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The sanitary duties now imposed on numerous executive bodies should devolve on competent Officers of Health . The Building Act required some alteration too , so as to insure that all buildings hereafter constructed in the metropolis shall be suitable for healthy habitation . In conclusion , Mr . Lord urged his Lordship to give some assurance to the Association that the two points mentioned should promptly receive the attention they deserved , and that the friends of Sanitary Reform might have the satisfaction of finding that there was a certainty that the excessive mortality should have such a check as legal enactments could secure—such as her Majesty had alluded to in an early speech from the throne , and which had been anxiously footed for by the public .
Mr . F . O . Ward expressed his entire concurrence in the remark of the right reverend Prelate , that Sanitary Beform could only be effectively carried out on a broad and comprehensive scale . The sanitary reorganization of this great metropolis , embracing as it did the reconstruction , on new principles , of its entire arterial and venouscirculating system , constituted an enterprise more colossal and more pregnant of good to mankind than any civic undertaking recorded in the history of civilized man . And when this vast enterprise was contemplated , in connexion with the further and still vas * r scheme of applying the venous outflow of the town for the fertilization of the country , the "boldest mind might well be startled by the magnitude of the work to be accomplished , and of the
beneficial results to be attained . With so wide a range of topics before him , and so short a time to handle them , he would be unable to do more than to touch cursorily on some more salient points in each department of the subject ; but even in this rapid review he hoped to show his Xordship direct burdens of s everal millions sterling per annum , now needlessly pressing on the population of London , in consequence of the existing defective arrangements- —burdens which might at once be removed by the adoption of the new sanitary system ; nay , more , which might be exchanged for a positive money revenue of full y equal amount , so soon as the two great movements , sanitary and agricultural , should be combined and organized in the manner he would set forth .
Taking first the subject of water supply , and looking to the question of source , he showed the incontcstible superiority of water from barren sandy hill-tops over water from cultivated valley-bpttoms ; theformer being the pure rain , received on sand washed clean by the rainfall of ages , filtering through this sand to the clay beneath , and guided by the impermeable clay to the shoulder of the hill , whence it issued in pure sparkling springs : while the latter was the rainfall received on cultivated lands , and passing over fields dressed with stable manures , rotten sprats , guano , and similar impurities , or creeping through Bemi-stagnant ditches into the river drain of the valley , where it was further polluted , in the case of the Thames , by the sewage of towns and villages inhabited by
a population of three quarters of a million , even above Teddington-lock , even above the tidal reflux of the London sewage . Mr . Ward here exhibited a diagram representing the Surrey uplands , with the sand spring water issuing above , and the Thames river drain , contaminated with manure and sewage , flowing below ; and he showed in a very convincing way that common sense , let alone chemistry and science , dictated our resorting for water supp lies to the hill tops , and not to the valley bottoms ; while the proved waste in soap , soda , tea , &c , occasioned by the twenty tons of chalk contained in each day ' s supply of Thames water , amounted annually in London to no less than 1 , 000 , 000 ? . a year . Passing to the question of distribution , he expressed his gratification that the Sanitarv nartv had at length forced the companies to
abandon the intermittent cistern service , and to adopt the constant supply at high pressure ; the value of which ho illustrated by showing that even the seven years' delay for which the companies asked , before introducing the constant supply , would involve an expense , in interest ' and repairs , of old cisterns , and in needless construction of new ones , amounting to no less a total than 875 , 000 Z . Entering on the next topic , that of house drainage , ho compared the coBt of hand labour , cleansing of ccBspools , and of cartage-cleansing and flushing of the old-faahioned sewers of deposit , with the economy of the now tubular drains and sowers , scouring themselves by tho flow of Btoam-pumped water ; and ho showed that tho saving in the flushing costs alone averaged 20 ? . per mile per annum ,
8 o as to exceed the annual charge ( lvl . 8 s . 5 d . ) winch would pay tho cost of a self-scouring tubular sower in 20 Tears ; thus showing that London might bo drained , de novo , not only without any increase , but with a largo reduction of existing charges . After some remarks on flurfoco cleansing by lioso and jot , and on subsoil-drainage of tho low-lying water-logged districts , which ho showed might bo kept dry by steam-pumping , as fens and marshes are kept dry , at from 2 s . to 5 s . per acre per annum ( equal to about Id . per house por annum *> r tho 4000 ocroa ot Southwark ) , Mr . Ward proceeded to describe the new tubular organization of farms , with iron pipes , hydrants , « nd hose and jet , by which tho London sewage might bo distributed over the adjacent lands , bo soon as tho mains
for carrying it thither out of London were provided . Ho show ed that this was no theoretical speculation , but was Already in succes slUl operatio n on many farms , and had raised tho produce in one case to Hovonty tons of grass per ncre per annum , and in another from twojvo to eighty stacks por acre por annum , while in other casoa it had raised land previously barron to a yearly value in produce exceeding 12 / . por acre . Tho necessary Howugo mains for London would cost about a million sterling , tho value of the excromont they would save ( computed on tho market price of human soil in Belgium ) would bo , at two tons por house per nmiurn , 4 , 800 , 000 ; . a yearyielding , with largo allowanco for all possible contingencies and drawbacks , a net revenue of ftt least 2 , 000 , 000 ? .
per annum . Ho then referred to the monopolist water companies jM the chief obstacle to a comprehensive sanitary
organization of the metropolis , and brought forward a financial scheme for buying them out at their full capital of 5 , 269 , 099 ? ., and so putting an end to the universally detested water monopoly , not only without burdensome chargeon the public , but witfe . an annual saving of 273 , 00 OZ . out of the 431 , 0007 . now paid in water rentaFto tiie companies . By a further charge of 121 , 000 ? . per annum he showed that we could pay off the debt incurred in this transaction in thirty years , so as to leave the waterworks in fee simple to our successors ; still saving ourselves 32 , 000 ? . per annum of the present extortionate rates .
Recapitulating the savings of expense , and the gain of revenue , he showed that on the few points he had mentioned in this rapid review , 4 ; 825 , 936 Z . mig ht be secured to the inhabitants of London by a vigorous and comprehensive sanitary reorganization of the town ; and he urged on his Lordship , in conclusion , to press forward boldly in this arduous but noble work , which would give us the protection we most needed—protection against disease and its ghastly consequences — crime , pauperism , and misery ; and which would defend us against an invasion more terrible and more imminent than that of any human potentates—the fell invasion of the Asiatic pestilence .
The Earl of Dekby thanked the speakers for their valuable suggestions , and replied at considerable length ; commenting on the various obstacles to grapple at once with all the details of so vast a scheme . But he assured the Deputation that the Sanitary question occupied a large share of the attention of her Majesty ' s Government ; and that , short as the session would be , they were in hopes of doing something towards settling the important quostion of extramural sepulture before the separation of Parliament . ' .
ELECTIQN MATTERS . FACTS ABOUT THE ELECTIONS . Coxonei . Thompson and Mr . Milligan , the present members for Bradford , have met a large body of the electors and non-electors . So hopeless is Mr . Wickham ' s case thought to bei that several gentlemen who have been furnished with books for the purpose of canvassing the electors on his behalf , have allowed them taxemaia .. u « t . ouched . _^ I ^ J * n address to the electors , Colonel Thompson says that— ~' " ~ - - - ^
"On the question of the Militia I voted that a permanent militia was better than a local . - But since that time the Government has shifted the whole grounds of the demand . It has declared that it sees no danger from the quarter where I believe you and I thought the daiiger was , and that the militia is demanded as a precaution against what you and I conceive to be our friends . In other words , the militia is to be called out to help to preserve what at Paris is nick-named ' Order , ' and as a hostile demonstration to those who may be disposed to restore constitutional government . Those of us who are not young , have had some understanding of what this means . In addition , the Government has thrown cold water on the offer of Volunteers . Like the man on the other side
the Channel , it does not want National Guards . It is for a force that must be paid , and not for a force that will pay itself . Under these circumstances , unless pressed to the contrary by the constituency , I propose to vote both against the Militia Bill and the increase of the regular army ; and before all this is settled , I see chances that the danger may have died away . . . . . On my last presence in Bradford , I declared in public meeting , that I supported the Ecclesiastial Titles Bill , because the Catholics behaved ill to us ; but that I would not support the opposition to the Maynooth Grant , because that would be behaving ill to them . I have a strong persuasion that if the two sides could change places for hah * an hour , both these opinions would bo voted correct . "
For the first time within tho memory of the " oldest inhabitant , " there will he no " court candidate" for the borough of Windsor at tho ensuing general election . The number of voters now attached to the royal household is about 50 ; tradesmen , pensioners , and others employed on tho royal domain , who would bo expected to obey orders , might bring this number up to 120 j and there are 710 names on the register . It will thus be seen that , supposing tho whip to bo
used in the most unscrupulous mannor , tho court voters might place a candidate respectably on tho poll , but would by no means secure his return . This was felt by the friends of Mr . Grenfoll , tho Liberal and Freetrade candidate , who made those calculations on tho clear understanding that tho Castle employe ' s would all poll for General Reid and Mr . Vansittarfc . The friends of freedom of election will , however , rejoice to learn that Mr . Vansittart and General Reid have reckoned
without their host on tho present occasion . One of tho lust acts of her Miijesty , during the recent sojourn of the court at tho Castle , was to issue her royal cominniKlH . that no officer attached to her person , however high his position , should interfere with % \ m freoexorciso of tho electoral franchise of her servants or tradesmen at the coming election , on pain of dismissal . Such an ordor needs no comment . It has already annihilated tho hopes of one , and it only requires the presence of a second Liberal in tho field to ensure tho rejection of both tho ministerial candidates .
Mr . William Comnghani , of Brighton , who lately oflered his services to the Tower Hiuniots , is a candidate for Waterfotd . The Water / ord Chronicle says : — " Mr . Coningham possesses an ample private fortune , is completely independent of all party or Government
influence , and from his connexion -with Ireland ( he being an Irishman ) , as well as his intimate knowledge of its requirements ,-we know no better man to represent us- Wemay add , that Mr . Coningham , in conjunction with Lord Godericn , has distinguished himself by ; endeavouring to brinjr about an adjustment of the difference between tho engineers and their employers . He is a warm supporter of Mr . Sharman Crawford , and , we know , most sincerely desirous of a speedy settlement of the landlord and tenant question . It is needless to say he is a Free-trader . " Mr . Edward Miall , whose canvass in . Rochdale proceeds enthusiastically , has addressed the electors at a public meeting , Mr . Jacob Bright in the chair . I © the course of his speech Mr ^ Miall said
:-r-"Why , when tve are improving so rapidly in so manyrespects , should there not also be some improvement in the science and practice of civil government ? Why should ! not some portion of that energy and wisdom that are now engaged in elevating the whole mass of the people , be likewise employed in (» rxying on public affairs P Forioyowni part , I must profess , that , unless I greatly mistake the spirit of the age , the people are calling for an administration constructed upon a much wider basis than we have ever seea heretofore , — -an administration which shall fairly represent English common sense , English love of fairj > lay , English sturdy independence , English self-denial . We want something of that wisdom ; something of these qualities , thafe .
have done so much to alter the destinies of this countryalready , —we want them permeatingand penetrating every department of public affairs in this country . And there is no reason in the world why we should not have it . We ? do not ask that statesmanship should be given up by the aristocratic portion . of society ; but we do require that they should surrender their monopoly of -it . We 4 re strong enough now to wialk alone } we need no go-cai ^ t , We do not want a head nurse , in the person either of £ or 4 John Russell or the Earl of Derby . We understand our interests equall y as well as they ; we are actively engaged every day in looking after those interests in all their various and
detailed ramifications ; surely then among us ate the men best capable of looking after our interests in then . ' more important and general relations " . Government by the people and for the people , is the maxim by which I desire * my politics to be regulated . Government by the people ,, and for the people , will , I hope , be the effectual response you ^ wiU give at the next general election to the appeal made to yoit ^ y the Eaarl of ^ Derby . " ¦ ,. ¦ . The Hon . T . Trevor , Mr . Bosanquet , and Mr . PuDer ^ says the Zteriford Mercury , have agreed , on requisition , to contest the county of Herts upon Liberal and Free-trade principles .
Mr . T . B . Hobhouse , the present member for Lincoln , will bo invited to contest the borough ftf Ipswieii , on Liberal principles . No Liberal Members are at present announced for Sligo County , but two , it is expected , will be put in nomination , with every prospect of success . The candidate for Bridgewater is Mr . Serjeant Kinglake of the Western Circuit , cousin of the author of JSotlien . Seven candidates are in the field for the borough of Bodmin . Seven candidates are also mentioned fdr ShcffieldJ , the last one talked of being a Chartist ; bbt here , a& elsewhere , it it is to be hoped what are called * ' Peoplo'fc Candidates" will be restricted to those who really in > -
tend to go to the poll , otherwise it will he said that an » illegitimate advantage is taken of the election . Mr . Wliateley , Q . C ., Tory member , in his address to the electors of Bath , declares his intentions with * ft * spect to Free-trade . " I will vote against rehnpoBMig ; a tax upon tho importation of corn , or any other measure which , in my judgment , will raise tho price of bread , for , from much personal intercourse with tliw poor , I well know the blessing of a cheap : Iioa £ * would , however , heartily concur in any practicable measures for the relief of the agricultural or tradingr interests . "
The Liberal interest progresses satisfactorily . Mr . Shearman rotires from the representation of Durham . Mr , Granger , Q . C ., and Mr . Wm . Athenton , Q . C ., stand as Free-trado and Liberal candidates ..
THE NATIONAL PABMAMENTARY BBFOBJC ASSOCIATION . To the Electors and Non-Motors of Great m ^ ai ^ and Ireland . Ghntjjemen , —On tho ovo of a general election ! ib to our imperative duty to understand and rightly # J appreciate tlio issues of the coming strugg le—the responsibilities of electors , and the duties of noivdectors , Wo , address you as an association which rogartismeasurcs more than men—tho interests of tho ^ " ^ moro than the advantages of the few . W «« W «* earnestlpatriotically—free from party biafl » ,
you y , Tho Government of tho day indicates its "ostlJW ^ political its well as to commercial freedom . J * " nounces parliamentary reform as Republicanism , its supporters as demagogues . It repudiates Freq'tf » "P as injurious to tho interests of tho country , ana F" " claims its desire to return to Protection . . Tho next Parliament wffl have to decide whetw *¦ » £ great body of the taxpayers shall remain unenfrw » onisew '
386 THE ^ tEAMiL : ¦ ;• ESiTij ^ i ^
Leader (1850-1860), April 24, 1852, page 386, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/l/issues/vm2-ncseproduct1932/page/6/