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MS . PATRICK CHIGGINS AND THE SLANDERER , O'CONNELL . The following letter from Mr . O'Higgira , to the Klhor of the Dublin Freeman , ia reply totfaeBavage growl of the " Liberator , " would hare been published is the Star some weeks ago ; but we accidentally lost the paper containing it which had been fcnrarded by an iriBh friend . u TO THS EDITOR » F THB FBBBHAX * Sib , —I did not expect , nor did any of ray friends expect , th&t after the persecution which I suffered at the hands of Mr . O'Connell and some of his followers in 1833 , an attempt would be now made to renew it . I did not expect that , at the end of eight years , so pioo 3 a gentleman as Mr . Q * Connall would pnt forth all Ms strength and all his power to destroy so poor
and so humble an individual as I am ; on the contrary , there was not an . Easter passed over since , that I did not expect to receive some atonement from him for the grievous injuries which he had done me . It is well known tha ; many of my friends ¦ Hio hare , and ought to hare , influence with him , offered to wait upon him and show him that he was bound , a 3 a Christian , to do me an act of common justice , and some of those friends , respectable inha . bitani 3 of the town of Drogheda . They will bear testimony that my uniform answer wa 3 to leave him to himself , that he would come forward voluntarily after some Easter communion and m ^ ke re paration to me . I did lire in hope of seeing this , aad I do nos despair of it yet .
" It is almost incredible that , after the lapse of so long a period as eight years last Janaary , Mr . O'Connell would come forward again and ? ay of me that which he has said at the meeting of the Loyal National Repeal Association of Ireland , that 1 hate him . I stall give his own word 3 , as reported in the Freeman ' s Journal of this day . " ' The present person to whom I allude is O'Higsins , who is exceedingly angry with me , and I'll do lim the justice lossy that he is quite right in being so , for though exceedingly wrong as a Christian , he is perfectly justified as & man , inasmuch as I was at the head of a committee who expelled him for
misconduct not very creditable to him as a man , as a Christian , or a gentleman . He has therefore a right to hate me , and the only thing I request he shall do is to try his Iritle talent in abasing me as long as he pleases . ' He says ' in addition , that , I rQify and traduce him . "I hope , Sir , that you with your n-aial love of iusiice , will give me an opportunity , through the Columns of the Freeman , to prove to all yonr impartial readers that I neither hate nor vilify Mr . CrConnelh that I never joined the Orangemen or any other body of men against him ,- that upon those points he has been misled , at any rate . 11 dements of
I shall not now go into the merits or the proceedings of Mr . O'Connell and all his family against me in January , 1835 ; bnt I deny that there was any charge of any nature or kind brought against me upon that occasion . I de « y that a majorirv of the committee of the Irish Volunteers were against me . There were upwards of fifty-five member = on the committee , twenty-three of whom , and twenty-three only , signed Mr . O'Conneli ' s sentence against me . And who are those twenty-three ? Will * Mr . O'Connell inform the public upon what eronnds two of them became ab .-entees ? Will Mr . O'Connell be so good as to slate in detail the true grounds upon which he pronounced sentence upon me ! It is too bad to run away with a man ' s character in general term 3 . I give Mr . O'Connell
Ml liberty to state the charges upon which he pronounced sentence upon roe , upon the condition that he states mine against hi 3 friend at the same time . The sentence was pronounced upon me because I brought certain charges against a member of the committee , which charges were nev ^ r refuted , nor attempted to be refuted in any other way than that of passing a censure upon me for bringing them for-- Mind that Mr . O'Connell says that I hate him , and that I ought to hate him , for causing me to be txpelled from the Volunteers . This censure of ex-, palsion , mind , bears date the ] 8 th January , 1833 . I was at that time extensively engaged in the wholesale Irish woollen trade , and had received an address , signed bv every respectable shopkeeper in Dublin ,
reeoaimeEding me to the shopkeepers of Ireland as a ; man of the highest honour and integrity , not only in my dealing ? , but in all the relations of life . _ This ' address , and my answer to it , was published in the Morning Register , Freeman ' s Journal , and other papers . Although I found a great deal of uphill work in pushing this new trade to a state of profit , yet by skill and jndgment in the selection of stock , aad dint of perseverance , was realizing about ^ £ 40 l ) i a-yeir . Bat when Mr . O'ConnelTs attack on me ; became public , there was a run upon me like the run on a bank ; the banks refused to discount the bills I had drawn uwm my customers . My own bills , my j
acceptances , were falling due ; besides this , bad debts to the amount of £ 500 were announced from Tuam ' and Galway on the same day . The refusal of the bank 3 to discount , the expulsion by Mr . O'Conneil } from a public b&dy , and bad debt ? , drove me into ! such a state of mind that I say now , before God and xny country , that , after hating put a docket of bills ; amounting to £ 1381 into my hat , to look out for . the- ' first time for private discounts , 1 found myself at the Boyal Exchange before I recollected what bronght ; me out , or where I-was going . I got the bills discounted , paid every body tweniy shillings in the ¦ poand , but lost my trade and business . _ ,. , I of November which
•* Well , on the 10 : h following , was the day for collecting the O'Connell tribute , I j forgot the il-treatment I received . I conceived that j ilr . O'Connell was justly entitled to the tribute from j his country , no matter what he did to me , and j acting upon thi 3 feeling , I aided , as usual , in the j collection of it , and published letters in the Morning Register of November , 1833 , in favour of it , which i letters called forth the acknowledgments of Mr . P . ; Y . Fitzpatrick , who said that my individual exer- ; iions had helped to swell the tribute to an unpre- ; cedented amount . Does this look like hatred of ! O'Connell I Again , when I had the honour , and a ) high honour I shall always consider it , of having ! accompanied the great and good Mr . Cobbett on his
lour through the south of Ireland in September and > October , 1834 , the people were collecting the O'Conneil tribute in the south ; and while Mr . Cobbett i and I were on a vim at the Bev . Mr . Costello ' s , the i parish priest of Abingdon , the tribute was collected , i and the Rev . Mr . Costello will bear testimony to the fact , that I not only collected the tribute at- his j chapel gate upon the occasion , but was the first to put my gold upon the great pewter dish which was : nsed for the purpose of receiving the money . Does ; this look like hatred of O'Connell ? u Oh 1 shame , where i 3 thy blush V I lost no opportunity of ex- j plaining to Mr . Cobbett the grounds upon which I considered Mr . O'Connell entitled , justly entitled , to ; the tribute from his country ; I mentioned to him j
that m my opinion it excited the envy of the tyrants of Europe—tha ; it wa 3 a voluntary tribute for services rendered to a people who had no more effectual mode of testifying their gratitude . Mr . Cobbett , \ with his usual sense of justice , soon viewed the question in the same light ; and when the Times , of the 27 : 11 of October , 1834 , published an article \ stating tha ; the tribute was extorted from Ihc people by hired ruf £ au 3 , Mr . Cobbett refuted the ; calumny in a style and with a spirit that does honour ' to hrman nature . Tiiis letter is to jbe found in the Freeman ' s Journal of the 31 st of October , 1834 . It ¦ was written in my house , and with my most ^ hearty ; concurrence ; " When Mr . O'Connell stood as candidate for the
city of Dublin , in ! 83 o , he was , on the third day of the election , so apprehensive of defea ; that I was nfriid he would resign , and at a meeting of his Committee in Sackville-street , Mr . Murphj , of Sxnhhheld , in ths chair , I mentioned the cause of his bebg a ; the foot of the poll , which was simply because those who veted had not been checked off , asd that therefore the exertions of the out agents were wasted in looking after electors already polled . A Commutes of twenty-four was appointed to rule the books ; I was Chairman of it , and sat rp a- ; l nigh ; in the Committee-rooms in Capel-street . The books -svere checked , the voters were brought up Eexiday , and at the dose of that day ' s poll Mr . O ^ Council was at the head of it , in « : ea $ J of the foot , wcere he was the day bsfore . Did this look like hatred of 0 ' Connell *
" 0 ! gratitude , where hast thou fled ! Hist thon , » £ - . m ? ' bosoms altogether I \ >> aea Jlr . 0 Connell abandoned the high position -srnich heheld in ; he country , arddefended cot j omy io enier into petty squabbles wiih issuers of one : pcur : a ncies , bat became a backer himself , I thought : —bin perhaps I cm be wrong—tha : he , as a ' ' v ' ^ position t ' o other bankers , and from my ! objections to Joint Stock Banks and banking—that ' is to say , issuing of notes in general—be was do : i v j ent : ; lieci » a tribute from hi 3 country . I : iwsed upon it as a public collection to aid him in ' opposing other banker ? , which means I considered . urjjH ; Mid unfajj . , iCj j though : that a great man ' iJ £ e mm should have kept himself aloof from banking projects altogether . I shall no : cow enter into a
acquisitio n upon banking ; but , perhaps , Mr . O'Connell may discover— I hope not t-oo late—that I was more his friend than his enemy when I refused to contr . bnte mj mite to the tribute ever sines he became a banker . " ^ hen the anti-Tory Association wgs fo rmed I declined becoming a member of it , though proposed by t 3 honest a patriot and as worthy a man as erer any country gave birth to—the late Dominick Bon-* jne , iLP . foT Clonmsl—Wanse I » w EOtHn * in
the objects of the association but to form a coalition T ^ tbe authors of the coercion act . When I saw , in a Jist of the division of the Hottse of Ctmmons , that Mr . O'Connell voted with Peel , Goulburn , Jackson , shaw , Lefroy , and all the other Tories in the nouse . against Mr . Crawford ' s motion for the total * w > lmen of tithes , and that he subsequently told the whole worid that > Ir . Crawford ' s Radical piopootions wtre calculated to torn out the Whigs , and «? Dg in the Tories ; in short , wb en I saw that he had joined the Whigs , and Toted , upt n several oeeairons , tae eternal grstitnde of Ireland to them , I eonld no « ager , without feeliDg mjself ntterij degraded in mj
own estimation , vote for him ; and upon these grounds , as well as many others which I shall not now mention , I did not vote for him at either the last election or the former one . Aad perhaps a day may yet come when he will be under the necessity of telling his countrymen that I was right . I was opposed to Mr . O'Connell in his attempt at conciliating the Orangemen , and sureiy this opposition cannot be construed into hatred . I have no hatred of O'Connell—I bear him neither malice , hatred , nor illwill . I do not approve of the policy which he has thought proper to pursue since 1835 ; and is it just , is it conduct becoming a Christian , to run me doprn , to destroy me , to pronounce civil excommunication upon me in the land of my birth , in the land of my forefathers , because , and only because , I remain upon the same political groundlupon which Mr . O'Connell left me .
A word with the Her . Mr . M'Hugh , and I have done . Th «) Canadian declaration of independence , with which this Mr . M'Hugh finds so much fault , was published in the DubAn Evening Post , from which it was taken , and subsequently published as a hand-bill , and sold through the streets of Dublin . I looked upon it as an excellent document , was glad to see it coming from such an authentic source upon the subject of proclamations as that of tho Evening Post . I got the handbill printed , from a desire to sire to those who could not go to the expence of
buying the Evening Post , the advantage of reading the only good article I saw in its columns since Catholic Eaiancipation . Having had a bundle of those handbills in the house , and being in the habit of going out to shoot on Saturdays , I and a gentleman who accompanied me , folded up some sandwiches in those placards . Some of the people in Portmarnock Eeeing us throw down those papers ; took them up and read them , them , and asked if we had any more of them . On the following Saturday we brought some more , and distributed them amongst the people .
Some time in the month of December last , and not in April , we ( for there wero two of us in it ) wero encountered by a gentleman on horseback at Portmarnock , who questioned me in a very peremptory and authorative manner as to whether 1 was the person who was in the habit of distributing inflammatory papers amongst the people , exciting them to sedition , &c . tfec . I answered by saying that I never distributed a seditious paper ; that I had a character to sustain , and a little stake in the country , and teat 1 would not like to forfeit either ; to which ho replied , that if I had either I would not have acted the part of an incesdiary , as I had done . I then asked tho gentleman his name , and by what authority he took the liberty of assailing me in such terms ? He refused to tell mehis name , but said , ultimately , that he was the Catholic curate of Baldoyle and Kinsealy ; to
which I replied , that if any word or expression had fallen from me which might be considered rude or impertinent , that no such expressions should have fallen from my Iip 3 had I known he was a priett . He acknowledged then that I had said nothing to offend him—that he only required me to promise that 1 would distribute no more papers amongst the people ; to which I replied that such apromise would imply that the papers were such as he described them | to be , and that I would make no such promise . H « : then got into a passion , and said that he would go 1 and lodge information against me ; to which I replied , that I would be very . sorry to hear that the Catholic curate of Baldoyle and Kinsealy had made
a " Paddy M'Hugh" of himself . u I said nothing offensive to him but this , and I was sorry , very sorry , for having said it , when I learned that this respected clergyman ' s name was M'Hugh . There were several witnesses present at this conversation , to whom I have often spoken on the subject , and who recoDect it well . My reason for talking to them about it was that I hai learned that the Bev . Mr . M'Hugh had gone to the Attorney General to lay his informations against me , in the
hope of having me prosecuted lor publishing the paper alluded to . " I am sorry , not for my own sake , bnt for my religion and my country , that any priest could be found in Ireland who would forget his sacred calling so far as to carry in his mind my trespassing , if trespassing it can be called , since December last ; and having failed in getting the Attorney-General ta prosecute me , now joins tne most powerful man of the age in his efforts to ruin and destroy me . " The ' hue and cry' has now been raised against me , and if I am not hunted down it will be little
short of a rmrac . ' e . " In conclusion , I beg to state that I have never gone through the northern districts of the county Dablin for the purpose of distributing incendiary papers . I go out to shoot occasionally on Saturdays during the season , and the only papers I have taken with ma sinee December last were copies of the People ' s Charter , and the rules and objects of the Irish Universal Suffrage Association , which I hope is not violating any law of God or man . " Pi . TB . lCK O'HlGGlSS . " No-. 14 , North Anne-street , Aug . 18 , 1841 .
BIRMXM 6 BASS . Chaetist Lectures . A crowded meeting was held on Sunday evening , to hear a lecture from Dr . M'Douall . The worthy lecturer entered into his subject with bis usual cleverness , and showed up the system in all its hideous deformity . The Doctor was warmly applauded , and a goodly number joined the Association at the conclusion of his excellent discourse . Monday Etexi . vg— A very numerous meeting was held at the Chartist-room , Freeman-street , on Monday evening , Mr . Corbett in the chair . The assembJy was addressed by Mr . George White at some length on the glorious progress which the cause of Chartism was making in Birmingham , and all over the country . He said that nothing pleased
him more than the reports which had been delivered by the delegates from the various places in the neighbourhood of Birmingham . There could not be a better spirit displayed than took plaoe at the delegate meeting , especially by the statements of the Warwick and Kidderminster delegates . The former had proved that the Chartists of Warwick had the real principles at heart , for , although they held different views to the National Charter Association at first , yet when they found that the country were in favour of it , they determined to act with the majority . The delegate from Kidderminster had also made a similar statement , from which it would be seen that
every town in tha district were determined to do their duty , and the splendid display which had been witnessed on the previous Monday settled the question in Birmingham , although the pastors of the Christian Chartist Church have done all in their power to stop it , thereby proving their narrowmindedness and want of principle , they had therefore sealed their doom , and from thenceforward could not be looked upon as the friends of the working classes . Mr . J . Campbell , secretary to the Executive , afterwards addressed the meeting in a Yery clever manner , and was loudly cheered . Upwards of 40 members were enrolled during the last week .
Mr . Masox ' s Lectuhs . —Mr . Mason of Newcastle-upon-Tyne , has been busily engaged this week , addressing large audiences at Coventry . Foleshill , Nuneaton , and other places . He is greatly admired iu this district for his eloquence and energy . Freeman-Street . —A meeting was held at the Chartist room , Freeman-street , on VVednesday evening , Mr . Corbett iu tha chair . Mr . -George White again addressed them on the tyranny to which the working classes were subjected , after which a member of the Irish Universal Suffrage Association was introduced to the meeting .
The Executive Council of the National Charter Association held their sittiugs in the large room of the New Inn , Bromsgrove-street , every day last we « k , and besides arranging the correspondence with the various towns , they drew up a circular , which was printed and dispatched to the snb-Secretaries throughout the country . They also drew up the form of the National Petition ( a very clever document ) which will be published next week . Mr . Campbell attended at the Ship Inn , Steelhouse-Iane , where sixty cards of the National Charter Association were taken , and a eociety formed . Societies will also be formed in other parts of the town ; so that it will be seen the cause is prospering rapidly in Birmingham , and to know the state of the district , it requires to be added that on Monday evening it was announced that 500 colliers had joined at Bilston this week .
Frost , Williams , and Jones . The General Committee of Birmingham , in consequence of the soiree in honour of the Executive , held no meeting on the 21 st , but on Tuesday evening last they recommenced their usual weekly meetings , at the Charter Association Room , Freeman-street , Mr . Thorp in the chair , when the memorial not being complete , was referred to the sub-Committee , to report progress on Tuesday next . Several bills were discharged , and letters received from various placeB , all tending to show the prosperity of the Committee , and the high opinion in which it is held by all who are noted to be lovers of their species , and all
nobleminded patriots throughout the country ; the Committee , therefore , conscious of this good opinion , and proud of the esteem and friendship of all true patriot ? , are desirous of adding to their list of honorary members ( which already embraces most of the influential Chartists in Britain ) all who will pledge themselves to act in their respective localities , in conjunction with the General Committee of Birmingham , to secure the return of Frost , Williams , and Jones to their native land . By order of the Committee , T . H . Shaw and F . Wilkinson , jointsecretaries . Address for Committee , at present , at Mr . Guest ' s , Steelhouse-lane , Birmingham .
NOTTINGHAM .-The Chartists held thoir usual weekly , meeting in the Democratic Chapel , Rice-¦ ^ ° h ° ? ¥° aday evening last ; new members again joined . Indeed the cause progresses hero at a steady rate . To-day at twelve o ' clock , the Queen Dowager went through , and en changing horses at Georgo the Fourth , an attempt , was made by a few manworshippew to raise a cheer ; but it was no go . The general remark was , among the people , that 50 , 000 widows had much better be comfortably supported at the expence of English industry , than one German pauper , because she had been the wife of a King . A reading clasB meets every Sunday morning , in the chapel , Rice-place , from tea till twelve © clock , for adults . Mr . William Russell , and Mr . Jonn Wright were unanimously appointed as delegates , by the friends meeting at the Democratic Chapel , and Mr . Wm . Parker , and Mr . William i-ietcner , from the George on Horseback , to the forthcoming delegate meeting .
NOTTINGHAM— KING GEORGE ON HORSEBACK . Mr . William Parker- _ Mr . Christopher Bell . Mr . William Fletcher . Mr . John Herbert . Mr . Jonathan Barber . Mr . John Burbage . Mr . John Peters . M * . Timothy Thatcher , aub-Secretary . Mr . John Gibson , Sub-Treasurer . liAWBLET . —At the village of Lambley , on Monday afternoon , 130 sat down to tea , after which Messrs . Dean Taylor , Harrison , and Sweet addressed the meeting ; a collection was also made foT the O'Brien Press Fund , this party being got up expressly to honour that great political teacher .
CBURWEZiL . —Mr . Smith , according to request , paid a visit to this place on Monday last , and preached in a school-room , most kindly granted for the occasion . Hta text was Acts , 28 , xxii , and in the course of his discourse , he shewed tho perfect accordance of the Charter with the rule of right , as laid down in the Word of God . The place was full , aud the deepest attention was paid to tho arguments of the preacher . BIRSTAL . —The good work in this plaoe goes on bravely . Mr . T . B . Smith , arrived here on Saturday , and lectured on the Charter , and the 1 benefits of co-operation , in the room over the co-operative store , to " a most attentive audience . On Sunday , he delivered three practical Christian sermons , in tho
Zion Sunday school room , after which collections were made towards defraying the expence of the school , which ia considerably in debt , amounting to 18 3 . 5 a ., which was gratefully received by the managers and teachers . Mr . S . also delivered two short discourses to the children of tho school , and to which they appeared to pay the most marked attention , indeed the conduct of the scholars reflects the highest credit on their gratuitous instructors , and gives fair promise of future excellence . Mr . S . enforced in a feeling and eloquent manner the practicable importance of mutual love and good-will , and expressed himself highly gratified with the orderly behaviour of the children . The enrolment of twenty-one members of ths Natioual Charter Association , proves that his visit was not in vain .
COVENTRY . —A tea and dancing party was got up ia honour of Dr . M'Douall , and Mr . Leach , of Manchester . Through some circumstance ) or other they did not come , and great disappointment was the consequenoe . Mr . R . K . Philp , of Bath , one of the Executive , and Mr . Mason , of Newcastle , lecturer for this district , made their appearance about four o'olock . The largo room of the George Inn . Little Park-street , where the association hold their meetings , was tastefully decorated with flowers and evergreens . About half-past fiv « o ' clock upwards of eighty ladies and gentlemen sat down to a most excellent tea , as many as the room could accommodate at once ; the company retired , and a second party of more than forty was supplied tho same as the former part . Tea being over the chair was taken by Mr . David Buckney , ribbon manufacturer ; after a few appropriate remarks from the chairman , he introduced Mr . Mason , of Newcastle , who spoke upwards of an hour in an eloquent and masterly
manner . DUNDEE . —A trial of strength betwixt the Chartists and both factions is about to take place here in tho election of Police Commissioners . The suffrage is household . The qualification required for a member to sit at the board is the holding of a house at the annual value of ten pounds . The police under tho present superintendent have given the most unqualified dissatisfaction to the great body of the people , acting in the mest severe And rigorous manner in almost every instance when they were called upon to interfere . If a Church party , an Anti-Coru Law party , or any other party of humbugs called a meeting where the face of a Chartist was forbidden to appear , the police were tho willlpfi tools of the olique , ready at all timeswith batou in hand ,
, to show physical force opposition to his being admitted . But this is not the worst ; the " force" has acted in many instances as spies at Chartist meeting *; they have come in disguise , for no other purpose but that of carrying off such account of the proceedings as might have the effeot of bolstering up a charge of sedition against some of the speakers . This has been proved . One insignificant creature , who has been long connected with the establishment , and who acts as clerk in the office , has , in an unguarded moment , " let the cat escape from the bag , " and tho people will know how to value his services in future . But such doings will not be permitted to exist . The majesty of the people will show itself at these elections ( which take place on the 6 th October ) and put
the real finale upon such treachery . Last year the Chartists came into the field at the eleventh hour ; however , they carried a number of their men . This year there is a strong and formidable union , in order to return a majority of commissioners to the board who will do their duty to the people , and protect the liberty of the subject . Our Whig and Tory papers are alarmed beyond measure—the respectability , forsooth , of the board is in danger . The people are , notwithstanding , steadily pursuing their course , leaving it to interested hirelings to talk about respectability . —As a great number of electors read the Star , who have no opportunity of seeing a local paper , we say , be ready for the da of Octoberevery householder has a voto .
1 ONBON . —The Tailors held their weekly meeting , at the bricklayer ' s Arms , King-street , Golden Square , on Thursday evening , when Mr . Drew gave iu his report as delegate to the County Council , and Mr . Walton , operative stone-mason , addressed the meeting . OEPTFOBD . —Mr . Illingworth , of Leeds , lectured here on Sunday evening . WAWDSWORTH . —The friends here have agreed to form a library for mutual instruction . They have also mad © arrangements for receiving a visit from O'Connor , on his return from the north .
SOTJTHWARK . —On Sunday evening last , a meeting of the Repeal / Association was held at Mr . Roche ' s , Red Lion , Maze , Tooley-Btreet , Air . O'Leary in the chair . After BOino private business had been transacted , the Secretary asked if any person wished to join the Association . Mr . Jeans , a true Repealer and member of the National Association , entered his name and took up his card . A gent , then rose , and inquired whteher they werefor an unconditional Repeal of the Union , when he was stopped by the Secretary , stating , that no person but members of the Association wero allowed to speak . Upon which the person stated that , having been a true Repealer ever since his first entrance into political life , he would with pleasure join the Association ,
aud gave his name Mr . Brown , of Walworth . Mr . B . then , in a neat speech , replete with interest , depicted the cause of the present distresses both in England aud Ireland , ascribing ifc to class legislation , and after a speech of considerable length , sat down with cheers . The Chairman proposed that the health of thenew and talented member be drank with three times three , standing and uncovered . Mr . Brown then returned thanka , and stated that after the manner in which the opinions he had stated had been received , he begged to move the following resolution , considering it to be the only remedy for the evil of both countries : — " That it is the opinion of this meeting that the Repeal of the Legislative Union based upon the principles of Universal Suffrage is the only remedy for Ireland and England . " Mr . Sherman seconded the resolution in a speech full of spiritand called the to
, upon meeting join together in obtaining a Repeal of the Union , based on the principles of the People's Charter . An amendment was proposed and seconded in favour of what is called General Suffrage , and the Repeal of the Union , whiob , on being put to the rote , was declared to be lost , and the original resolution carried by a large majority . Mr . Sherman than stated , that he trusted that a report of the meeting would find its way to the Northern SJar , as that paper was the only one which would report the account of their meetings , the Tmbkl having refused . The meeting was conducted with the greatest good feeling , and a few such meetings as these would soon ihow to the IriBh people that the English Chartists were not their enemies but their friends , and were determined to obtain tho rights of the English , Irish , Scotch , and Welshmen , in despite of all opposition . The meeting resolved to meet again on Sunday w « ek .
ROTHERHAM . —The Chartists here met on Monday evening , and agreed to invite Mr . O'Brien to visit them . TODMORDEN . —The weekly meeting of the Chartists was held in the Mechanics' Institute , Bridge-street , on Tuesday night , when it was resolved to give O'Brien an invitation to give them a lecture . BEANOR . —Mr . Bairstow delivered a lecture at this place on Tuesday last . Several new members were enrolled . NEWPORT , Monmouthshire . —At the weekly meeting held on Tuesday , thanks were voted to Mr . Sharroan Crawford for his amendment to the address to the Queen . Some local business was transacted , and some new members added . X . OANHEA 9 . —Mr . Lowery lectured here on . Tuesday , to a crowded audience , on the rights of the people .
DALKEITH . A splendid demonstration to O'Connor is being provided for here . The largest room in the town has been engaged for a soiree , and the towns of Musselburgh , Lass wade , Pathead , Gore Bridge , Roslin , Pennywick , &c , will join in the display . HANIiET . —A tea party and ball took place here on Monday , the 27 th inst ., at the house of Mr . Wm . Hall , George and Dragon Inn , New-street , Hanley , where the most ample accommodation was afforded by the worthy host . The object of this tea party was to commemorate the release of that fearless and talented advocate , J . B . O'Brien , from his dungeon Upwards of 240 sat down to tea . Every bosom glowed with sympathy , and every countenance
beamed with joy at the intelligence of the liberation of this truly disinterested patriot and man of the people . Mr . G . B . Mart having been called to the chair by the unanimous voice of the assembly depioted the condition of the working classes of this country , which he said was in anawtul Btate . Mr . M . described some desperate cases , which called forth the disapprobation of the assembly , and which he said ought never to exist in a country calling itself Christian . ( Loud cheers . ) The following toasts wero given : — "The people , the only legitimate source of all power . "—Responded to by Mr . Samuel Robinson , who animadverted strongly on the Government for their oppressions practised on the people , and tho unsparing haud of persecution laid
upon our leaders . The institutions of the country , observed Mr . R ., wero not calculated to benefit the people , but to oppress them ; and , so long as the people were apathetic , they would still more and more become so . All arises from the baneful influence of class-legislation ; he advised them from this time to shake off their apathy , and begin the work of their emancipation . The upper classes cannot exist without your labour ; therefore , demand your rights as producers of all wealth . ( Loud cheers . ) Song by Mr . Nile Grocett , " Daughter of Israel . " Toast— "J . B . O'Brien , the upright , consistent , and talented advocate of the people ' s rights . " Three cheers were here given for this noble patriot . Mr . J . Richards responded to this toast with the
feelings and sympathy worthy of a copartner . I would address you , said , Mr . R ., as Ladies and Gentlemen , but under our circumstances I must address you as slaves—I am called upon to respond to this toast , and I do it with the greatest pleasure . If I must go through the history of J . B . O'Brien , I should take up the whole of your time . I can scarcely express myself with sufficient admiration for the services this powerful writer has given to the people of this country ; he had endeavoured to infuse the same spirit in tho people as he had imbibed himself—that of puro , disinterested , democratic principles ; he had discovered the condition of the people , and would net rest until the people had obtained their whole rights . Song— " Little
pigs live on very good straw , " by Mr . William Finnua . Toast— " Feargus O'Connor , and the Executiyo of the National Charter Association . "—Responded to by Mr . Moses Simpson , who eulogised Mr . O'Connor in a short speech , for the services he rendered to the producing classes of this country by his able disquisitions on the small farm system , and by his original and eloquent speeches . Toast— "The People ' s Charter , the only foundation to political and 6 ooial liberty . " —Responded to by Mr . Livesly . The Charter , he said , was based on three principles , Utility , Right , and Justice . A measure provod to be just ought to be carried out so soon as discovered to be so . The principles were carried oat in Switzerland , in Norway , in America , and those
countries were now in a prosperous condition , and the happiest nations in tho world ; and why not toe Charter become the law of this country . This country was the richest and yet there were more poor hi it than any other . The Charter he said would remove these anomalies . Recitation— " The enslaved millions , " by Mr . Isaac Cartledge . " Frost , WilliamB and Jones , and all political prisoners , andmay they soon be restored to the bosoms of their friends , "Responded to by Mr . Timmis . Mr . T . said if England , Ireland , Scotland and Wales had done their duty , these patriots would now be at home . Recitation— " Black and White Slavery , " by Mr . Thomas Simpson . ** The Universal Suffrage Association of Ireland , and may their exertions be crowned with
that success which their zeal and perseverance merits . " Responded to by Mr . J . Wallace , who expatiated on the sufferings of Arthur O'Connor in exile , and said that so soon as the Irish people found they were deluded by O'Connell , they would go for the Charter . They must remove that obstacle . " The Ladies "—Responded toby Mr . Bates in an eloquent address , in which Mr . B . showed the reasonableness of women being admitted to the franchise , acd showed as proof of their intellect the noble-minded women of this country were entitled to it , such as Miss Woolstencraft and others . " The Northern Star and the Democratic Press "—Nobly responded to by Mr . S . Robinson . Song , ably sung by Mr . Beech .
NEWCASTLE . —On Friday evening there was a public meeting held by tho Chartists , &c , to celebrate the release of Mr . O'Brien . There was a Whig anli-Corn Law lecture at Ouseburn , and many thought that they would celebrate his release as well by going there and swamping the Whigs , as attending the meeting , which made the assembly thinner than should be on such an occasion , until a late hour , when they flocked in with the tidings that the anti-Corn Law lecture-reader was completely floored . It was his first public attempt iu Newcastle , and we believe it will be the last ; he i 3 not prepared to answer the reasonable questions of the working classes ; and a consciousness of his incapacity to do so , induced him to go and hide himself . The
following resolutions were moved and seconded , and carried unanimousl y at the Chartist meeting , Mr . Condon in the chair . Resolved , " That this meeting hail with extreme delight , tho liberation from the Whig dungeon of that unflinching poor man ' s friend , our representative James B . O'Brien , Esq , and as % proof of our respect for , and confidence in that noble of nature , we do hereby plodgo ourselves to fall into rank with him , and never to cease agitating until the Charter becomes th-3 law of the land . " 2 . " That inasmuch as we cannot more competently show an attachment to the genuine principles and first-rate talents of Mr . O'Brien , thaa procuring for him , by union with the rest of his admirers throughout the empire , the mean 3 of establishing
an indpendent press wherewith to exercise those talents , this meeting are , therefore , of opinion , that certain gentlemen be requested to take part in delivering a courso of lectures , the proceeds to go to Mr . O'Brien ' s press fund . " 3 . " That the thanks of this meeting be given to Mr . Fieldcn , M . P ., and Dr . Bowring , M . P . respoitively , for moving and seconding the stoppage of supplies ; likewise to the four independent gentlemen who supported the same . " 4 . " That the thanks of this meeting be tendered to Mr . Wm . Atkins , of the Ducrow Inn , for his liberality on all occasions in contributing towards tho association funds , aud more especially on the
occasion of offering to make up any deficiency in defraying the expences of a delegate to welcome Mr . O'Brien . " S . " That a reply be sent to Mr . Williams , to the letter sent us respecting the public tea , and that the town be placarded with an address on the subject . After giving three hearty cheers for the Charter , Mr . O'Brien and Mr . O'Connor , the meeting broko up at a late hour . Mr . Morgan lectured at the following places this week , to largo and attentive audiences , Benton-square , Westmore , North Shields , South Shields , at all which places they pledged themselves to join the National Charter Association forthwith .
At a meeting of delegates at SeghiU , on the 26 th , Mr . Wm . Bird in the chair , delegates were present from Cramlington , Bedlington , Foreman ' s-row , Seghill , East Holy well , North Shields , and Newcastle , who were all instructed that their constituents would contribute for the support of a missionary . Bedling ton handed in 93 . 6 & . and Foreman ' s-row 8 a . 6 d . to begin with . The delegates passed resolutions pledging themselves to continue their exertions for the Charter . After some other business of less importance , the meeting was adjourned to Sunday , Oct 24 th , when it wilfbe resumed at North Shields , at ten o ' clock , ajb . At tub usual weekly meetiug , in the Clothmarket , little business of publio interest transpired . The resolutions were mostly those of thank * to various individual for services rendered .
<*¦¦ ^§^ - ^ - ^ # ¦¦ :... , / ^ W . **^^ : MSk . ( From our won Corretponibht . ) Ecciesfielb —Mr . Julfan Harney visited thia pleasant village on Wednesday , the 22 nd instant . Two < a three years lure passed and gone since a . Chartist meeting was held here previously , though a few bright spirits maintained the principles and have been the constant readers of the ( treat organ of the cause ; still , no meetings being held , it was long sinca gravely asserted by some of the would-bethought-politicians of ( he plaoe taat" Chartism wag dead , " and " no mistake" bore ; judge , then , the
surprise and horror of these important personages when on the Tuesday week they heard it announced per bell , that tho following evening a lecture on Chartism would be delivered in the village . The evening arrived , the village band volunteered their services in the good old cause , and went with a number of friends some distance on the Sheffield road to meet Mr . ^ Harney , whom they escorted to the place of meeting , summoning on the way by their lively strains all who had . " ears to hear , " to come , listen , and judge for themselves . Noin-door place of meeting could be got , so the wet earth for foot-hold , and the dark sky for covering was , as asual , the resource . On the motion of Mr . Lunn , Mr . Fearn , of Sheffield was appointed to preside over the meeting ; in a few remarks he introduced Mr . Harney . Mr . H . commenced by reviewing the
present unsettled and deplorable state of society , showed that the miserable condition of the working class was the result of misgovernment , occasioned by the people having no control over the legislature of the land , the remedy Mr . H . showed to be the enfranchisement of the whole people as provided for in the Charter , and concluded by a forcible illustration and vindication of the principle of Universal Suffrage . A besotted beast who has been a methodist preacher , attempted to interrupt Mr . Harney , but _ was uncerimoniously bundled out of the meeting , this " backslidor" managing to get his precious person into a row , contrived , so says report , to get both his piouB eyes blacked . The
meeting for the size of the place was extremely numerous ; a good number of the fair sex were present , who seemed by their deep attention to interest themselves much in tho subject-matter of the lecturer's discourse . At the dose of the meeting , a number of friends adjourned to a convenient place , and there resolved to join the ranks of tho National Charter Association , several enrolling their names on the spot . We shall look to Ecclesfield , and take care that the fire kindled shall not be extinguished . What are the other villages round Sheffield about ? Mr . Harney has volunteered his services . Why do they not do has Ecclesfield has done \
The Patriot Holbehbt . —The Victims' Committee had prepared a well-reasoned and forcibly written memorial to the present Sscretary of State , in behalf of Samuel Holberry , and signatures wero in course of obtainment , when a letter to Mrs . Holberry , from her husband , announced his removal ( by order of the Right Hon . Sir James Graham ) from Northallerton Houso of Correction to York Castle . This being the case , it was deemed advisable to postpone for the present the memorial for his release . ' So soon as the demonstration is over , the Committee will turn their attention to the present treatment of Holberry in York Castle , and will also take the necessary steps to memorialise the Secretary of State for the release or removal of Peter Foden from Wakefield Hell .
Sunday Evejung Lecture . —Mr . Beale lectured to a numerous and respectable audience in the room Fig-tree Lane , on Sunday evening , on " Poetry . " " Tho poetry of Elliot" was the subject of the lecture , rather . than poetry in general , though incidentally the speaker touched upon Byron , Burns , Nicol , . Mrs . Grimstone , and Gallia ' s noblest bard—Beranger . The pieces recited by the lecturer were well selected from the writings of the above , and in general elicited warm marks of approbation from the audience . It was announced that Mr . Harney would lecture jjn Sunday evening next .
Monday ' s Meeting . —The usual public meeting of the Chartist borfy was held on Monday evening , in the room , Fig-tree Lane . The room was crowded to excess ; Mr . Needbam was called to the chair . The principal business transacted was matters connected with the Demonstration , unnecessary , therefore , to he published . Mr . Green moved— " That the thanks of the meeting be given to James Marshall , one ox the victims of Whiggery confined in Northallerton Hell-hole , for his unbending and unflinching conduct in refusing to petition for his release or removal from the dungeon in which Whig oppressors have immured him . " Carried unanimously . Mr . Harney announced the removal of Samuel
Holberry from JNorthallerton Gaol to York Castle . In the latter place , Mr . Holberry would have greater facilities of corresponding with his friends . A few shillings was wanted to allow him the means of corresponding with his family and others . He ( Mr . H . ) wished the meeting to take the matter up , that the assistance required might be forthcoming . Mr . Stokes moved , seconded by Mr . Cartledge , ' that one penny be charged for admission to the meeting on Monday next , the proceeds to be sent to Mr . Holberry . " Agreed to . Oh the motion of Mr . Fearn , seconded by Mr . Prior , it was resolved , " That in future the doors be opened each Monday evening , at seven o'olock . The chair to be taken at half-past
seven . KEIGHLEY . —A delegate meeting was held at Mr . Knowles ' s Temperance Hotel , on Sunday last . Delegates present : —Thomas Knowles , Keighley ; Wm . Tipping , Bingley ; Jonathan Bury , Cullingworth ; John Halam , Skipton ; James Greenwood , Morton ; Samuel Widdop , Silsden , Chairman ; John Garnett , Koighley , Secretary . The principal object of the meeting was to organise the surrounding villages , and establish a local missionary fund to
supply them with delegates and other necessary information . The delegates reported the progress of the cause in their several localites . It was resolved that each delegate , on returning to his locality , endeavour to form associations where there aro none , and report at a future meeting , to bo held at Mr . Knowles's on Sunday next , Oct . 3 d , the number of members who may enrol their names , so that an equal provision may be made amongst them for the support of missions , See . Mr . Knowles was requested to lecture at Skipton , on Saturday , Oct 9 th
. . On Tuesdav last , Mr . Benbow lectured in the Working Men ' s Hall , on the present awful state of our country , and the remedy ior removing it . The Hall was crowded to excess . NEWARK . —Mr . Dean Taylor lectured here on Thursday evening to a large audience . TROWBBXDGE . —On Tuesday evening , at a publio meeting held in the Democratic Chapel , Mr . Clewor , the Chartist lecturer , successtully defended himself against the slanderous and unchristian attacks recently made upon him . HUDDERSFIEI . B . —Mr . Chas . Connor lectured here on Tuesday evening , and gave a cheering account of the glorious reception of the patriots in Manchester , and tho defeat of the machinations of the " plague" and its minion . .
GLASGOW . —A lecture was delivered in St . Ann ' s Church , by Mr . Hamilton , of Stonehouse , on the evils of intemperance , and the propriety of all professing Chartists abstaining from the uso of intoxicating drinks . Gobbals . —A meeting of the inhabitants was held in their own Hall , when Mr . Currie delivered a lecture on the state of parties . The Glasgow Soiree Committee had a meeting in the L . U . S . Hall , College Open , when they entered into further arrangements for that important affair . It was also stated that the Committee bad sold all the tickets which they could possibly dispose of .
The Demonstration Committee assembled in the same place on Thursday eyeuing week . Tha "Steam Boat Committee reported that 123 . was the price of the boat . It was then agreed to call a public meeting in St . Ann ' s Chnrch , for the purpose of laying before the Chartists of Glasgow titeir proceedings , and asking their permission to invite Sharnun Crawford and Patrick O'Higgins , Esqrs . to the O'Connor Display in Glasgow . Public Meeting . —A public meeting of ths females of Glasgow was held in St . Ann ' s Church , Miss Miller in the chair , for the purpose of considering the question of presenting a testimonial of esteem to
Feargus O'Connor , Esq . Several of tho Iadie 3 present delivered sentiments worthy of the occasion . It was stated that O'Connor would not accept any present ; but the ladies present declared their determination of compelling him to accept a present from the lasses of the Queen of Chart it-m : and we very much doubt if the great giant of Chartism will not be vanquished in the Bazaar Hall , at the soiree , when surrounded by the lily-white hands and pretty faces of those who are determined to tako him prisoner , and then hang round his neck the emblem of their affection . A large Committee of the ladies was then appointed to carry the ' desired object into effect .
DUBLIN . —The Irish Universal Suffrage Association held their meeting on Sunday last , at their great room , No . 14 , North Anno Street , Mr . Henry Clark in the chair . The minutes of the last meeting were confirmed . Letters were read from Mr . John Copp , of Bristol , Mr . A . Russell , of Athboy , and Mr . T . M'Donald , of Newry . Mr . Freebairn gave notice for the admission of six persons resident at Island-bridge , ilr . Wood , after some remarks
moved the admission of Mr . Peter Dunn , whom he was preud to have the honour to propose , because of the opposition he had given , but whom he was proud to say , had been weaned of his prejudices by tho reasoning of the advocates of the People's Charter in that room . Mr . O'Higgin's seconded the admission of Mr . Dunn , which was agreed to . Thanka having been voted to the chairman , tho meeting dispersed , after receiving notices for the enrollment of several new members ; .:
CITY OP LONDON . —The Chartists of this city met as usual on Sanday morning , in their Institute , 53 , Old Bailey , the accoant of the splendid meetings in Birmingham , was read from the Star . In the evening Mr . Watkins preached in the same place to a full attendance , and a rery attentive congregation . It is hoped by many , that the sermon will be printed in the form of a tract , and used by the City Political Tract Loan Society now fonniDg . On Monday evening following , in the same place , Mr . Clancey , the founder and late secretary of the Dublin Repeal and Charter Association , delivered his second
lecture , upon the subject of O'Connell , Ribonism , and Chartism in Ireland , for the benefit of Mr . R . Peddie . The lectures produced 7 s ., 2 s . 6 d . of which was giren by the ltcturer . 'The Chartists held their weekly meeting , Mr . Henderson , of Westminster , in the chair ; new members were enrolled . Messrs . Watkins and Parker gave their report of the proceedings of the association , and the county council of Middlesex , which was received with feelings of pleasure . 3 tlr . Matthews was elected to the county council in the place of Mr . Parker ; Metsrs . Parker and Osborn were elected members to sit on the O'Brien
Press Committee . TtSSBXJKY . — \ i a well-attended and respectable meeting , held at Lunt's Coffee House , Clerkenwell Green , on Slonday evening last , 10 s . was voted to the Executive . Mr . Watts directed the attention of the meeting to the conduct of Mr . Martin , one of their delegates , on the County Council , at the anti-Corn Law meeting held that evening at the Court Room of the parish of St . Luke ' s , City Road ; and a resolution for a vote of thanks to him for his bold and manly opposition to the monopohsing conduct of these pretended anti-monopolists , wa 3 unanimously and enthusiastically carr ied , and ordered to be inserted in the Star .
SorrHWABK . —A gldrions Repeal Meeting took place on Sunday evening last , at Mr . Roche ' s , Red Lion Maze , Tooley-street , Mr . O'Leary in the chair . A powerful address wad delivered by Air . Browu , of Walworth ; also several excellent speeches were made by Messrs . Murphy , Walker , and Jeanes . T . 'ie business of the evening concluded by the carrying cl a motion by a groat majority that Universal S ' . iffrage , with a repeal of the Union , would be beneficial to the working classes of England and Ireland .
Bebmosdsey . —Several robberies have taken place last week in this locality , viz . —Mr . Sherman , newsman , 2 , Grange Terrace , Grange Road , lost four sovereigns—the landlord of the Fort Tavern , Grange Road , twenty-five sovereigns—a poc > r journeyman baker , of Star Corner , twelve quartern loaves—a poor man in the Grange lost nearly all his clothes . Strange to say , all this was done m the middle of the day . BRIGHTON . —On Friday evening last , Sept . 24 th , the men of Brighton assembled at their meeting room at the Cap of Liberty , Portland-street , to testify their joy at the release of their persecuted friend , James Bronterre O'Brien . To iiave seen theioy pictured on the countenances of every one present would have been to the persecuted Bronterre the he bad under
—a payment in part for sufferings gone in the cause of the people . The old , the young , the gay and the sad , were all there to pay a welcome tribute , to an honourable and virtuous man . Ihe females vied with the males in the enthusiasm and joy they felt at their teacher being again among them . Mr . Woodward occupied the chair , supported on the right and left by Messrs . Flowers , Gile 3 , Page , ColliDg , Morling , and a host of the " good men and true" who had " fought the good fight in days gone by , with the fearless and undaunted O'Brien at their head . Monday , ihe room was again crowded , and we should say more numerously than on the Friday evening ; not a seat could be got , and hardly standing room ; all was again enihusiaEm , nothing is wanted in Brighton more , than that O'Connor or O'Brien should pay a visit to givi a zest to the cause .
AKDSLET . —A Chartist Association has been formed at Ardsley . On Monday evening last , seventeen of the good men and true entered into the holy cause of Chartism .
MRS . ROBERTS , THE WHIG-MADE WIDOW OF BIRMINGHAM . TO THE EDITOR OF TUB NORTHERN STA . R . Sir , —I again take the liberty of introducing the case of this poor we man . She has got her youngest child dead in the house after a long and painful illness . The funds in my possession have been long sinca exhausted ; I now propose , as her hands will be somewhat relieved by the death of her yougest child , a subscriptions to purchase for her a mangle by which she says she ceuld earn herself and children a living ; and to aid the fund at Birmingham , I propose to get up for her exclusive benefit , at Lawrence-street Chapel a tea party and ball , to take place in about five weeks from the present time . Any subscription , no matter how email , will be thankfully received and duly applied , by Your very obedient servant , James Glest , Bookseller 93 , Steel-house Line , Birmingham . P . S Any amount may be sent in postage stamps .
TO THE MEN OF BIRMINGHAM . Men of Birhikgham . —You who bo lately shewed your mighty armament and gigantic power to your enemies . You who have braved the taunts and sneers of the self-styled respectables . You who have dared the vengeance of the powers that be . Now is the accepted time . Now is the day of salvation . Our enemies tell us we are ignorant . Ye 3 , they tell us this , who are themselves the Tory slaves of barbarism , fit companions only for beast 3 . They tell us we are ignorant , and therefore not fit to exercise the elective franchise . They who build palaces for horses , and
make fires to warm themselves with your hard earnings , instead of giving us the knowledge they say we stand in need of . Then since your enemies will not do it , come forward and Jet us instruct each other . We need not colleges , nor fine institutions , to gather true knowledge . Attend , therefore , a public meeting , to be held at the Domestic Coffee House , 14 , Henrietta-street , on Thursday next , the 7 th instant , at half-past seven , when aud where business of importance will be brought before you . 1 am fellow-townsmen , Your friend , _ T . H . Shaw .
THE BIRMINGHAM DEMONSTRATION . The Committee , in bringing its business to a clo = e , beg leave to return their best thanks to tho various friends and contributors , for the very handsome manner they have come forward to assist in providing the necessary means for getting up that grand display , to do honour to the man and the cause that we delight to honour . When it is stated that the sum of £ 18 0 s . Gd . was
collected in the short spaco of three weeks , chiefly from the working men , it 13 a proof ( if any were wanting ) that we can accomplish a great good if we are so determined . To the various trades we are indebted not only for their flags and banners , bnt for their presence . The Committee assure them that if at any time they should wish for a similar favour , they will heartily comply . To our friends in the surrounding towns and districts we are in like manner grateful .
The sum total of receipts and expenditure is as follows : — £ s . d . Receipts IB 0 G Expenditure 22 4 8 Due to the Treasurer ... 4 4 2 We have no doubt but that our friends both in tovrn and country will come forward , aud assist the Committee in clearing off the above small sum . With these few plain and simple facts , We remain , On behalf of the Committee , Walter Thorn , Chairman . Wm . Hoplaih , Treasurer . W . Pahkes , Secretary .
All communications to be addressed to Mr . Taylor , printer , Small-brook-street . . The balance- sheet Iie 3 at the National Association BxUm . 'Freeman-Btreet , where any friend may inspect it at any time during the various meetings on Mondays , Wednesdays , Fridays , and Sundays . Those books that aro now out the Committee would be obliged to the holders if they will bring in on Friday next . September 27 th , 1841 .
TOL . IT . ffO . 203 . SATURDAY , OCTOBER 2 ; 1841 . > MC ^^^ , l ^^ '
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Northern Star (1837-1852), Oct. 2, 1841, page unpag, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/ns/issues/vm2-ncseproduct1129/page/1/