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his predecessor , and that he -wOuld give the subject his serious consideration . Sir W . Molesworth thanked S ir John Pakington for the courtesy of his reception , and for hav ing at least arrested the sailing of two convict ships destined for Van Diemen ' s Land . Sir J . Pakington might not be responsible for the breach of faith committed towards the coloiusts , but a breach of faith committed by a Secretary of State v ? as the breach of faith' of the ( government . The colonists knew- no individuals . They knew that" the British Government had pledged itself to a particular act , and tim British Government , by whomsoever administered , was responsible for its performance . The deputation then retired .
LORD CAMPBELL AND THE ROMAN CATHOLIC HIGH SHERIFF . The Chief Justice of England has replied to Mr . Scott Murray ' s letter , explaining several passages of his charge to the Grand Jury at Aylesbury , which he thinks Mr . Scott Murray has misinterpreted , and maintaining -the impropriety and indiscretion of the Hi gh Sheriff's conduct in bringing his Roman-catholic chaplain to accompany the judges from the railway station t 6 their lodgings . He says that Mr . Scott Murray ' s protest against "the supposed dictum , " that " the chaplain appointed by the sheriff becomes the chaplain of the judges , " was quite unnecessary . All that Lord Campbell meant was , " that pro hoc vice ¦ lie officiates as chaplain to the judges ; and there can be no doubt that he does so , as he invariably preaches before them , and
says grace when they entertain the magistrates at dinner , although the sheriff is not present as a guest . " He then proceeds to give an explanation of another part of his charge :: — "I should have hoped that my meaning was as little liable to be misunderstood , when I said , that' the Protestant religion is the religion of the judges of this country / viz . —that all the judges of England who go as judges of assize are Protestants , —a fact uncontestea arid notorious —and I cannot imagine that any sheriff , with the knowledge of this fact , would do anything to offend their Protestant feelings , from the consideration that , in point of law , persons of a different religious persuasion , may be appointed judges . ' ¦ - .... -. . - _
He says that the custom of a Protestant clergyman , appointed by the sheriff , accompanying the judges , and sitting by them while they are trying criminals , was adopted out of " compliment to the judges , " and not as a privilege of the sheriff /' " The sheriff's chaplain , qua the sheriff ' s chaplain , can have no more right to sit in the carriage with the judges , or to have any intercourse with , the judges , than any other member of the sheriff ' s establishment . The sheriff may abstain from appointing any one to officiate as chaplain for the judges , but he cannot be entitled to intrude upon them his own chaplain , of a different religion from theirs . "
Lord Campbell does riot doubt that Mr . Scott Murray has stated the precedents on which he relics exactly as they were stated to him , but two of them he has ascertained to have been founded on an incorrect report of what occurred . " From a letter of the Rev . Mr . Cold well , the very worthy rector of Stafford , I find that you have boon misinformed as to what has occurred in this county ; for Mr . Fitzhorbort
, the iirst Eoman- catholic sheriff of Staffordshire , appointed a Protestant clergyman to officiate as chaplain at the assizes , ' the sheriff not being accompanied by any . Roman-catholic priest whatever ; ' , although Mr . Whitgraye , the second , hod a Roman-catholic priest as his personal chaplain' ( which ho had an unquestionable right to do ) , he employed a Protestant clergyman ' to preach the assize sermon , to attend with him to moot the judges , and do all that pertained to the office of chaplain during the year . '" r
And oven if they were all as stated , ho should rcfuso to be bound by them , "believing that they passed per tncur iam , or upon an erroneous view' of what is becoming . " Mr . Justice Crompton fully concurred with the coarse adopted by the Chief Justice at Aylesbury . Lord Campbell concludes by declaring that ho wishes tho Uomiin-catholic Relief BUI of 1829 to he carried mto effect « in tho spirit in which it waa framed / ' but 8 A " * that claim 9 > BUch « w those advanced by Mr . ocott Murray , uro calculated " to stir up strife , and to prevent or retard measures which miglit be of groat I " „ to the -Itoinan-eiitholics of tho United King-
LETTERS FROM PARIS . [ Fkom our own CoimKsroNPBNT . l Lhttbu XII . m PiiriH , Tuosday Evening , Maroh 10 . J « ib oluef ovont of tho week is the conversion of tho « vo p or cent .. stock * into four-and-a-half per cents , by a Tf < lecreo of Bonaparte ' s inserted in tho Moniteur ™ Sunday last . Tho unfortunate fund-holders were T- » unaor-H tnick . I « m not acquainted wfih tho chanwtoTM tioB of the English rentier , but in Franco tho wiiolo race i 8 of the most sheepish and credulous species
known . I told you in my sixth letter ; that this conversion was contemplated , as well as the decree on the Credit Fonder . The report in fact was current in well-informed quarters ; and had even become so widely spread , that the Government felt called upon to give it a formal contradiction , both in the Constitutionnel and the Monitewr . Whereupon these worthy rentiers were wrapped in blissfursleep . How could they doubt the hottest and integrity of such a government ? Today , awaking to find the tenth of their fortunes annihilated by the stroke of a pen ! . they can find no curses bitter enough for L . Bonaparte . They would cause an Smeute . M an emeute could be got up by such people .
As to the measure itself , though it affects the interests of a few individuals , it is advantageous for the general welfare . The 5 per cent , stock amounted to 186 , 000 , 000 francs , the reduction of the . interest , or conversion from 5 , to 4 | per cent , is equivalent , therefore , to relieving the country of a burden of eighteen million and a half of francs . Then , again , the interest allowed by the Bank of France being only 3 per cent , to have maintained the government stock at 5 per cent ,
would infallibly have led to the absorption of the commercial capital of the country into the rentes . Does not this explain the material impossibility which has existed in France for the last thirty years—to find capital for industrial undertakings ? The conversion Will certainly not-remedy this evil entirely , for there will still be the difference of 1 | per cent , between money invested ; at the bank or in the funds , in favour of the latter . Nevertheless , the new measure i 3 a step ill the right direction ,
Louis Bonaparte had also motives of & personal nature for effecting , in this summary manner the conversion of the stock . He wished to demonstrate the superiority of the autocratic system , where unity of action accompanies unity of will , over the parliamentary system , in which the clashing of wayward Caprices paralyses ibhe power of each . The conversion of the stock has three times been voted by the Chamber of Deputies ; once during the Villele ministry , under the Restoration , and twice during the re : gn of Louis-Philippe . Three times it has been rejected by the Chamber of Peers . That which-has been the wish of
the country for twenty-seven years , and which France could not obtain , Louis Bonaparte has realized in a few minutes . If this man were aught but an ambitious mediocrity , if he were , hi a word , a man of genius , he would not fail , . with such acts as this , to become the idol of a nation so acute and sensitive as the French . The conversion of this stock has further been a job on the part of L . Bonaparte . One of his familiars was at the Bourse on Saturday the 13 th , and sold 3 , 000 , 000 of rentes , to be delivered on Monday the 15 th ; funds being at 103 fr . 60 c . On Sunday the 14 th , the decree appeared . On Monday the funds had fallen to 100 francs . Hero then was a plum worth 2 , 160 , 000 francs to L . Bonaparte realized by this Napoleonic decree . All things then being considered , the conversion is a clever financial operation .
Another decree which figured in the Moniteur of Sunday , settles autocratically tho budget for 1852 . It has been the custom in England , from time immemorial , and it has been a principle in France since 1789 , that "supplies could not bo voted without the consent of the nation or its representatives . Nous avons changS tout cela since tho 2 nd of Docember . L . Bonaparte has himself voted the taxes for 1852 , and has given himself a budget of 1500 millions of francs . I told you , a fortnight or three weeks ago , that this would happen , and tho reason is easily understood . Enormous defalcations have been committed in tho
finances since the 2 nd of December . The Generals have been gorged with presents : Courtesans have wallowed in ill-gotten plunder ; and tho murderers of defenceless women and children must needs receive their hire All this has boon done and must continue , lost a higher bidder should enter tho field . Tho subsidies for every branch of the public service have been freely manipulated . Tho disorder is so complete , that any account is utterly impracticable . To investigate the budget , under such circumstances as these , would bo to ruin tho govornincnt of L . Bonaparte . Thorcforo has ho settled it by a decree
A third decree appears in tho Moniteur , regulating education . This is not tho final decree which is to » uppross tho University . Tho . present decree cancels tho privilege of irremovability hitherto onjoyod by tho body of professors . It gives to tho President of tho Republic tho absolute powor of nomination and revocation of tho professors of the first class , and to tho Minintor of Public Instruction tho same power over tho socond-rato teachers . In the several Universities in Franco , which correspond with thoso of England , tho professors wcro elected by their colleagues . It is therefore obvious that tho new decree robs thorn of their independence . A fourth decree abolishes the formula which at
present heads all legal documents : "In the name of the French people , " and substitutes for it the following : "Lout ? Napoleon Bonaparte , Fresifentkof the Repub lic , td all whom it may concern , greeting . ' * A fifth decree is directed personally against General Cavaignac , -who had intended solemnly to refuse taking the oath to Louis Bonaparte required by the Constitution of the 14 th January . This refusal . would have
marked the opening of the Legislative Body . To parry the blow which the new member for Paris meditated against L . Bonaparte , the latter decrees | hat the refusal of any magistrate or public functionary to take the oath shall be considered as a resignation . That deputies , being public functionaries , are consequently bound to take the oath ; and finally , that any addition , modification , restriction , or reservation , made as regards the oath , should be considered as a resignation .
It is also asserted , that to avoid the exposure of a refusal on the part of the deputies to taking the oath , they will be summoned to the Tuileries , in order that they may fulfil that condition before the President in person , and that those who should refuse to obey the summons would he considered as having resigned their seats in the Assembly , Do not these precautions indicate the great fear which the Prince President feels for the General Cavaignac ?
Last Sunday the election of the 4 th arrondissement took place in Paris . M . Carnot , the Republican candidate , being opposed to M . Moreau , the Government nominee . On tliis occasion there was much excitement . The Faubourgs fat the first time threw off their lethargy , and to show their Republicanism voted for M . Carnot . On the other hand , the Bourgeoisie , to prove their opposition , also voted for M . Carnot . M . Carnot was thus elected by a considerable majority : the votes being 16 , 753 to 13 , 343 . The shock was rudely felt by the Government . Several influential Ouvriers who had
escaped the massacres of the 2 nd December were seized during the night , thrown into a cellular wagon , and conveyed to Havre , thence _ to be transported to Cayenne . Amongst others , the Citizen Philippe , blacksmith , and delegate to the democratic committee , for the Faubourg . St ; Antoine . A great number of other citizens have been torn from their families and carried away since the day-before yesterday . 467 citizens have been , removed from the Fort d'lvry and forwarded to Havre and Brest , probably to be transported to Cayenne and Algeria . Citizen Miot , a Representative of the people , and Citizen Pornin , Causidiere ' s Ancient of the Montagnard % are amongst
those destined for Cayenne . The roads in the South are completely furrowed by the poor transports which the Government is sending to Algiers . Five columns , numbering altogether 4-00 men , have been taken from the single department of the Basses Alpes . . There are small villages , numbering but 300 souls , from which as many ns 27 have been transported . I am further informed that many arrests have recently taken place in the same department , including the Baron Duchaffant , a Republican , and M . , a medical doctor . Besides which , tho vice-president of the Tribunal of Digne , and the president of the Tribunal of Barcelonctte , have been expelled the French territory .
The republican party has just suffered a painful loss in the person of M . Marrast , late President of tho Constituent Assembly , who died of apoplexy . The funeral , at which all the republicans of Paris attended , was a complete political manifestation . The police did not allow any oration . M , do Lamartinc , who was present , has published an culogiuin of the deceased . Armand Marrast did not leave m much us would cover tho expense of his funeral . Is ho not avenged of tho calumnies which tho enemies of the republic propagated in 1848 , against his administration at tho Hotel do Ville . Tho wanton extravagance of Louis Bonaparte ; his dictatorial measures ; his violent decrees against property , uro now avenging tho republic , whoso aolo crime was its respect for the laws .
Reports arc current that tlio Empire will be officially proclaimed next Sunday , tho 21 st of March . An organized dmfcuto , prepared by tho police , is also spoken of , Tho wholesale butcheries of tho Boulevards will bo rcnowed . Tho Orkiuiiats will bo pounced upon and carried off , as wcro tho republicans , mid Louis Bonaparte will bo proeluimcd Emperor of fchq French ! It appears to mo that this bloody , « ta » ge-like effect is needless . To attain this result , a simple decree would lmvo sufficed . Tho bloodhounds of the Elyscc aro not of this opinion . They pay that wo are a living lie , so long uh wo preserve tho name of republic , and that to oilaco that name would bo to bo convicted of the lio , Jlagrante deliclo ; and that consequently tho enemies of Louis Bonaparte will rise en masse against tho now Emperor , and that nothing but grape-shot will subdue them .
In the meantime , L . Bonaparte has appointed a grand review to take place on the 21 st , under tho pretext of distributing Eagles to tho delegates of the
March 20 ; 1852 . ] TflEAli | ADJ ! B . 267
Leader (1850-1860), March 20, 1852, page 267, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse.ac.uk/periodicals/l/issues/vm2-ncseproduct1927/page/7/