., capable of purchasing lOO ^ puunda of fl » txr , or 142 pounds of oatmeal , 826 pounds of . potatoes , or 65 pounds of meat , making ageperal aveiagaol 281 pounds . Taking the . gaote average in every ut-riod , the remilt was aafollovrs ;—¦ ' . ''•
Penod . Ave ^ ir kIy ^ ate ?" 8 ' Mries . From 1797 to 1 SO 1 26 « . 8 J . 281 Iba . — 18 Wtol 8 ll SO * , Ui . , t ¦¦ ¦ :. ¦¦ Sim ¦— ' . — iblltol 818 J 4 » "d . . -, 131 — — 1818 ( 0 1825 bs . 8 d ' J 08 ' — — ISiitolW ; « s . 4 S . ' " 83 — — Ibii to 1634 -5 s . 6 d . - " - t 53
—The inquiry did not extend beyond 1834 , which was the reason of the la . « c period teing shorter than ehn rest ; but in tbe whole series the decline in th wages of tbp weaver wa ? 70 | percent . Tiu * inquiry was not limited . They look , every part of Eugkaua , they took Scotland , they took . Ireland ; and they found Ireland , a . ' iu every cane , suffering J . he num But thw account of the wea \ -ers' wages , published rn the authority of these sixty-seven members , ought to be in tke hands of ewry man who wished to know tbe real state of tbe country . The . first year that he himself » at in Parliament , ihere ' was a Committee , of which he was a member , on the state of cummerce and manufacture * . They had it prored , by the evidenceof both workmen aud
employers , that in 1833 both together got only £ 30 for lor ike game work for which they got £ 100 iu J 815 . If the employer * could not get toe price , they could not pay the men . They Veil opoa tbe men , the weaker party . But they could not . b ^ iairly blamed for the whole of this ; they did . it in . the attempt * to save themselves , aud self-pr « sfcerv& £ ian was the first law af nature . If th « y could get nothing by a trade , they could not continue itj or , if they did , they would soeu Tendi i themselves destitute without ultimately benefittiog the working classes . Wo were too apt to blame them , without xonndering that they-Were hnrried along bya < ysCem which they could nut controul . He would tto « coffl « to th «* inquiry into the condition of the labourers on the
land , in which he had been engaged k « tyear , and in at tendance upon which hebaiuy un » 4 hisnealtb ; bw it he Lai , it w « . sia tbe discharge ofhis . duty . Upon thai committee he had been forced , iu spite of icord John Russell's irjclications . A certain member ol the House kad told Lord John-that if he ( Mr . Fielden ) were left out , he would divide the House uponiu To this the little man . replied , " No ; he is too out-and-out . " But the member persevered ; and Lord John feeling , that he could not Openly oppose his being on this committee , and e . t the same time oppose the motion of which he had given notice tor a total repeal of tbe . New Poor Law , node his name appear in the ministerial lwt -of the committee which was moved in December , in . December he * ent down- 4 w& men to AmpthilL not
" tiatbe panted 4 o get at Lord John , bnt because there it b # d been boasted , thjat the New Poor . Law was working well , and , to the jatisfactaon of the labourer * themselves j and it wa » wbwe it worked well that he wished to . pji ' tU . -to , tbe ' proof ,, | J « parsed them to take a . whole gar / sh , ; There were jixteen in . tbe ' Ampthill unionj and tiertTsc * ¥ out , of about . wO inbabuanto which ' seemed likely to atford a fair criterion of the condition of the' wboje , Jpcre they Had « i < c # rtaia » d thifwagW aad toe work oJiMl ^ he'labotirer ^ -aad the- worft of their wages . ¦ 15 »' ere were more than ^ batt of them , whose incomu for food and clothing did not feminist toi more than £ 4 7 s . Q ^ A . a-bpad for ' t % e whole ' year . ' . There wa one of them , of whom he couW jwvbt thijak , t » ut — .
Here Mr . t . paused , aod , then raid , I'll follow t ' Se history of that man ; his name wa .-Cox . Ht » '• wiMi-sof thosa thrown ou their own resources ; Vip bad a family , and , in spite of bis •/ xertiong , and hi * aversion to it . was obliged to go into thu workhouse . He disliki-d it so much , that he made an vffort t <» get out to seek for work . . , He was obliged to take his children wiili * htm ;; and one of two years old left the woikUouse « w na ^ ed as it was born ; that wa « , it had no clothes o ! ifc * pwn ^^ ut wm wapj-wd iip in a petrieoat belongiug *> J * me othet > or'a « n of thb family , -Hilwi * t in search of work ; ' bat bad no hoiree , for while in Uto workhoase his tornitare bftdl tteWti M > ld for rent ; He had n < rit * j er honso nwr furnitare , niid he took uhelb'r in * Wo . where h « remained fourteen \ kmW
KHtUnj ; j « och menus of Jiving by labour as h « coold . rhe o-merj of the bam was * nf Iwt obliged to turn h ) n » <» ot , wanting to ute . it , He wan allowed then to AeUeriu another burn , till that too wbs wanted ; * ben he W&ncgnhi turned ouf , aud obliged to take shelter in tbe house of a relat on , who liad a wi e and two childKn , a » d a house consisting of two room * nine fee * square , in which eleven perraiis were uow ciwwded . H « made at last a seqoud trial » t the w « ikhott * e ; and be . < Mr . F . ) heard pow of h » s Ueat » nn it . -Whnt wea befiome of his children he epuld . -flok ^ riB , - AoDth er case was that of Pcdderl who , witli a wife ana Kve chiUrfn , bad only £ . 22 5 * . for a ^ wtt oje yesur for food and clothing . Thi * w « s oiiemnn , ; among taany oth rs , who ^ charRcter
cerae tiuder tnw ebniadwdtioii of the committee ( hear >; tor the Commissioners and d ^ erMalthBsiaii vermin , answejedevery cvcxplnint by alleging that the auftVirerji were ind «> leiiUuidi 4 jos < 4 to work , improvKteWV- ^ uwMhwl ^ s , ; aud , thyrutore , he tlenired that im eypfyca ^ e tha chardcttr « huuld be inquired w » i $ 6 * 1 i £ A ' a jtobd cl ^ arncter i ^ w ^ he Vic « r , from tue Cliurchwarden , and fwm Wslantamujover . f ii 1833 Ptader 4 » ad two children , in 1837 be had ftve . Me xcareely ever laid his head mi . hi * pillow Without t unking' of the caw 6 f Pedder . Hts bad inquired l »; s character of Mh P *? rw » , who carue up us an advocate of the nt'W law ; and h » d been Htg |> Sheriff bf theconniy . ' Ttii * man bad £ 22 5 . < . Jor Hewiffi persons , tliHt was abont twopence n-ditv for
each . 'Ibis w « u lite ( ate of an agricultural labourer in once happy England . Twopence a-day lor the support of . riich . ol Itis . family for a full day ' s work . They worked loiuer iu factories indeed ; but then there they were worked to death . They did-more than huiuan nnture conld endUrw—and the refusal of the Hpu . « 0 > of Cominoiis to redress it , was concurrent fchh the vote of twenty m'illiom to eiuaucipate-Oiu ue « ro ^« . That House of Commons passed tne bill fef making them apprentices at the cost ol twenty millions ,. w . jtU a qlauow tbe wswictini ? the litbour of adulU ) to' forty-five hours a-week ; while > u the sum * s ^ sion , at the snggetftiou of honest Lord Althorp , sixty-nine hours a-week was the uma of worn Used fcr . * it English factory child
. l he house that cousentfd to ttiat , was a bouse that wanted meimiljg . TIhw , on- ths laud , in the . tflctorics , and at the loom , the working pnople were ju deep distress . It had been s ^ own t <» be as bad with the workers at the anvil ; li »> th in Sheffield and Birmingbam the djftre . s w » s greater than the world had any notion of . He recollected Mr . Salt among the wiiue-sjtjtrf who had proved it ; and he believed Unit there , a * ' elsewhere , it was now greater tlma ever inowu berore ; a « d how coultt it ' ne expected to Hmelid with the weight of taxes that they had te sustain ? The tnxna , or the expenditure ( wlucli , one year with another , wan the same , thing ) , came lart yfftf-to •¦ H ; ty-ihwe millions . This . year they wnuld , be , at least , tiltv . four . Now . let us « ee
what thu really was . My . Weal , a Poor Law Cummi . »> rioner , hail Rtated weekly wages iu husbandry at Is . 5 f d . a day , or 8 s . 9 J . a week . Suppose them employed every day , which was beyond the truth , it would take tbe whole wnge * of two millions anJ a hall of men to raise that sum ; aud allowing these their vhare ot wives and children , half of the whole VQpulation were employed in earning the amount of this wnuual charge . This was supposing that 8 j « . 9 d . w « r » the wnges , nnd tkat tUfy ttlwayn had wage . * , which everybody knew that they had not ; acd iu Ireland the wa ^ ea , iustead of 8 s . Dd ., were not more thnu 4 s . or 5 . 4 . Could it be mutter of suruwPTttjiif the people wer » di < tres !» ed ? And yet philOMjpher . x fiud the cause ol it iu tbeir bt-iiie too numerous * , aud
wauted to mend matters by making them emigrnte . Yes , ' the non-producers wert * too numeron !>«< aiiii their emigration would turn the people usefully but surelyv . when tbe pehpl * were in want ^ it could not be because there were to » mauy of the makers of bread and cherje . Their frienil used never to be moi-e at home , than wtien proving the weight of tbe taxes , and the mischief it did ; aud -wherever W « dincussed politics , we ougbt to make a point of insictipg that taxation was tbe cause of ull mr distress . They were ojjpoA-d'lty'tbts fallacy that ( axes weren « dneed . At tkeefoim-of lhe war they were seveuty millions , U » t year h'ft y-fonr millions . But they all knew very well tbut the nlteruttous in the currency bad made tbft fifty-iour millions now nttvre , in fact , than tbe
seventy iniliiuust * the » . During the wnr p-. iper was exchanged again .-t gold , and thirteen shUliugs of money were worth and would boy a pound of pnp » T ; taking that difference as the measure of the depreciation , though it was nat the true one , and the tiltvfour millions uowU vied wereequnlin amount to § 3 miilioutt in thu currency x > f 1814 . ThuwM enoughto » how that taxation had increased , instead of duniiiuhmgi and to account for the public suffering ¦ Jtarfflg increased iahjo . ; with sufferiug increaset ! empration , and witli temptaiion < Srime . The . pro- ' c-si that produced " : tlria suffering however Would produce the remedy in Universal SufFrxge . And we must watch ^ arrowJjr ihHt w ^ j Wettj ^ not , . wheti too timexftw ( e . cheated ,. out ' otoiur Jibprtke .. One of
the spr ; t > tuaarnntefi'for a ^^^ chtttWk -jraiUlir « st » ratit » n of » compuUwxiTft ^ JW top jrelief of tUe . poor , Thw wiw ' tne ' pnijr * und fp'jndaUon f <» r society , uot tbat , the . witf o * = only , ' the' iVphaii . the » v f ^ : ^ i ^^ T ^ , j ^ fim \ Wmi % iiar in nvcejsiey , should U . if'hMW onT « r th * f tftkvte o ? the soil ; not as a charity , " But ^ rttgbc , » hwW bar * his share in Uie soil ; aud that withoot any incumbrance on it : there should be no propwey in th « * oil at all * The Americunf wisely adopted lhe Poor Law of EliMjboUi ; they kneWj iW valot * , and , beW fr ^ -e to dewntiiae , adopted unimpaired , and unimproved iha ' t law , one of tha twisttUat «^ er w ^) 4 e-, vised by tbe wit of nun . Thoughtful men mu * t ^ ee that tb * period might artive when England might have no Govern mem ; and then , without aucb a Irw
. there would be no safety . UnivB « nl ^ uffrage without , U would ouly lead lo d »* or 4 er . His sexoud maxim ' would be to have . honest money , lo baye no ooinerof monej- but the head of the state , whether tliatho . td was a president as in Americaiora king as in England . He wouldliave uo rtg-mMiey , which was ttnly the eti- ' ¦ deuce of * Vbt . ;' ; The eight ttundrad millions was b |) arv . of the same thing , and be wondered how any one should ^ bei an-euemyef that debt who was an . . admirer of die drculatieu wnich built it up . Hv did not believ ©^ tb « re wb * an tone « t « r man living thaa Mr , Attwood , but >•» though ^ Mr . Attwood wrong ou that subject , as Mr , Altwopd probably tUought jhira ; and it was better that tfttsir opinioa on sucli aubjecu should W fraukly stated , in order that all might come to a , better understanding ^
THE FAGTOKY CHILD . ( From a Paper m the ' Heads of the People . ') ' Yes , out Httle factory girl is . nine years old ; she no longer a child ; « he it a dwarfed woman . Her iufancy waVjpa *» ed in pining , poling waiit ; from the firut , almost an" u ntended thiug , left days and days atone , the ' mother denied the enjoyment ot maternal ji ympatbies by sharpest penury ( the fiend that , at the hearths of the poor , now chills , now bli ghts , and now makes stony hard the human beart ) by ket& -necessity of out-door toil for-the infant mouth at boroe . God knows how the child learned to walk ! A ? hort time , and another baby engrosses the few hours ( nay , half-hours ) stolen from work to lavivh on the last born j—and then another htl pless squalid thing ; and . tn « n . another : nnd theu our
littl £ factoVy girl becomes a nurra , and , at six years old , hujjaJn , ber arm ' s her half-naked tatttrdemalion brother . ' Sjienas not strength to carry him , meagre as le ia , but shuffles and 8 t ambles with him along the streetV aod now site aits in . door-ways ; and now in lanes and alleys her infant mind receives the seeds of ^ future things : ifthings of goodnesr , a blettsed cfiauce ; if otherwHe ^ th e unthinking virtuotiq throw up " their Vyes and rearvel at the wrong ! And thus the child passes her first nine years of infant life . "What an infancy r Lean and withered , and c * re-worn 1 [ ycp , -eare-worn . ! . 'her baby countenance made dull aud « olourlesi by the miserable aspects everywhert ^ iurroundinflr lier ) , she seem * as if she
had never" been ytHift ^ r ; nay , more , that ) ears could hardly make ber look more old , there ia within her face of babyhood so deep a stamp of «* d maturity . ^ Alli'ttife better yeuro ing * of the heart—the peace , the wportivtnew , born and aboonding at the hearths of corapeteuee—what ¦ has she known of these ? Life to her ba » been a jeylean , selfish , hungry , peevish thing . Her hone htin been the home of grindiBg want ; at her fifrsWe , man , the lord of creation , ' has been a ' serf ' to the lowest nvcessities , and not always a sileiif mi narepining one . ' How often is 'the brutal husband and the reckless- ^ ttser lhe horrid Bandy yrpxk M teiseiy alone ! " Of all tie
violence ,. tb&- « fueltjr ,. ifefoetpi ott ^ ach . dther if ^^ miserabl ^ poefljiofriinjicH of itii but the wild-fiuti burst of intolerable . setf-jn ^ i « i » g } > AndVbtfrr'Kttie ' factory girl ha »)« eenthi * , ; and thejhadow df the evil narEailen npritt b » r ¦'¦ 1 tMe # i < i \ t i i- < St :-: ' ; . v " " ' ¦ > t « v a « , bowbvtr , * wbmi ^ &ji : ne cVrti * to tJSfe factory-.- Wliat * Wttei" *« # bn !" ' Howethe w 5 » 4 Howls - ^ witfa ' wnat' a daj * ' tb » ^ l « ef bffiiBg ag ainst the wtrtdowir * The ' eirtlJ to Iro ^ hafa sis ironp and the Wfn 4 « cut 8 % lighlf Sgl £ J ' 300 w' \« titi ; the grouni It is $ t £ 'b ' clbclflojj , a % an uary induing . \ The cWld . « . up ^ « n 4 with ,, it 8 ^ canty 41 cj 6 vexing pulled abaiit X « j pesoendf shjiftring to the . ftre ^ t . , Eoqr little i wenoh I her , bla © 4 : ii fWJieA voder ; jber \ ytjy ; fipg ^? ¦> ' - ° - . - ¦ <¦ " . ' - ' . ' - : ' . ' : . . ' •! . ¦ ' *¦ ¦
nails . Her foot , too ( tor her shoes have been patched pa » t further patching , and vawn in halt-a-dozen place .- ) , is galled with a , nasty chilblain , and » he limps most painfully . Her father , bouud to . ' the same factory , lif e ** her upon hw back , and checking an oath , groana from between his teeth , lhe girl i s nine year * old ; and ; half-cUd , in a desolating January morning , is carried—through cold aud darknww carried—to work ! „ _ . The girt \ a now in the factory . From thft moment her childhood utterly ceases : xhe in bondsnomaji to all tbe cares of mature life . Nine bouri pePdiy is Mv Hotted tjme for work ; tbe reihainder of the
tweetv-teur to be pawed—in what p in the oporto ot youth—in' the happy , alftlesu recreation if children , to whom even the connoiouHnent of existence im at times a source of the keenest pleasure f * An hour and a half is jtiwa te * breakfast and dinner ; and when we remember the vrage «> arned by the factory girl , sometime a » much a « 4 « . 6 d . per week , and the costliness of the luxury of bread , an houi- and a half for two meals is surely time sufficient ; they , might , we have no . doubt , be eaten—aye , bothr-in halF the allotted time * . There yet remain many hour *)—hours for what ? For the merest rudiments ef education ? After nine hours' unceasing labour in the cotton factory , how elaxtio the mind " . ' ¦ —* ho . w
apt for instruction !—how strong to pore over a hook !— -how ' -fitted' to receive any impressions that >* hall raise its possessor a degree above thi * beast slaOKhtwred for the ahamble * ! Tbe factory girl Lre ^ turns home , and what can !> be do but sleep ? What should she do , but seek oblivion from the noise , the racking noise of engitieH , tfae hell of WMioda , w"h ! ch the has all day suffered ? Who would keep her one balf-hour from her miserable bed P Wh » would lessen tbe bleasinga of sleep , since slt-ep may Hometimes bring . to her at least dreams of quiet , visions ot ha ^ pinecti ? What to her is reading and writing ?—let h * quaff forgetfulness ! >
ADDRESS TO J . FROST , ESQ ., FROM THE CHARTISTS OF DALKE 1 TH . Sir , — -Having read , with feelings of the utmost admiration and respect , your bold and dignified Ittters in answer to the insolent communication * ot that meddling and haughty aristocrat , Lord John Russell ; w « deem it proper thus publicly to tender you our humble meed ot approbation , for the noble and truly patriotic conduct you evinced on tbat occasion , in throwing abide all personal and selfiutere-ted motives , aud—conscious ol the juxtiee of the cause you have so nobl y espoused—standing lorth , in tbte lull dignity of man ; and repelling , with just indignation and firmness , the lalse auo * highly impertinent injjinuations ( rontaine'd in his letters , aud treating with coo ^ pt his nulicioux
intent to erase your name irom the Commission ot the Peace . We would not , Sir , thoa publicly have taken any notice of that eorreapnndence , had it not been evident , that every working man in Britain coula not but ftei personally insulted in that short , but inxidious , epistle ; which contained his intent to deprive \ ou of your magisterial authority , which , * ince , in defiance of every princi ple of justice , and without any regard to public opinion—he has bad tbe hardihood to carry into effect ; thereby showing the determined hostility of him and bis partv , to such of your station and office , as might cmduce , by their example and iuHuence , to advance tbe cause oi Liberty .
What , Sir , would any man of common sense think of our so-called " gloriounConstitutiuny" when n haughty fopling , hucIi as thv Secretary of State , can , under the guise of law , seud forth his fiat , and annul an appointment , by tbe people , of a Justice of the Peace , merely because his dandyship im ij is-^ It-iKtd with him , for endeavouring to obtain nutatahtial justic * for tbe working clause ?; b » whom , that parasite , and his weaking , yet dexpotic faction , are supported in ea « e and ¦ othful effemiuence , at an enorinovs expensei Y « such is the fact , * hen tte see this sapitut legislator ' , placing bis miaimatn of . wit , in opposition to thp deelareri will of the people , apd BHperwtding theiriteeinion , in jour election , though they saw—were satisfied with—and appreciated your nerviees . ' a '" '
This , Sir , is ootMevr of the matter ;^ and ^ while « " "gain , whh e «^ feeling of indignatiooi de . Dounce bin arrogaobe in' this matter , which ha * marked him , strong ^ . tbjin tver , as the decided enemy of ihepeople - ^ eT » ewi ly thatoVyow lor your very propv-r and ppfrfttid feplieV , whieh has endeared you to tb « opprt-sjtcd and en * laved part ot the community , a- * a teal friend , and unflinching advocate of their cause . ¦ We are Sir , Your sincere friends , The Members op thk Dalkkith B , Ai > icAt Reform Assocuii . on . Williasc JaRbet , Secretary . Dalkeith , March 10 th , 1639 . ., — . — ^^^—
FACTORY SYSTEM .-DR . MACDOUALL'S SPEECH . [ The following la the best w » prt we have been able to procure of Dr . Macdonaffs admirable speech on - introducing the Factory Question before tUe National Gonvention . A fall report was nut token « t 'the time , but onr readers will perceive it is uot to be lost ; for the . Dr . ha * been n ^ ueited ^ i > r the Conventioa to write out the speecl ^ t fuU jeufth , with a , vi « w to it * genend circulation . ] -Dr . 5 fxtdouall , pursuant to notice , moved a re-* olotiotilortneConveutionto take into consideration the lactprjr ay > t ^ m of Eoglaud , for the purpo « n of t- * pp « -wii } g , a . decided opinion on that ystem as it !^^ f ., H e . 8 a » a that the question of the factory sy ^ em was one of tl » e greatest importance , and one
> Wi Whicn advcirted Opinion should be formed b / UieGonveutiou , as it embraces the cause of a nopulatWQ oi up wards of one million and . a hah diitresHedjpenjohs . ' ( Hear , hear . ) He would confine hun » eirto fact * ascertained by personally ipgpectinjf the bouses of the poof , which exhibited a maos of human beings goaded by a bad system . When he wun < -toed thfe enormities practised under it , he did ¦ n » t hesitate declaring , as » man , and » medical man , ihkt it was fraught with moral and physical destruction . At Ramiibottom , the condition of the poor engaged at the factorias was miserable in the extreme ,. There were 309 cottages occupied by them which , with a few exception * , were indifferently furnished , and were so situated as to be injurious to their inmates , both pliyrtcally and morally .
Twenty-one families inhabiting those cottages , with four individuals in each family , occupied oue bed-rosm ; twenty-five fnmiltes of s& , one bed-room ; twentyfeur families of five , one bedroom ; five families of eight , one bed-room ; t * o families of twelve , and one family of thirteen person * * occupied one bedroom . ( Cries of "Sbame , shame . " ) in other places it was tlie same . The wag ** of those persons did not exceed five shillings on an average , while there were casea where the wage * was ouly 2 * . 6 d . per week , from which were to be deducted—rent , coals , and the wear of furniture , besides the doctor ' s bill . Heuce , rngi , starvation , and death were the fate ol those unfortuuate p ople . ( Hear , hear . ) At the British Association it was asserted that the men at Ash ton were comfortable and happy . He ( Dr .
Macdouall ) could not then reply to or deny such statements , but resolved to inquire into the real trate of tbe working classes at Ashton . He did mo , and the result wan that he lound many instances ot the men of Ashtoti not having taken a morsel of bread for days . In his inquiries he asked of how many males aud females , workers and eatery each famih consivteJ ; Iaon ^ case ho fouudthefamUytocottKwtof « ix » al < w , Awe female * , of whom two were workers . Thelattex received between them 17 s . a veek , from whioli tbe snm of & » . 5 J-1 . for rent and . xxiitls , bevidv ^ 2 d . a week to Support a charily school . Th * laller wa < exacted whether they had childrenar not . Those dedocuons left lls . fid . a week lor the family , or 2 } 4 . per bead for each member of the family p * r day . ( Oh , oh !) Snch a sum watf insufficient to nauport
men workers in a heated atmospheiv , tn > U nve in st morning to half-past seven o ' clock in Ovb evening , with the exception of half an hoar allowed for breakfast and an hour for dinner . If the poor people engaged at those factories . were but for a short timu absent after the ringing of the bell , a further itnm was subittracted from their earnings . . la Aanton there are 1 , 074 individuals , of whom only 492 were employed ; eight individuals received for their 8 tipport 40 * . a week , subject to dednctinns , seven rec ' mved iOs ., six received 30 * ., four received 16 s . and nix individuals received 12 s . a-week . These were nominal payments subject to deductions by the masters . When an inspection has been made by Mr . Pherkin or Dr . Ure , the cottages of the poor people wmre m « de clean and beautiful . Hence the people wp&falsoly repre « nted : ( Hear , hear . ) The-factory Jvatomoruinated'in robberv and was aitahHxh ^ i , r
Jnjtwtice , The legislature had been obliged to inter * f ^ -tni an act which , to t » ± tUe , l ^ ast df it was -mur-4 &Wi .. ( PHW | Aeto , ) The ffects ef tlie « y « tom : ' - ** P 1 H I **!?^ y ?* " ** •«* emacia-aBd legi m . tal ^* -5 % 5 ' ^ totaH y destJtO ^ of tne'ifep ^ ot tarn ** mw ( Hfeaf , hSaKjf TCe fact ^ SS have idlestroyed a race of the best Wi ** gbit intelli * feijt cla » s the' » and ^ l 0 otB weavBtij ' wto hix-e fcjen » bode « itmwf be « u « i tw * JoBce knew tfcenu , tet now 5 ^ T'fe ^ ii T ^ P' A » Pittintrodiiced among Bu » KHgltAiwldier ^ lierj ^ ant ^ an 4 -betty oftceni iw yprea , « o . theaters of the fac&riw maTe m ^ n *>« ,. ou , each otlier . - Hfcaca they dafe notsoeak their sen . Umfl « ttfOTatten 4 poHticiqfcet » s ?^^^^^ ^^ giw ^ aociety haat b * e . 0 cianpleteiy ^ underrohed ; tod pafclic confidence 4 aa beea to destroyed by the ¦^'¦ ¦ ' ^¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ - ¦ *< r ^ ' - " * ' - : ' -y : > ' M < : , ¦ ¦¦; .. . - ; , - . v '
— ...... . — - ! : ; ¦— ¦ . === s ^ s : ^ = 3 acenrxed factory syntero , that a despotic ftoverument can introduce auy measure , whether pof > rlaw or cnttralization , amongst them . ( Hear ^ hearJ Htntee , ui a moral and physical , nay , iu a national point of nw » , they were bonnd to remove the e » il a » « o « m a * pbfirtblt ? . ( Hear , hear . ) Oftuo * e inefe fuw have come forward to enpport the National ^ invention , others Jiave only given it ^ beir beat wishes , while a number would nave nothing 4 o do wit ^ iitlier , < tel f *! fc *« r thu Convention , bet oalrjookedH ) nlfrnor ; measures : ( Hear , hehTj ~ - rE& * & * Htgfo 6 [ : " ' tuetof . e * , by n vvi *]) gr ot ipfan | , h « Vft «) ntinneii tci ' kvai st * f >« lHcc > s « nii ; roll ia « ma ^ ttiL Tliey first , build cottageri which return 20 per cent , towards thtt
paymenD ., of which they dMocfed 4 .-1 . ft week even . : ¦¦• from those' unniamed men who never inhabited them . At Enfield were tobo ~ * e * n coitsge * f on die * - floow of w ^ ich gra ** pa » gt 6 iniai ^ jut angh men - paid for them that never dwelt in thrm . They aLio indirectly , through relaUtB « , adoptfeathe Irtck "•» j » i "* tem , by which they who had uot the ready money , : . -.. '; .- ¦ paid the highe « t price for the wont . good * . The - masters also introduced Ae custom brpayiKg wages ¦ 4 » pnblic-hon » e » , and inowted on the infliction of hnes by which a ^ poor man , for being a qnar ^ r of -, au . hoar absent , forfeited a quarter of a day ' * kagef , which , in one ca * e horned to the " ' master 46 OO ""' a year . ( Hear hear . ) , The * wwre awn fined fet a *" ^ Peaking or reading faring the hour * ^ oi bojanesn . . .-:
Iuey were , ib lact , itoojied to iMdust . Heknew \ an mataac * . where a buy , inthe absence of the ovfeit ; : wer , went toft well to till hi » can with water , Q * , ^ i K ^™^» /«««« r methii BristaTi ; m why he -, y bad HbBentei ^ imself . add on die bb >' expbtlttini th * ' % *?* $ > '¦ ^ F VTZ * t * & ' ' ¦ VouMtheiiater fe iSfe ^ ' $ ? ^ ku hw can . . . ( Sha . me , sbamp , ) . - ci Ttetatah « . nt < Soveram < nt recommended tbat the faetoty chrldren shonld be edncated , 'WhHt wa »^ ' ' " rftjnlt ? Ijpdoraut old men and women , w * re elected ^ masters—men who could not read or write ,, and were-obliged to jet some intelligeat neighbour to wnte = a / . ceniKcate ot the children having attM )<] 9 d' ' ' the schnols . ( Hear . hear . V Foe thi >» . oifn ^ iA .
the toHchers charged lij ' d . ' per week , and the ma « r « ra 3 d , ( Hear , hear . ) Women rfnd cbildren , ' " ' coulrary to the law of nature , were . fmpl «* tsd in ^ theae factories ; the delicate framw of . the Y < irmer were runted from their beds to be weposed to the effects of those beated andaceu « ed places . ( Hear , hear . ) He ( Dr . Macdouall ) beheld the milk of those = - women overflowing , aud w hitening the floors of thefactones ^ in con » . quence of tlieir cWldren hnving been denied their natural food * On their ntoTn r ' horn ** , thoie mothers had to g « t their breasts rubbcid . ' .- ¦¦ - ¦ for thejur ^ ose of getting fooM and nutriment for lh « r offspring , tteoce , of 10 . 600 childivn , * not the halt of that number survive five years * ( A thrill of
horror . ) He was called' to attend a woman who was engaged in a factory , who , from con « Untly standing , had the artery of her lee burst—the floor was completely saturated with the blood which cqnld be traced to her dwelling . This pnor woman was far advanced in pr * knaucy . ( Dreadful sensation . ! ^ It wu not the fatiier > npr the mother , por the cliilaV alone , but the grandfather and grandmother , were compelled to work in those factories . He had no objection to machinery if properly osfd . In former time * the mechanic worked eight hours a dav ; if machinery expedited hi * work , halfthat time should now be sufficient for him to earn a livelihood . Such should b « tfce tendency of tbe discoveries of < reniai
and the in . ventioni « of geriioH ; bnt alas , the contrary « nn the caW , a « thi < , instead of being lessened , was doubled . Amongst the young women working in : these places , the Grecian outline of countenance , the elastic srep ' so beautifully but falsf-lr described by Dr . Ure , wer « not to be found . The working men of Lancashire w « -re woree off than'the slaves of the West Indie ? , who worked only ten hours a day , and laboured within the fine of exhanstion . The slave owners would not allow a pregnaiit womaa to be lashed ,, but would have a rordieal man to ajttend . his slaves in cane of illness . He looked with an eye of suspicion on the man who would turn his back on . the white flares , and travel thousands of miles to
« ytnpatfaise : with black slaves . In his opinion , chantv begun at home . ( Cheers . ) As the working classes were , happy aud comfortable , * o in praportion were ihe middle classes , and aa the former were reduced , miseries extended to the l . »» ter . ( Hear , hear , ) The present degraded state of the working classes of England , embrdei the Bntigh cbftracter witl » a deeper and a more deadly stain than either America , the West indie * , or France , with her system of centralization . ( Hear , hear . ) It wai a libel « n the Eiiglish people to call them blood-thirsty , while they are so patient under tbeir wrong *; but lie would advise their rulers to beware of the ontburrt that : will follow exhausted patience . ( Hear , hear . ) Sooner than submit to these degradations in their native land , those workmen have . tran . « p 6 rted their eneriry and talents to
other lands . Under present circom .- 'tances , the balance of society wa » completely destroyed ; aud it would be better . for tbe working clauses to roam as savages thwttgb tbe wild de * ert than submit to their present « Wry . ( Cheers . ) Inr conclnsion , Dr . Macdouall urged upon . the roemWfs of th » Convention tne necessity of calling public atteution to these deplorable facts , in order that 'Englishmen , Scotchmen , Weichmen , and Irishmen . might come to oue unauinion * resolve—that the accursed » ystoni sbonU no longer exist , and sat down amidst loud applause . . ; ; . Amon « st other rtatintical details introdnced in lhe canrae of his gpeeci , Dr . Macdouall ga » e the tolIoWHigv relative t » the meana' of ' subsistence , &c ^ of anumber of families working injeotton factories , and residing in Hyde : —
To be sap- No . ef work- Amwmioi , Average per d » r ported . era , - ^ w «» Sb - i »? h . *< L i ' ¦ ¦ *¦ ¦* - , ? X ~ - > ' -& ¦ : ¦ ¦ ¦ .- . . . »¦ - « - :- »^ r : rr ^ :: mh ¦; • 3 ! « . t-i , ; :-: ^< y ^< am . >> ¦ . 1 .. - e ¦ ¦ . g \ . " t . ¦ .- - ;¦ % , - ' r ; - ^ ' ^; ' - . *¦ ' 2 : If must be ,. na 4 ^ # j ^^ af ^ these nominal sums are to he ^ il < % mgm * r the bating , and the landlord ^ cfiar ^ e to ^^^ or cftalg , | nd for water , jrhe urnajge giren- applies to t )» iactual fund * which the people receive and b «» at their command for the ^ nirpose" oTnieefrng sfcJ&Sily and inikvidnal exigendie * . Th «« Bty ^ ogftfeitect ' , the tear and wear of Arouowv clorttfwgifirtc cluba , money cluUs , and contributioiw u * 3 i | Si « d » rint poor , besides the pajaynt of thopWW&ftecoants . ¦ " ¦ " t * ¦! ¦ '\ f * ~ r -, t ¦¦ , ! t ' ,: - . -1 . _ £ lt'l-4 »^ . ' * - . . ¦¦
oottov aPRt » tcomrr xomgsrs . laxs tHAJOU , —• ¦« " » BEAD THE PENNY FACTORY . LAD !! PUBLISHED WEEKLY . Leeds : —J . Hobwn , S ^ r-OBix' ] Hueimter , Jl . Ileywood ^ . London , 3 , Cka * e , l r fihoe Laaaw .
TANDIEMJEN'S LAND ; COMPANY ^ '' MTABlb-HM 1826 , VI ACT « TH Ge . 9 ^ ' CHAP . 3 S , 1 NP JMC 0 * POXAI ^» < 3 T moYAI ( "' . ' ^ CHAKJS »' mCK f AWiMS . . . ^ " 0 ^ EMIGSANTS iLi , * S 5- ^ 3 ? qj ^ i *• . s ? www ^ . ^ naot * . Erery rufcnaaUoh may be 2225 ° U *? "PP ^^ w b / letter , ^^ iaV aAfaeMed to &i « n . R . Ewji Esq . ^^ y to tbe Ctmvuv ^ oa Bn * £ aa ^
^Ornsh «N9 Bomrt Tu £*Tteo%*Tttt.
^ ornsH « n 9 Bomrt tu £ * tteO % * tttt .
* . " ' *¦>¦ f : &gg »» ' * i . THE L'ATE 3 T-. 'BILL--OK )^ S |» . - ' - Mr . Patfnaton ' s B \\ X " to ' 'gt ^ ti ^ iunft the laws relating the sale of Beer ' / fmSfr ^ attempt to make the beverage ' . of the pbor mair ^ &arer . Not content with donbling the price of nii bre& 4—that i " , of giving him half a Itfaf for a whole one—by their Corn-lawn ,. t $ e Quires : now endeaTott ^ to enhance the cost of another chief necessary of life . * Tba modu * operand ! is simple . Under tbe " present law .
any person may take out an excise licedve lor « Hing beer , on the payment of £ 2 . 2 . « . and . entering into certain gecurities ? Mr . PakiBgton ' a bill propones that 00 licence shall be given to persons occupying premise * rated at less than £ 101 per a » nnm , aud occupied for a shorter period thanatwelvemonth ; the £ 10 . to be raiwd to £ 15 , ia London and in towns with a population of 5 uQ 0 and upwards ; the e » st of the licence , mor eover , to be raised from two guineas to five . It is intended thattae-fiill shall not
come into operation rill October , 1840 , in order that the Jttjce _ number . of persona whci will be deprived 01 their business bj the measure may have time to prepare themselves for the loss , Of course tWew is a pretence for this bill—namely ^ a d- ^ ire to make beer-nnusea " respectable ; " an if enough had not been done under the provision of the existing . law , which requires sureties to the amount « f £ 20 . from every person applying for a licence . The effect of the bill will inevitably be an enhancement uftthe price of the poor man ' ts drink . At the P'eseat time of suffering from the high price of bread ,, and with the prospects of continued hardship , much a . measure is cruel , and must cause additional irritation in a class already sufficiently exasperated against their superiors in rank . ' > ' - ^
It i » raid that robberies and poaeViing-expeditionfi are pUnued in beer-Bouses . Very likely ; but is it credible that me * disposed to corannt -such breaches otthe law wiUre « r » in , if some tamdreds of beershops are cloned ? "Will they net meet elsewhere for the mme purpose ? Publicity * which in « lwe degree must attach to ail such piacw , wouW rather tend to prevent the pUnning of robberies la beer-« hop » . / y . ; . _ ¦ No ^ doubt , politics are duwusge * and newrokpen read by tbe fireside of the cheap house nf enwrtain . ment ; and mbn > will snspec ^ that the Squires' ho * . Ulity nay be . traced to $ h « ir eonacioutnewof that iact . _ But o > the Squirts imagine that safety can be round m preventing open discussion of real or ima-W **^ ********^**^^*** H « nre aHegiance , and all ay duwsntent , by a measure whieh will pro ! woke the Qlasaes wkom , they fwr ? They decUi * ia
mat t ^ Sgneqltorallabourers rejoice high-price * corn . and dew . fcready but they can Acarctlr be b * doltmh «• to twliete tbst . tenger journey « nd higher price will gnre additional flavour * ' to the peasant ' s "FVgb * ' V - : v ¦ ' . ' _ . f ^ . We advise the laadowners to let " tbe peasantry alone : T 8 nffidfeiJt lbf the day ai * Hie ' Coro-laws an * their * etn » fet « in «»^ Tte «« trange ^^ , « JRWW » lt « Taii . «(» r . kt « g n » enraad ^ e cUuw * bove tbera ° ^ r" *? f If ! £ tnw ^ ed . . Ignorantof what w-d «»« * hd K ] t-ft « ifc ? tJi * 'Ara ! «« AoW ; ^ bwAouli i « Be ^ «<*» Uw ^^ ttA ber * nforc * di .. % e « hoaUi not envy i » * » # m ^ iMa ** r ! t in the Ion * winter niiihtai ,
- r # ? troP «» t » n owners of beerhouses mar h » l txpsctedto © ffera'pftWIrfnt ^ fiisfetanee'fe ' a W « J « rtir WhjcB -toast ^ fcitilfcf HaT % ettmduiit of tkfeiy ^ ftetty . Spectator . , *' , -:: -,..,.. , ., . K .. ~ . ' . » fauf- ¦ ¦
Northern Star (1837-1852), March 23, 1839, page 3, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/vm2-ncseproduct1050/page/3/